Posted: September 4th, 2022

BIO 210-Anatomy and Physiology

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BIO 210 Test 1 Study Guide (Chapters 1, 5, and 6)

Chapter 1

1. What is anatomy?

2. What is physiology?

3. What is the concept of complementarity? Give some examples.

4. What are the 6 characteristics of living things?

5. Describe the hierarchical structural organization of living things from smallest to largest.

6. Describe the basic functions of the following systems: Integument, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, Reproductive (male and female).

7. Explain how organ systems interrelate to allow specialization of functions.

8. What is homeostasis?

9. Describe the parts of a control mechanism. Give the biological components of a control mechanism.

10. What is negative feedback? Describe the following examples: blood sugar, body temperature, blood volume.

11. What is positive feedback? Describe the following examples: labor contractions, blood clotting.

12. Be able to use the following directional terms to describe body position: Superior, inferior, ventral (anterior), dorsal (posterior), medial, lateral, proximal, distal, superficial, and deep.

13. Distinguish between the axial and appendicular divisions.

14. Describe the 4 body planes: frontal (coronal), sagittal (median) – include midsagittal and parasagittal, transverse, and oblique

15. Know the organs of each body cavity and which serous membranes cover each.

16. Explain the difference between visceral and parietal membranes. Which lines the organ surface?

Which lines the body cavity around the organ?

17. Describe the 4 quadrants of the abdomen.

18. Describe the 9 regions of the abdomen.

Chapter 5

1. What is a tissue?

2. What are the 4 tissue types?

3. Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of each tissue type.

4. What are the characteristics of epithelial tissues?

5. What structures of epithelial tissues are unique because of its polarity?

6. Describe simple squamous epithelial tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

7. Describe simple cuboidal epithelial tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

8. Describe simple columnar epithelial tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

9. Describe pseudostratified columnar epithelial tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

10. What are the differences in functions between cilia and microvilli? What cells would have each?

11. Describe stratified squamous epithelial tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

12. What is keratin? What does it mean to be keratinized? Which tissues are keratinized?

13. Describe transitional epithelial tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

14. Compare endocrine and exocrine glands. What products are made by each. Where are their products going? How do they get there?

15. Compare merocrine, apocrine, and holocrine secretion.

16. What are the characteristics of connective tissues?

17. What is the embryonic tissue that gives rise to all connective tissues? What germ layer of the embryo does this come from?

18. What are the 3 main fibers found in connective tissues?

19. What is a mast cell? What substances do they release? Why is this important?

20. Describe areolar connective tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? What cells are found in this tissue? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

21. Describe adipose connective tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? What cells are found in this tissue? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

22. Describe reticular connective tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? What cells are found in this tissue? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

23. Describe dense regular connective tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? What cells are found in this tissue? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

24. Describe dense irregular connective tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? What cells are found in this tissue? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

25. Describe hyaline cartilage connective tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? What cells are found in this tissue? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

26. Describe elastic cartilage connective tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? What cells are found in this tissue? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

27. Describe fibrocartilage connective tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? What cells are found in this tissue? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

28. Describe bone connective tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? What cells are found in this tissue? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

29. Describe blood connective tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? What cells are found in this tissue? Where is blood produced? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

30. What is unique about the blood extracellular matrix compared to other connective tissues?

31. What are the 5 types of leukocytes (WBCs)? What is the general function of each?

32. Describe nervous tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? What cells (and modifications) are found in this tissue?

33. Describe skeletal muscle tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? What cells are found in this tissue? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

34. Describe cardiac muscle tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions (what unique structure is in this tissue)? What cells are found in this tissue? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

35. Describe smooth muscle tissue. What are the major functions? Where is it typically found? How is it adapted for these functions? What cells are found in this tissue? Be able to recognize generalized cartoon drawing of this tissue type.

36. What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation?

37. Compare cutaneous, mucous, and serous membranes. Where is each found?

38. Describe the process of tissue repair.

39. What are the 3 embryonic germ layers? What tissues types arise from each?

Chapter 6

1. What are the 3 layers of the skin (really 2 layers and fat underneath the skin)?

2. What tissue composed the epidermis? Why is skin keratinized?

3. What cells in the skin are primarily responsible for pigmenting the skin? What pigment do they make?

4. What are the 5 cell layers of the epidermis?

5. What is the most superficial living cell layer in the epidermis?

6. What layer is found only in thick skin? Where is thick skin found?

7. What are the 2 layers of the dermis? What is the principle tissue type in each layer?

8. What are dermal papilla? What structures are found in the dermal papilla?

9. What are the 3 pigments that combine to determine the skin’s color? What is the origin of each pigment?

10. What are the 4 sweat glands (or modified sweat gland)? Describe the product of each gland.

11. What are sebaceous glands? What do they make?

12. What is hair? What protein is the major constituent of hair? What determines the natural hair color?

13. What are the major functions of hair on the body?

14. Where do we NOT find hair on the body?

15. What is the function of the arrector pili muscle?

16. Describe terminal and vellus hair. Where are each found?

17. What is alopecia areata? How is this different from male pattern baldness? Who can get it?

18. What is hirsutism? What about hypertrichosis?

19. What are the major functions of the integument?

20. What are the 3 most common forms of skin cancer? What tissues are responsible for each?

21. What is the ABCDE rule for melanoma? Be able to identify examples of moles from a description that would be concerning.

22. Describe the 3 degrees of burn severity. What are the symptoms of each?

23. What is the Rule of 9s? Be able to use the Rule of 9s to determine the coverage of burns in a patient.

24. Be able to determine of a burn qualifies as a severe burn.

25. What is the lanugo? What is its function?

26. What is vernix caseosa? What is its function?

Student Learning Objectives

CHAPTER 1: MAJOR THEMES OF A&P/ ATLAS OF HUMAN ANATOMY

1. Define anatomy and physiology, describe their subdivisions, and explain the principle of form and function.

2. Describe (in order of increasing complexity) the different levels of structural organization that make up the human body and explain their relationships.

3. List the 11 organ systems of the body, identify the components of each, and briefly explain the major function(s) of each system.

4. List and define the functional characteristics necessary to maintain life in humans and list the survival needs of the body.

5. Define homeostasis, explain its significance, and describe how negative and positive feedback are involved in maintaining body homeostasis.

6. Describe the relationship between homeostatic imbalance and disease.

7. Describe the anatomical position and use correct anatomical terms to describe body directions, regions, planes, and sections.

8. Locate and name the major body cavities and their subdivisions, and list the major organs contained within them. Describe boundaries and general contents of the nine abdominal regions. 9. Name the main serous membranes and note their common function. Differentiate between parietal and visceral portions and explain the nature of pleurisy and peritonitis. 10. Explain the concept of “complimentarity”; give examples.

CHAPTER 2: CHEMISTRY OF LIFE

1. Define matter and list its three forms.

2. Define atom. List the subatomic particles; describe their relative masses, charges, and positions in the atom. Define the related terms: atomic number, atomic mass, atomic weight, isotope, and radioisotope.

3. Explain the role of electrons and the octet rule in chemical bonding. Describe ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds, how they differ, and their strengths from weakest to strongest.

4. Define element, mixture, and compound, and list the four major elements that make up the body

5. Compare and contrast polar and nonpolar compounds.

6. Explain the importance of water and salts to body homeostasis. Define acids, bases, and salts and explain the concept of pH.

7. Compare solutions, colloids, and suspensions. Explain what is meant by a molar solution and why molarity is so important. How many particles are in a mole of anything?

8. Describe and compare the building blocks, general structure, and biological functions of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids.

9. Explain the role of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis in the formation and breakdown of organic molecules. Describe the four levels of protein structure.

10. Compare and contrast DNA and RNA.

11. Differentiate clearly between matter and energy and between potential energy and kinetic energy.

12. Describe the major forms of energy.

13. Identify three major types of chemical reactions (synthesis, decomposition, and exchange, and reversible reactions).

14. Describe the nature and importance of oxidation- reduction reactions. Describe oxidation and reduction as processes.

15. Describe the general mechanism of enzyme activity and describe the function of molecular chaperones.

16. Describe the factors that affect chemical reaction rates and tell why many chemical reactions in the body are irreversible

17. Explain the role of ATP in cell metabolism and name the pathways that generate ATP

18. List the four stages of glucose oxidation and where each stage occurs in the cell.

19. Write the overall chemical equation for cellular respiration and explain the general process of what is occurring.

CHAPTER 3: CELLULAR FORM AND FUNCTION

1. Define cell. List the 3 major regions of a generalized cell and indicate the function of each region. State the cell theory in its original form.

2. Describe the chemical composition of the plasma membrane and relate it to membrane functions, with special regard to active and passive transport mechanisms. Discuss those transport mechanisms relative to energy sources, substances transported, direction, and mechanism.

3. Compare the structure and function of tight junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions.

4. Define membrane potential; explain resting potential, depolarization, and repolarization and their importance to body functions.

5. Describe the role of the plasma membrane glycocalyx in cells’ interactions with their environments.

6. List several roles of membrane receptors and that of voltage- sensitive membrane channel proteins.

7. Describe the composition of the cytosol; define inclusions and list several types.

8. Discuss the structure and function of membranous and nonmembranous organelles.

8. Explain the function of enzymes

9. Name and describe the composition of extracellular materials. 10. Explain “complementarity” using cellular examples.

CHAPTER 4: GENETICS AND CELLULAR FUNCTION

1. List the phases of the cell life cycle and describe the key events of each phase.

2. Describe the process of DNA replication. Define gene and explain the function of genes. Explain the “genetic code”.

3. Name and describe the two phases of protein synthesis of DNA and three kinds of RNA in each phase. Contrast triplets, codons, and anticodons.

4. Discuss some of the theories of cell differentiation and aging.

CHAPTER 5: HISTOLOGY

1. List several structural and functional characteristics of epithelial tissue, classify them on the basis of cell types and arrangements, and describe their locations and functions.

2. Define gland. Differentiate between exocrine and endocrine glands and multicellular and unicellular glands. Classify the exocrine glands.

3. Indicate common characteristics of connective tissues, and list and describe their structural elements. cells.

4. Classify the types of connective tissue found in the body, and indicate their characteristic functions and locations.

5. Describe the structure and function of cutaneous, mucous, and serous membranes.

6. Indicate the general characteristics of nervous tissue.

7. Compare and contrast the structures and body locations of the three types of muscle tissue. 8. Indicate the embryonic origin of each tissue class and briefly describe tissue changes that occur with age.

CHAPTER 6: THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

1. Name the specific tissue types composing the epidermis and dermis, list the major layers of each and describe the function of each layer.

2. Describe the factors that normally contribute to skin color. Briefly describe how skin color may be used as a clinical sign of disease.

3. Compare the structures, locations, and secretions of sweat and sebaceous glands and distinguish between and apocrine sweat glands.

4. List the parts of a hair follicle and explain the function of each part. Also describe the functional relationship of pili muscles to the hair follicle.

5. Name the regions of a hair and explain the basis of hair color. Describe the distribution, growth, replacement, and changing nature of hair during the life span.

6. Describe the structure of nails.

7. Describe how the skin accomplishes at least five different functions.

8. Summarize the characteristics of the three major types of skin cancers.

9. Describe how to determine the extent of a burn and differentiate among first, second, and third-degree burns. Explain why serious burns are life- threatening.

10. Outline the process of tissue repair involved in the normal healing of a superficial wound.

11. Briefly describe the changes that occur in the skin from birth to old age. Explain the causes of such changes.

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