Posted: June 6th, 2022

2 daysThe relationship between leadership and organisational performance (Please read the description and the brief before bid)

Due date : 31 May 2022 UK Time
The topic is “The relationship between leadership and organisational performance” 2,000 words
On successful completion of this homework, you will be able to:
a) Critique debates on contemporary issues in business that influence leadership, strategic decision making, and responsible management.
b) Contextualise, synthesise, and critically evaluate the inter-disciplinary literature in business and management
c) Develop and support an argument using evidence, analysis, and critical reflection based onacademic and practitioner literature.
d) Communicate management concepts and arguments effectively to specialist and non- specialist audiences.
please meet all learning outcome
How do I write a literature review?
This guide will explore what a literature review is, how it differs from other assignments and the skills needed to put one together.
What is a literature review?
Essentially it is an independent exploration what has been previously written on a topic or, sometimes, an attempt to answer a question using existing research. Structurally it is very similar to an essay in terms of organising key ideas, comparing and contrasting authors’ views, identifying strengths and weaknesses, and offering critical analysis throughout. However, rather than making an argument for a case and answering a particular question as you would in an essay, you are presenting all of the debates and existing knowledge on this topic and condensing them for your reader. It is also a great opportunity to show off your research skills.
Problem: break it down;
Literature search: identify RELEVANT literature; Evaluate;
Analyse and interpret;
Tie it all together and identify gaps for further research.
If you are writing a literature review as part of a dissertation, consider how your intended research will fill in any gaps in the existing knowledge identified in the literature review, or add to the current field. If you are undertaking primary research, communicate clearly how your approach and findings relate to the literature.
If your dissertation is entirely based on a literature review, you will need to compare and contrast the literature, see whether similar or different results have been identified in different studies, and reach a conclusion about what is known about the topic, and what questions still need to be answered.
What is it not?
A general discussion. Make sure you identify a focus for your writing and research, and stick to it. It is very easy to get distracted without a focus.
An annotated bibliography. Do not list each source and summarise it as you go. Structure your paragraphs around ideas, not authors.
Suggestions for further reading. You should be identifying all of the key arguments on your topic so your reader has a thorough understanding of existing knowledge in your field.
Creating a literature review.
This is a 3-step process: finding the data, reviewing it and then writing up your discussion and analysis of your conclusions.
1. Finding literature:
The first thing you need to do is plan how you will go about finding the relevant information. Spend 30 minutes thinking about your topic. What do you know already and what keywords can you use to describe the main aspects?
Then think about which information sources will be useful for your review. A good starting point is your lecture notes for ideas and key figures, but you will be expected to go and read the original sources by these key authors, and do look beyond these as well.
Your tutor will want to see that you have used a range of literature including books, journal articles, legislation, newspaper articles, Government sites etc. Identify the best databases to find this information from NELSON. See the guides on the Skills Hub or talk to your Academic Librarian for more information.
Searching tips:
· Your literature should usually be up to date and always from a reliable source. It could be said that the quality of the work depends on the quality of the research.
· The searching process will be time consuming. Allow up to a third of your total assignment production time for this.
· If you find a useful reference that an author has used, try to track down the original so you can identify the original arguments yourself. Relying on someone else’s interpretation is not always a good idea.
· Literature is not always right: question it! Look at the methods used by the authors. How appropriate are they, and are they making any assumptions? What are their limitations? Have they missed anything important? If it is an older piece of work, do the findings still apply in the societies and economies of today?
· Justify your choice of sources: why have you included the sources you have over others? Make it clear how the literature you use is the key research in the field. What are your limitations and parameters? For example, are you investigating adults aged 18 to 50? Or exploring an issue in the UK only? Or looking at events over the last 10 years only? Make this clear.
2. Reviewing the literature:
You will need to read and draw conclusions from the literature in order to answer your title or question.
Read journal articles to see how authors synthesise, bring the arguments together, and how they use language to make their points clear, e.g.
Trust policy requires that these measurements be documented on customised growth charts which take into account the standard maternal influences (Local Trust, 2013), however the accuracy of these customised growth charts has been disputed by a Cochrane review (Carberry et al. 2014).
Read sources critically and actively, not passively. Can you identify key or recurring themes? Similarities or differences in findings? Gaps in the literature? Areas for future research? Strengths and weaknesses of methodologies used? Question the authors’ interpretation of their findings, how do they explain them and are there any alternative explanations? When you are reading, consider your own values and assumptions. How do these affect how you interpret the literature?
Keep a record of your sources:
Format for book:
Author/Editor: Year of publication:
Title (edition): Place of publication: Publisher:
Key words:
Format for a journal article:
Date of publication:
Title of article:
Journal title:
Volume Number / Issue Number / Page Number: Key words:
3. Writing up discussion: presenting the discussion and analysis of your conclusions.
a) What is your topic?
b) Why have you chosen this topic?
c) What are the key themes that you are going to discuss? d) What are you going to argue?
You may need to identify how you conducted your literature search: state which databases and keywords for each database were used. Not all assignments require this, and some will require a separate methodology for this, please check your guidelines.
Main body of literature review:
e) Discuss key themes;
f) Compare and contrast the literature, does the literature make similar points or are there differences?
g) Analyse and evaluate the findings from your themes;
h) Does the literature make theoretically and methodologically sound points? i) Remember to adopt a critical perspective.
j) Summarise the key findings within the literature;
k) Summarise the main points you have made;
m) Restate your argument/draw your final conclusions.
Once you have written the first draft, ask yourself if the purpose of the review is clear. Does your reader know what you are trying to find out? Check to see if you have actually fulfilled what you set out to do at the start.
Also check: Is the literature you have used relevant to your title? Have you demonstrated your breadth of reading by including multiple types of sources? E.g. books, journals, legal information, governmental publications etc.
Points to remember:
It is important to look at your assignment brief. Expected structures vary from course to course, for example subheadings are often required, so check your requirements at the start of the process.
A common stumbling block for students writing literature reviews is that they don’t know when to stop researching and start collating information. This can be a cyclical process, but once you have started to write you are likely to identify gaps which you can target with more research. There is no minimum or maximum period or number of documents, as the amount of published information for different topics varies widely. A good rule of thumb is that, once you start seeing the same arguments and authors’ names coming up again and again, you have probably exhausted the published research on those themes. In terms of planning your time, divide the whole process roughly into three. A third of the time on your research, a third on writing up and a third on proofreading and redrafting.
Further reading:
Booth, A. (2012) Systematic approaches to a successful literature review. London: Sage.
Oliver, P. (2012) Succeeding with your literature review: a handbook for students. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Open University Press.
Please note: All Learning Development study guides are written using the Northampton Guide to Harvard Referencing. There are other referencing systems, such as footnotes, Running Notes, APA and OSCOLA used in different subjects; please refer to the guides for this information.
Literature Review: the essentials.
A literature review is an opportunity to explore the current debates on a particular topic, compare and contrast arguments and findings, identify strengths and weaknesses and present a holistic view of the current literature to your reader.
Finding relevant literature is just the beginning. It is important not to take the literature as being definitive or unquestionable. Rather, understand its limitations and display this in your writing. This is not to say that literature should be criticised in a negative way. Previous authors should be credited for advancing thinking in a particular field. However, it is often possible to criticise literature constructively on the basis that:
· previous findings may not generalise to other situations, e.g. to other groups of employees or to other business sectors;
· the methods used to conduct a piece of research may have limitations;
· findings which appeared sound at the time of the study may need re- evaluating in the light of changed circumstances such as economic or working conditions;
· key assumptions underlying a piece of research may be challenged.
Good reviews show the student’s use and analysis of relevant literature. It is important to identify and contrast the key issues surrounding your topic, e.g.
Smith (2012) believes that whole class teaching is the most effective approach to ensuring that pupils develop basic mathematical understanding. His views contrast with those of Jones (2015), whose research in a range of primary schools demonstrated greater retention of mathematical concepts in pupils following investigative small group approaches. However, Davies (2013) suggests that classroom grouping is a complex issue, and that teachers need to analyse lesson content and pupil preferred learning styles when considering appropriate methodologies.
A useful way to understand how to evaluate literature on a topic is to read a few reliable articles in leading academic journals. These usually follow a consistent structure:
· introduction, including a summary of theory and previous findings;
· limitations of previous work;
· unexplored areas and hence the justification for the present study;
· the research methods used in the study;
· a description of results obtained;
· a discussion of results, their interpretation in light of previous research,
· for the present study, limitations of the study’s findings;
· conclusions.
There is a simple way of looking back over your own material and looking for signs of critical thinking. Look for the indicator words and phrases such as:
because; therefore; firstly; secondly; thirdly; from the above discussion; this appears to be; consequently; for example; in contrast; in conclusion, to summarise; suppose; if.
These words and phrases at the very least suggest that the writer is engaging with material and providing structure and analysis. It is important to keep this analysis objective. When writing, also consider your own values, expectations and perspectives. Do they influence your interpretation of others’ work?
Literature reviews, whether as a standalone assignment or as part of a dissertation, require sustained engagement with critical thinking, rather than just describing the themes across the sources used.
Assessment Brief
Module Name:

Module Code


Credit Value

Module Leader




Og Njoku

Assessment title:

Literature review



Submission dates:

Please see NILE under Assessment Information

Feedback and Grades due:

Please see NILE under Assessment Information
Please read this assessment brief in its entirety before starting work on the Assessment Task.

The Assessment Task
The assessment task is to write a 2000-word literature review on the following topic –
“The relationship between leadership and organisational performance”
Students could narrow down the scope of the literature review on to specific aspects of leadership such as types, styles, etc and its inter-relationships with specific facets of organisational performance such as financial performance, innovation performance, sustainability and responsibility, and so on. Another way to narrow down the scope of the review is to focus on a particular industry and evaluate the relationship between leadership and organisational performance in that industry.
The literature review must critically evaluate and synthesise the current state of knowledge on the given topic. Therefore, it is recommended that only articles published in the last 5 to 7 years be reviewed for this assessment as it will provide an overview of the contemporary debates on the topic. It is also recommended to use articles published in the top-ranked academic and practitioner journals given in Table 1.
Visit the links below for detailed information on literature review and critical writing –
Mandatory requirements
1. A 100-word abstract must be presented. The abstract is excluded from the word count.
2. All citations and references must be in the Harvard referencing format ( References are excludedfrom the word count.
3. The assessment must be submitted in Microsoft Word format.
Learning Outcomes
On successful completion of this assessment, you will be able to:
a) Critique debates on contemporary issues in business that influence leadership, strategic decision making, and responsible management.
b) Contextualise, synthesise, and critically evaluate the inter-disciplinary literature in business and management
c) Develop and support an argument using evidence, analysis, and critical reflection based onacademic and practitioner literature.
d) Communicate management concepts and arguments effectively to specialist and non- specialist audiences.
Your grade will depend on the extent to which you meet these learning outcomes in the way relevant for this assessment. Please see the grading rubric on NILE for further details of the criteria against which you will be assessed.
Assessment Support
Specific support sessions for this assessment will be provided by the module team and notified through NILE. You can also access individual support and guidance for your assessments from Library and Learning Services.Visit the Skills Hub to access this support and to discover the online support also available for assessments and academic skills.
Academic Integrity and Misconduct
Unless this is a group assessment, the work you produce must be your own, with work taken from any other source properly referenced and attributed. For the avoidance of doubt this means that it is an infringement of academic integrity and, therefore, academic misconduct to ask someone else to carry out all or some of the work for you, whether paid or unpaid, or to use the work of another student whether current or previously submitted.
For further guidance on what constitutes plagiarism, contract cheating or collusion, or any other infringement of academic integrity, please read the University’s Academic Integrity and Misconduct Policy.Also useful resources to help with understanding academic integrity are available from UNPAC .
N.B. The penalties for academic misconduct are severe and can include failing the assessment, failing the module and expulsion from the university.
Assessment Submission
To submit your work, please go to the ‘Submit your work’ area on the NILE site and use the relevant submission point to upload your report. The deadline for this is 11.59pm (UK local time) on the date of submission. Please note that essays and text based reports should be submitted as word documents and not PDFs or Mac files.
Written work submitted to TURNITIN will be subject to anti-plagiarism detection software.Turnitin checks student work for possible textual matches against internet available resources and its own proprietary database. Work

When you upload your work correctly to TURNITIN you will receive a receipt which is your record and proof of submission.If your assessment is not submitted to TURNITIN, rather than a receipt, you will see a green banner at the top of the screen that denotes successful submission.
N.B Work emailed directly to your tutor will not be marked.
Late submission of work
For first sits, if an item of assessment is submitted late and an extension has not been granted, the following will apply:
· Within one week of the original deadline – work will be marked and returned with full feedback, and awarded a maximum bare pass grade.
· More than one week from original deadline – grade achievable LG (L indicating late).
For resits there are no allowances for work submitted late and it will be treated as a non-submission.
Please see the Assessment and Feedback Policy for full information on the processes related to assessment, grading and feedback, including anonymous grading.You will also find the generic grading criteria for achievement atUniversity Grading Criteria.Also explained there are the meanings of the various G grades at the bottom of the grading scale including LG mentioned above.
The University of Northampton’s general policy with regard to extensions is to be supportive of students who have genuine difficulties, but not against pressures of work that could have reasonably been anticipated.

For full details please refer to the Extensions Policy.Extensions are only available for first sits – they are not available for resits.
Mitigating Circumstances
For guidance on Mitigating circumstances please go to Mitigating Circumstances where you will find detailed guidance on the policy as well as guidance and the form for making an application.
Please note, however, that an application to defer an assessment on the grounds of mitigating circumstances should normally be made in advance of the submission deadline or examination date.

Feedback and Grades
These can be accessed through clicking on the Feedback and Grades tab on NILE. Feedback will be provided by a rubric with summary comments.

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