Posted: August 1st, 2022


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Traditional Quality Tools

Quality management tools help businesses improve quality, productivity, and customer satisfaction. The following are some

traditional quality tools:

A Pareto Chart is a bar graph in which the lengths of the bars represent frequency or cost of a problem. This chart shows problems

that are more signi�cant than others. Organizations can use Pareto charts to analyze data to identify and focus on the most frequent
or costly problem, allowing the organizations to decide where to allocate limited resources.

A Cause-and-Effect (Fishbone) Diagram is used to identify the possible causes for an effect, or problem. It can be successfully used in

a brainstorming session to sort ideas into useful categories.

A Check Sheet is a structured form for collecting relevant data and presenting it in an easy-to-understand format. Check sheets are

useful for data that is observed and collected repeatedly by the same person or at the same location, in order to analyze data on the

frequency or patterns of problems.

A Histogram helps to identify the frequency of a particular set of problems over speci�c time frames. Organizations can use

histograms to analyze numerical data, and to determine whether the output of a process is distributed normally, can meet customer

requirements, and is steady over time.

A Scatter Diagram is used to determine the correlation between two variables. It can also be used when the dependent variable may

have multiple values for each value of the independent variable. For example, after brainstorming causes and effects, an organization

can use the scatter diagram to determine whether a cause and an effect are related.

A Run Chart is used to analyze the performance data of a process over a time. However, the run chart does not help in identifying
whether the

variations in data are caused by special causes or common causes.

A Control Chart is another traditional quality tool, but is the only such tool that requires a certain level of familiarity with statistics. 

It is similar to a run chart, but it has a central line for determining the average, an upper line for determining an “upper control limit,”

and a lower line for determining a “lower control limit.” By comparing current data to these lines, it is possible to identify whether the

variations in data are caused by special causes or common causes.

A control chart can be used when controlling ongoing processes, when predicting the expected range of outcomes of a process, or
when determining the stability of a process. It is also useful in analyzing patterns of process variation from special causes or common

causes. Finally, it is useful in determining whether a quality improvement project should aim to prevent speci�c problems or to make

fundamental changes in the process.

Five Key Rationales of SPC
Inconsistencies at Elevate Accounting

The financial system used by each department in Elevate Accounting is user friendly and customizable. In
other words, each department can customize the system as per its particular requirements and work without
any coordination with the other departments. Although the system works well during the year, it produces
inconsistent reports at the end of each financial year. Therefore, the management of Elevate Accounting has
decided to modify the financial system, so the system has a centralized database and works at integrating all
the departments.

Elevate Accounting can use the five rationales of SPC to make the required modifications and create an
effective system.

Control Variation
The output of the new process should be as per the set limit. Any variation to the output must be
documented and explained. This method helps control variation and provides consistent output.

Continual Improvement
In this case, SPC will help all departments of Elevate Accounting understand the process as a whole,
identify the external special causes of variation, and eliminate the special causes, if any. This understanding
will allow different departments to collaborate and integrate and help each other in completing financial
tasks, such as making payments to vendors and service providers. As a result, the process will be
continually evolving and improving.

Predictability of Processes
When causes of variations are identified, the variations are eliminated, and the process is continually
improved, then the output of the process becomes predictable. For example, with SPC, all departments will
know such things as the dates and amounts of checks that need to be paid, the vendors that need to be paid,
and the vendor data that needs to be recorded.

Elimination of Waste
In this case, the new process developed by using SPC will yield predictable and consistent output.
Therefore, there will be less time, effort, and cost spent on rework, coordination, and resolving confusion.
In other words, SPC will eliminate wasteful activities and increase the quality of the output.

Product Inspection
SPC can help Elevate Accounting reduce costs and increase competitiveness by regularly testing,
maintaining, and inspecting the new process.

© 2017 South University

Statistical Process Control

Statistical process control (SPC) is a statistical method of separating special-cause variation from natural variation to eliminate the

special causes and to establish and maintain consistency in a process. This consistency enables process improvement.  Special-cause

variation is a departure from the output that a process would normally produce due to some unusual circumstances like a broken

machine or a power outage (in the case of the provision of a service like a car wash). 

There is a normal degree of variation in every process.  For example, when you to go the bank and stand in line to see a teller, some

days you wait for a very short time (or none at all), while on other days the wait seems very long.  Depending on how customers arrive

at the bank, this variation is normal and is to be expected.  However, if the bank begins to experience computer problems which cause

the tellers to be unable to complete the customers’ transactions at their normal pace, then the wait time may become much longer

than usual, and will likely not return to normal until the computer issues are �xed and the tellers have been able to catch up on the

job of completing the transactions of the customers.  

The key contribution of SPC to the collection of quality tools is the ability to distinguish the results of a special cause (an extremely

long wait time due to the computer problems) from the normal, day-to-day variation that is inherent in any process (short wait time

one day, longer wait time the next day). 

In order to understand how SPC works in improving processes, it is helpful to look at an example that demonstrates the importance

of the �ve key rationales of SPC. Please review the Supplemental Media entitled “Five Key Rationales of SPC” in order to see such an


Additional Materials 

View a PDF transcript of Five Key Rationales Of SPC 

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Quality Function Deployment

In previous lessons, you have learned the importance of customer feedback in the process of implementing quality management.

However, the previous discussions have mostly focused on gathering customer feedback and making improvements to an existing to

product or service. Quality Function Deployment (QFD), on the other hand, focuses on designing each new product with customer

input as a main aspect.

QFD is useful in analyzing, evaluating, and incorporating customer needs in the process of designing a product or a service. In other

words, QFD ensures an organization produces what its customers want. The bene�ts of using QFD include customer focus, time

ef�ciency, teamwork orientation, and documentation orientation. The steps involved in implementing QFD include forming the

project team, establishing monitoring procedures, selecting a project, conducting a kickoff meeting, training the project team, and

developing the matrices.

Tools for QFD

To help identify and incorporate customer inputs, QFD involves the use of traditional quality tools as well as several specialized tools,
such as the af�nity diagram, the interrelationship digraph, the tree diagram, and the matrix diagram.

Af�nity Diagram

It is used to promote creative thinking and the �nding of new and different approaches to continuous improvement.

Interrelationship Digraph

It is used to logically identify relationships among different ideas.

Tree Diagram

It is used to identify all the tasks that must be completed in order to solve a problem.

Matrix Diagram

It is used to identify and graphically represent connections among such things as responsibilities, tasks, and functions.

The elements of QFD are somewhat complicated and interrelated.  Careful attention should be paid to each of the four tools that

make up the QFD matrices.  Search for and study example of each of the �gures. 

Discussion Due July 28, 2022 S8.00

The discussion assignment provides a forum for discussing relevant topics for this week based on the course competencies covered.

For this assignment, make sure you post your initial response to the Discussion Area by the due date assigned.

To support your work, use your course and text readings and also use outside sources. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.

Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. Respond to at least two of your classmates. Participate in the discussion by asking a question, providing a statement of clarification, providing a point of view with a rationale, challenging an aspect of the discussion, or indicating a relationship between two or more lines of reasoning in the discussion. Complete your participation for this assignment by the end of the week.

Good Leadership

Good leadership is important for quality improvement processes, customer relationships, employee retention, and overall organizational processes. A good leader has several characteristics, including balanced commitment, positive role model, communication skills, positive influence, and persuasiveness. However, each leader may have a personally distinct style of leadership. In this discussion, you will explore the importance of leadership and the various leadership styles.

Respond to one of the following questions:

Question 1:

· Discuss each of the following characteristics as they relate to quality leadership:

· Balanced commitment

· Positive role model

· Communication skills

· Positive influence

· Persuasiveness

· Analyze and explain which of these characteristics will be the most difficult to achieve for good leadership. Support your rationale with research and your experience.

Question 2:

· Select any two of the following leadership styles and compare them in terms of effectiveness:

· Participative

· Goal oriented

· Situational

· Explain how leaders can (and should) influence the results of efforts to improve quality and explain how the leaders can be impacted by those efforts.

As the final paragraph of your post, discuss your personal leadership style. Of the various characteristics discussed in your post, describe which attribute you would integrate in your behavior. Support your rationale with an example situation in which that attribute would be highly effective.

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