Posted: August 6th, 2022

Can you answer this question ?

Combine the prospectus parts and follow the prospectus part 5 instructions and follow the advanced grading rubric.

 

This is the book login go to Vital Source.com login:

mwhitener15286@yahoo.com

Password: Mikey2011!

The book is Step by Step Guide To Conducting Applied Research in Education and follow chapter 13 example

EDUC 880

Prospectus: Part 5 – Final Submission Assignment

Instructions

Overview

This assignment is linked to the development of your capstone project.

Instructions

The candidate will submit a fully developed prospectus aligned with the course textbook and the Capstone Handbook, especially the Applied Research Report Examplewithin the textbook). The final prospectus must be at least 14 pages (including only the Introduction and Procedures sections) and address all instructor feedback on the previous section submissions. The candidate will revise and improve upon every section of his/her prospectus. The final submission must include at least 4 additional unique sources/citations, which are also properly listed on a reference page at the end of the submission (total of 20 sources minimum), using proper APA format.

Criteria Ratings Points

Section
Content

69 to >62.

0 pts

Advanced

Includes all items and
sub-sections required by
the instructions. Effectively
addresses all required
content areas within each
section. Effectively
addresses all instructor
comments on previous
drafts within each section.
Is a minimum of 14 full
pages.

62 to >57.0 pts

Proficient

Includes most items and
sub-sections required by
the instructions.
Adequately addresses
most required content
areas within each section.
Effectively addresses most
instructor comments on
previous drafts within each
section. Is between 13 to
14 pages.

57 to >0.0 pts

Developing

Includes some items and
sub-sections required by
the instructions.
Inadequately addresses
required content areas
within each section. Fails to
effectively address most
instructor comments on
previous drafts within each
section. Is less than 13
pages.

0 pts

Not
Present

69 pts

Information
Literacy

51 to >46.0 pts

Advanced

Exceptional understanding
of existing body of
knowledge on the topic. All
the following qualities are
present: supports claims
with evidence; critically
evaluates claims of others;
seriously considers or
engages with other
interpretations. Required
sections contain at least
20 sources/citations to
support claims.

46 to >42.0 pts

Proficient

Adequate understanding of
existing body of knowledge
on the topic. Most of the
following qualities are
present: supports claims
with evidence; critically
evaluates claims of others;
seriously considers or
engages with other
interpretations. Required
sections contain at least 18
sources/citations to
support claims.

42 to >0.0 pts

Developing

Inadequate understanding
of existing body of
knowledge on the topic.
Few of the following
qualities are present:
supports claims with
evidence; critically
evaluates claims of others;
seriously considers or
engages with other
interpretations. Required
sections contain fewer than
18 sources/citations to
support claims.

0 pts
Not
Present

51 pts

Grammar,
Spelling, &
Current
APA
Formatting

30 to >27.0 pts

Advanced

Spelling and grammar are
correct. Sentences are
complete, clear, and
concise. Paragraphs
contain appropriately
varied sentence
structures. Where
applicable, references are
cited in current APA
format. Reference page
contains at least 20 total
sources.

27 to >24.0 pts

Proficient

There are some spelling
and grammar errors.
Sentences are presented
well. Paragraphs contain
some varied sentence
structures. Where
applicable, references are
mostly cited in current APA
format. Reference page
contains at least 18 total
sources.

24 to >0.0 pts

Developing

Spelling and grammar
errors distract the reader.
Sentences are incomplete
or unclear. Paragraphs are
poorly formed. Where
applicable, references are
minimally or not cited in
current APA format.
Reference page contains
fewer than 18 total
sources.

0 pts
Not
Present

30 pts

Total Points: 150

Prospectus: Part 5 – Final Submission Grading Rubric |
EDUC880_D11_202230

EDU880

Recommendations for Solving Low Rates of College Readiness at James Monroe

High School, West Virginia

Michael Whitener

School of Education, Liberty University

In partial fulfillment of EDUC 880

Author Note:

Michael Whitener

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Michael Whitener

Email:

mwhitener@liberty.edu

Chapter 1: Introduction

Overview

The purpose of this study was to provide recommendations for solving low rates of college readiness at James Monroe High School, West Virginia. The problem was that 28% of the low-income and underserved students were ready for college compared to an 84% overall college readiness rate (Vogel & Heidrich, 2020). This chapter of the report presents the Organizational Profile, an Introduction to the Problem, the Significance of the Research, the Purpose Statement, the Central Research Question, and the Definitions for this research.

to express personal histories, build meaningful connections to the outside world, and

Organizational Profile

The education site for this study was James Monroe High School in West Virginia. Its mission is to educate its student population with a rigorous, multifaceted curriculum that empowers students to express personal histories, build meaningful connections to the outside world, and become lifelong learners (Leeds & Mokher, 2019). Its vision is to motivate every student to achieve academic and personal success through a dynamic academic program, personalized relationships, and meaningful connections to the outside world. The school is located in Monroe County and serves students from various backgrounds (white, black, low-income). It has 524 students from the 9th to 12th grade, ranking it the 76th in West Virginia and 10416th nationally (High-Schools.com, n.d). James Monroe is a public school, and the administration has focused on increasing the teacher-to-student ratio to improve college readiness.

Introduction to the problem

The problem at the school was that 28% of the low-income and underserved students were ready for college at James Monroe High School compared to an 84% overall college readiness rate (Vogel & Heidrich, 2020). College readiness indicators at the school include placement tests and GPA, among others. States can establish school specific-standards to measure college readiness rates (Leeds & Mokher, 2019). The long-term effect is that the inequality gaps between minority and majority groups will be maintained because educational attainment affects employment, income, and health outcomes.

Significance of the Study

Solving low college readiness gaps at James Monroe High School will promote public confidence in the school. Secondly, it will promote the relationship between the neighboring communities and James Monroe High School. Lastly, the study will help the school administration develop school-specific parameters to measure college readiness (Leeds & Mokher, 2019).

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this applied study was to provide recommendations for solving low college readiness gaps at James Monroe High School in West Virginia. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect data. These methods included semi-structured interviews and observation. Participants were students, teachers, and community members.

Central Research Question

How can low college readiness rates among students from diverse backgrounds at James Monroe High School be reduced?

Definitions

1. College readiness – Possession of skills, behaviors, and knowledge required from high school students before enrollment in their first year of college (Durham et al., 2015)

2. College readiness indicators- Parameters used to determine whether high school students are ready for college. Indicators may include high school GPA and course taking (Durham et al., 2015)

3. Underserved communities- Populations traditionally faced barriers to accessing employment, equal political representation, etc. Examples include the elderly, illiterate, low-income families, and people living with disabilities (Durham et al., 2015)

References

Durham, R. E., Bell-Ellwanger, J., Connolly, F., Robinson, K. H., Olson, L. S., & Rone, T. (2015). University–District Partnership Research to understand college readiness among Baltimore City Students. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR), 20(1-2), 120–140.

https://doi.org/10.1080/10824669.2014.987278

James Monroe high school. High Schools. (n.d.). Retrieved July 8, 2022, from

https://high-schools.com/directory/wv/cities/lindside/james-monroe-high-school/540096000768/

Leeds, D. M., & Mokher, C. G. (2019). Improving indicators of college readiness: Methods for optimally placing students into multiple levels of postsecondary coursework. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 42(1), 87–109.

https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373719885648

Vogel, D., & Heidrich, L. (2020). Make Connections–ask questions. Sprachsensible Schulen im Internationals Network for Public Schools in New York. Bremen: Universität, Fachbereich 12. Arbeitsbereich Interkulturelle Bildung

1

Recommendationsfor Solving Low Rates of College Readiness at James Monroe

High School, West Virginia

Michael Whitener

School of Education, Liberty University

In partial fulfillment of EDUC 880

Author Note:

Michael Whitener

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Michael Whitener

Email:

mwhitener@liberty.edu

Chapter 1: Introduction

Overview

The purpose of this study was to provide Recommendations for Solving Low Rates of College Readiness at James Monroe High School, West Virginia. The problem was that 28% of the low-income and underserved students were ready for college compared to an 84% overall college readiness rate (Vogel & Heidrich, 2020). This chapter of the report presents the Organizational Profile, an Introduction to the Problem, the Significance of the Research, the Purpose Statement, the Central Research Question, and the Definitions for this research.

Organizational Profile

The education site for this study was James Monroe High School in West Virginia. Its mission is to educate its student population with a rigorous, multifaceted curriculum that empowers students to express personal histories, build meaningful connections to the outside world, and become lifelong learners. Its vision is to motivate every student to achieve academic and personal success through a dynamic academic program, personalized relationships, and meaningful connections to the outside world. The school is in Monroe County and serves students from various backgrounds (white, black, low-income). It has 524 students from the 9th to 12th grade, ranking it the 76th in West Virginia and 10416th nationally (James Monroe high school, n.d).

Introduction to the problem

The problem at the school was that 28% of the low-income and underserved students were ready for college compared to an 84% overall college readiness rate (Vogel & Heidrich, 2020). College readiness indicators at the school include placement tests and GPA, among others. States can establish school-specific standards to measure college readiness rates (Leeds & Mokher, 2019). The total minority enrollment is 3%, and in terms of National Rankings, it is ranked at 9379 according to how well they prepare its students for college, graduation, and performance. College readiness can be compared to the rate at which students enroll at college and in each grade. Students’ enrollment rate by grade in Monroe high school decreases as they proceed to the next grades. The slight decline was reported to be taking rigorous courses in high school such as mathematics as their advanced courses, which decreases from 3% to 1% and likewise to science courses.

Unequal distribution of college readiness among students raises questions about teaching approaches and discrimination at West Virginia schools. It appears that some students from majority groups have advantages over their peers from low-income families. Consequently, James Monroe High school must find ways of balancing different students’ needs which appears to be the major cause of the current performance gaps. Boyce et al., (2020) analyzed the effects of educational attainment and income of performance of students in urban schools. Their results showed that students’ performance was affected by ethnicity and racial groupings. Black students and those whose parents had low academic attainment performed dismally. Based on their findings, low performance could also be prompted by family issues. As more diagnosis is undertaken in the school setting, understanding children’s experiences with their families through quantitative survey will be crucial.

Significance of the Study

Solving low college readiness gaps at James Monroe High School will promote public confidence in the school. College readiness impacts students’ academic success as they proceed to post-secondary education as shown in a longitudinal study to determine how students’ readiness to take college classes upon entry affects postsecondary performance and completion rates (Jackson & Kurlaender, 2013). The researchers found that college readiness was an important predictor of postsecondary completion (Jackson & Kurlaender, 2013). College-ready students are more likely to complete their college education than those who are unprepared for college. When students from a secondary perform well in college, the school receives a higher public trust from parents and surrounding communities. However, when students from a school are unable to complete college studies, the school loses public trust. Therefore, finding solutions to low college readiness rates at the school will make it more effective.

Secondly, it will promote the relationship between the neighboring communities and James Monroe High School. High college readiness among high school students can help eliminate income gaps between ethnicities in degree completion (Leeds & Mokher, 2019). All students have the potential of performing excellently at college when they are well-equipped for the challenge. As they move to the job markets, the students from the school will have an equal chance to get employed. Lastly, the study will help the school administration develop school-specific parameters to measure college readiness (Leeds & Mokher, 2019). College readiness can be measured using many variables, some of which favor learners while others work to their disadvantage. The research will help the school identify the specific challenges underperformers experience and integrate them into college readiness evaluations to enhance college readiness.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this applied study was to provide recommendations for solving the problem of low college readiness gaps at James Monroe High School in West Virginia. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect data. These methods included semi-structured interviews, a quantitative survey, and observations. Participants were students, teachers, and community members. The researcher interviewed seven teachers from James Monroe High School during the interview which was done using a face-to-face approach. Most interview questions focused on school programs, performance indicators at the school, application of data analytics, and school-community relationships. The second approach, a quantitative survey, involved developing objective questions to gain insightful information from participants on a given research topic. Fifteen participants participated in the quantitative survey, five teachers and ten students. The quantitative survey questions also focused on the school environment and how students’ background affected their performance. The quantitative survey forms were sent to participants through emails. The observation method involved collecting information at the school by looking at the student-teacher interactions, student-to-student interactions, and other aspects such as timetabling. The researcher will sit in five of the classrooms at the school and observe the events that will take place.

Central Research Question

How can the problem of low college readiness gaps at James Monroe High School in West Virginia be solved?

Definitions

1. College readiness – Possession of skills, behaviors, and knowledge required from high school students before enrollment in their first year of college (Durham et al., 2015)

2. College readiness indicators- Parameters used to determine whether high school students are ready for college. Indicators may include high school GPA and course taking (Durham et al., 2015)

3. Underserved communities- Populations traditionally faced barriers to accessing employment, equal political representation, etc. Examples include the elderly, illiterate, low-income families, and people living with disabilities (Durham et al., 2015)

References

Boyce, S., Bazargan, M., Caldwell, C. H., Zimmerman, M. A., & Assari, S. (2020). Parental educational attainment and social environment of urban public schools in the U.S.: Blacks’ diminished returns. Children, 7(5), 44.

https://doi.org/10.3390/children7050044

Durham, R. E., Bell-Ellwanger, J., Connolly, F., Robinson, K. H., Olson, L. S., & Rone, T. (2015). University–District Partnership Research to understand college readiness among Baltimore City Students. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR), 20(1-2), 120–140.

https://doi.org/10.1080/10824669.2014.987278

Jackson, J., & Kurlaender, M. (2013). College readiness and college completion at Broad Access Four-year institutions. American Behavioral Scientist, 58(8), 947–971.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764213515229

Leeds, D. M., & Mokher, C. G. (2019). Improving indicators of college readiness: Methods for optimally placing students into multiple levels of postsecondary coursework. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 42(1), 87–109.

https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373719885648

Vogel, D., & Heidrich, L. (2020). Make Connections–ask questions. Sprachsensible Schulen im Internationals Network for Public Schools in New York. Bremen: Universität, Fachbereich 12. Arbeitsbereich Interkulturelle Bildung

1

Recommendations for Solving Low Rates of College Readiness at James Monroe

High School, West Virginia

Michael Whitener

School of Education, Liberty University

In partial fulfillment of EDUC 880

Author Note:

Michael Whitener

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Michael Whitener

Email:

mwhitener@liberty.edu

Chapter

3

: Procedures

Overview

The purpose of this study was to provide recommendations for solving low rates of college readiness at James Monroe High School, West Virginia. The problem was that

2

8% of the low-income and underserved students were ready for college compared to an 8

4

% overall college readiness rate (Vogel & Heidrich, 2020). This chapter of the research presents interview procedures, quantitative survey procedures, and observation procedures.

Interview Procedures

The first approach used to collect information during this study was semi-structured interviews. The interviews were written first before being presented to the participants. Interviews are helpful when gathering information that can help address research questions or offer more insights on a particular topic. All questions presented in the interviews were developed from numerous literature sources on college readiness. The interview involved seven participants, who were all teachers at James Monroe High School in West Virginia. Convenience sampling was used to select the participants. The seven teachers comprised the school principal, two teachers from the examination department, and four teachers who taught students from 9th to 12th Grade.

The interviews were conducted face-to-face in one of the school’s unused halls for teaching and learning. The participants were required to communicate when they felt ready for the interview. An interview session with each participant took between fifteen to twenty-five minutes. Each session with participants was recorded before being transcribed, for coding, to identify common themes related to college readiness at the school. Through coding, the researcher read responses from the participants and identified themes that cut across. The codes and themes table will be used to provide evidence of how they were identified. In responding to the question, how can low college readiness rates among students from diverse backgrounds at James Monroe High School be reduced, data was collected qualitatively using ten semi-structured questions.

Interview Questions

1. What parameters/indicators are used to determine whether a student is college-ready or not?

The question aimed at identifying whether the participants were aware of the factors that determined college readiness among the students at JMHS. (Leeds & Mokher, 2019) showed that using placement tests to assign students to developmental courses results in frequent misplacement.

2. How are college readiness metrics incorporated into the curriculum at the high school level?

The question was intended to help the researcher determine whether the JMHS curriculum was designed to help the learners prepare for college education. (Castellano et al., 2016) studied the effects of Programs of Study (POS) on preparing students for college and careers. Using a structural data analysis method, they found that enrollment in POS increased the graduation rate among the learners and led to high retention (Castellano et al., 2016).

3. What are the possible causes of low college readiness for students from low-income and underserved communities?

The purpose of the question was to understand learner or school-specific dynamics contributing to poor college preparedness for high school students JMHS. They noted that relying on metrics like test scores can lead to poor preparedness and misplaced (Leeds & Mokher, 2019).

4. What current problem in your school or educational setting would you like to see solved?

The question was intended to help determine whether the teachers at the school recognized low college readiness rates as a problem. The information could help to delve deeper into what the school was doing to mitigate the challenge after it was identified (Leeds & Mokher, 2019).

5

. What do you believe is the best way to solve this problem?

The question was asked to the participants to understand further how much they knew about each intervention. Morin (2021) mentions collaboration between teachers and parents and allowing parents to visit JMHS as some solutions that can help improve students’ performance.

6. What role will data play in solving the problem?

Data is crucial in schools. JMHS teachers can compare their school performance with state and federal averages. Moreover, students’ performance can be compared across the year to identify common patterns. The question aimed to identify whether the school used data to improve teaching and learning (Leeds & Mokher, 2019).

7. What do you know about assessments and test scores and their influence on college readiness?

Teachers and government officials can use school assessments to make education reforms (Tillema et al., 2011). Also, these items are used to determine JMHS students’ ability in various subjects and streamline instructions to address their weaknesses.

8. When you think of performance gaps, what comes to mind first and why?

The question was crucial in understanding the reasons for the gaps in college readiness between JMHS students from low-income and underserved communities and those from wealthy families (Castellano et al., 2016)

9. How do you relate with the parents of students who perform poorly?

Using this question, the researcher would understand the relationship between parents and teachers at James Monroe High School (Morin, 2021).

10. What external support does the school need to solve this problem?

The question would help the researcher understand whether the local, state, and federal governments had also contributed to low college readiness at the school (Leeds & Mokher, 2019). External support would help the school provide more learning resources for students and offer financial support for those from vulnerable communities.

Quantitative Survey Procedures

The second method that was used to collect data was quantitative surveys. The survey involved ten participants, five teachers, three continuing students, and two alumni. Each participant took the survey at their convenient time, with data being collected through the phone. Participants were notified seven days before the researcher conducted the first survey, and participation was voluntary. The ten participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and the data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Five questions were included in the survey form.

Survey Questions

Instructions: Choose one response only for each question

1. The school administration regularly organizes meetings with parents.

5 4 3 2 1

Strongly

Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

The question was intended to help the researcher determine whether there was parent-teacher collaboration at James Monroe High school. This would further help determine whether collaboration was an issue at the school.

2. The school regularly uses data in designing teaching plans and strategies.

5

4

3

2

1

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

The question aimed at identifying the role of data analytics at James Monroe High School. The information would also be used for comparison with data from the interviews.

3. Students have equal access to the learning resources at the school.

5

4

3

2

1

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Learning resources determine students’ success. This survey question would help the researcher determine whether there were forms of discrimination at James Monroe School.

4. Which languages are you capable of speaking fluently?

A. English

B. Spanish

C. Other

D. Prefer not to say

The question would help the researcher determine whether students speaking different languages were at James Monroe High School. Additionally, it would help dig deeper into the student/teacher language affected college readiness.

5. Are there differences between students from underserved and low-income families and those from wealthy backgrounds?

A. Yes

B. No

C. I don’t know

The researcher would further understand if the school treats students discriminatively using the question.

Observation

The researcher’s third method of collecting data from the school was observation. The observation was random. The researcher observed how students worked in groups, teaching methods, punishments, and how the teachers and students related. Moreover, the researcher observed the school curriculum and other school activities organized at the school. The number of parent visits to the school was also noted during the data collection.

Summary

The purpose of this study was to provide Recommendations for Solving Low Rates of College Readiness at James Monroe High School, West Virginia. The problem was that 28% of the low-income and underserved students were ready for college compared to an 84% overall college readiness rate. This report chapter presented interview procedures, quantitative survey procedures, and observation procedures.

References

Castellano, M. E., Richardson, G. B., Sundell, K., & Stone, J. R. (2016). Preparing students for college and career in the United States: The effects of career-themed programs of study on High School Performance. Vocations and Learning, 10(1), 47–70.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12186-016-9162-7

Leeds, D. M., & Mokher, C. G. (2019). Improving indicators of college readiness: Methods for optimally placing students into multiple levels of postsecondary coursework. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 42(1), 87–109.

https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373719885648

Morin, A. (2021, May 15). How do students benefit when parents and teachers work together. Very well Family. Retrieved July 16, 2022, 2022, from

https://www.verywellfamily.com/parents-and-teachers-working-together-620922

Tillema, H. H., Smith, K., & Leshem, S. (2011). Dual roles – conflicting purposes: A comparative study on perceptions on assessment in mentoring relations during practicum. European Journal of Teacher Education, 34(2), 139–159.

https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2010.543672

1

Recommendations for Solving Low Rates of College Readiness at James Monroe

High School, West Virginia

Michael Whitener

School of Education, Liberty University

In partial fulfillment of EDUC 880

Author Note:

Michael Whitener

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Michael Whitener

Email:

mwhitener@liberty.edu

Chapter

3

: Procedures

Overview

The purpose of this study was to provide recommendations for solving low rates of college readiness at James Monroe High School, West Virginia. The problem was that

2

8% of the low-income and underserved students were ready for college compared to an 8

4

% overall college readiness rate (Vogel & Heidrich, 2020). This chapter of the research presents interview procedures, quantitative survey procedures, and focus group procedures.

Interview Procedures

The first approach used to collect information during this study was semi-structured interviews. The interviews were written first before being presented to the participants. Interviews are helpful when gathering information that can help address research questions or offer more insights on a particular topic. All questions presented in the interviews were developed from numerous literature sources on college readiness. The interview involved seven participants, who were all teachers at James Monroe High School in West Virginia. Convenience sampling was used to select the participants. The seven teachers comprised the school principal, two teachers from the examination department, and four teachers who taught students from 9th to 12th Grade.

The interviews were conducted face-to-face in one of the school’s unused halls for teaching and learning. The participants were required to communicate when they felt ready for the interview. An interview session with each participant took between fifteen to twenty-five minutes. Each session with participants was recorded before being transcribed, for coding, to identify common themes related to college readiness at the school. Through coding, the researcher read responses from the participants and identified themes that cut across. The codes and themes table will be used to provide evidence of how they were identified. In responding to the question, how can low college readiness rates among students from diverse backgrounds at James Monroe High School be reduced, data was collected qualitatively using ten semi-structured questions.

Interview Questions

1. What parameters/indicators are used to determine whether a student is college-ready or not?

The question aimed at identifying whether the participants were aware of the factors that determined college readiness among the students at JMHS. (Leeds & Mokher, 2019) showed that using placement tests to assign students to developmental courses results in frequent misplacement.

2. How are college readiness metrics incorporated into the curriculum at the high school level?

The question was intended to help the researcher determine whether the JMHS curriculum was designed to help the learners prepare for college education. (Castellano et al., 2016) studied the effects of Programs of Study (POS) on preparing students for college and careers. Using a structural data analysis method, they found that enrollment in POS increased the graduation rate among the learners and led to high retention (Castellano et al., 2016).

3. What are the possible causes of low college readiness for students from low-income and underserved communities?

The purpose of the question was to understand learner or school-specific dynamics contributing to poor college preparedness for high school students JMHS. They noted that relying on metrics like test scores can lead to poor preparedness and misplaced (Leeds & Mokher, 2019).

4. What current problem in your school or educational setting would you like to see solved?

The question was intended to help determine whether the teachers at the school recognized low college readiness rates as a problem. The information could help to delve deeper into what the school was doing to mitigate the challenge after it was identified (Leeds & Mokher, 2019).

5

. What do you believe is the best way to solve this problem?

The question was asked to the participants to understand further how much they knew about each intervention. Morin (2021) mentions collaboration between teachers and parents and allowing parents to visit JMHS as some solutions that can help improve students’ performance.

6. What role will data play in solving the problem?

Data is crucial in schools. JMHS teachers can compare their school performance with state and federal averages. Moreover, students’ performance can be compared across the year to identify common patterns. The question aimed to identify whether the school used data to improve teaching and learning (Leeds & Mokher, 2019).

7. What do you know about assessments and test scores and their influence on college readiness?

Teachers and government officials can use school assessments to make education reforms (Tillema et al., 2011). Also, these items are used to determine JMHS students’ ability in various subjects and streamline instructions to address their weaknesses.

8. When you think of performance gaps, what comes to mind first and why?

The question was crucial in understanding the reasons for the gaps in college readiness between JMHS students from low-income and underserved communities and those from wealthy families (Castellano et al., 2016)

9. How do you relate with the parents of students who perform poorly?

Using this question, the researcher would understand the relationship between parents and teachers at James Monroe High School (Morin, 2021).

10. What external support does the school need to solve this problem?

The question would help the researcher understand whether the local, state, and federal governments had also contributed to low college readiness at the school (Leeds & Mokher, 2019). External support would help the school provide more learning resources for students and offer financial support for those from vulnerable communities.

Quantitative Survey Procedures

The second method that was used to collect data was quantitative surveys. The survey involved fifteen participants, ten teachers, three continuing students, and two alumni. Each participant took the survey at their convenient time, with data being collected through the phone. Participants were notified seven days before the researcher conducted the first survey, and participation was voluntary. The ten participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and the data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Demographic and non-demographic questions were included in the survey. The data collected were analyzed using thematic analysis where dominant themes were identified in the responses. Questions with choices were analyzed using percentages.

Survey Questions

Part A: Demographic Questions

Instructions: Choose one response only for each question with multiple choices

1. What is your annual household income?

A. Less than $25,000
B. $25,000 – $50,000
C. $50,000 – $100,000
D. $100,000 – $200,000
E. More than $200,000

F. Prefer not to say

The question would help the researcher develop a correlation between socioeconomic factors and performance gaps.

2. Which languages are you capable of speaking fluently?

A. English

B. Spanish

C. Other

D. Prefer not to say

The question would help the researcher determine whether students speaking different languages were at James Monroe High School. Additionally, it would help dig deeper into the student/teacher language affected college readiness.

3. Where were you born?

A. the United States

B. Europe

C. Africa

D. Asia

E. Other

F. Prefer not to say

The question was intended to help the researcher assess the relationship between students’ country of birth and their college readiness.

4. How does JMHS incorporate diversity when employing staff?

The question was intended to help the researcher understand how the school values the issue of diversity in its staff.

5. What is the ratio of black students to white at James Monroe School?

This demographic question was linked to question 4. The enrollment pattern should reflect the school’s neighboring community. Thus, the question was to help the researcher to identify whether equity gaps began manifesting from enrollment or originate from the school. Also, college readiness should reflect students’ enrollment figures.

6. What is the average age of students transitioning to college from JMHS?

Age is an instrumental factor in the student’s success as it can affect their motivation to learn and their interactions with other students and teachers (Navarro et al., 2015). The question helped the researcher determine whether college readiness is linked to students’ age or whether age and performance were independent indicators. The researcher will use the information obtained to recommend the correct age for learners to be taken to

7. Are there differences between students from underserved and low-income families and those from wealthy backgrounds?

A. Yes

B. No

C. I don’t know

The purpose of the question was to help the researcher dig deeper into JMHS’s perception of their students. By understanding how different students are treated, the researcher could offer recommendations for improving performance at JMHS.

Part B: Nondemographic Questions

Instructions: Choose one response only for each question with multiple choices

1. The school administration regularly organizes meetings with parents.

5 4 3 2 1

Strongly

Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

The question was intended to help the researcher determine whether there was parent-teacher collaboration regularly occurring at James Monroe High school. This would further help determine whether collaboration was an issue at the school. The response to the question would help the researcher recommend proper strategies to solve the college readiness gaps between students from low-income and underserved families and those from wealthy backgrounds at the school. It is expected that the college attainment rate would be high in schools that collaborated with parents. Likewise, low performances were expected when parents were less engaged in learning. If most respondents strongly agreed the school administration held meetings with parents frequently, then the problem was not associated with parent involvement in their children’s learning process. However, if respondents disagreed that meetings were held frequently, the disparities in performance between various student groups could be informed by a lack of collaboration. Thus, the researcher would dig deeper to identify the barriers to parent involvement in the learning process at the JMHS (Morin, 2021).

2. The school regularly uses data in designing teaching plans and strategies.

5

4

3

2

1

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

The question aimed at identifying the role of data analytics at James Monroe High School. The information would also be used for comparison with data from the interviews. Data is an essential component in the teaching and learning process. Data use enhances a robust evaluation of the current and past school programs. Performance data at JMHS indicated that students from underserved and low-income communities had the lowest college readiness compared to those from affluent families (Garner, 2019). If most respondents agreed with the statement, the researcher would conclude that the performance gap did not result from a lack of data utilization. However, if many respondents disagreed with the statement, the researcher would conclude that the problem in the school could partly be due to a lack of data utilization. Therefore, the researcher would recommend that the educators use data to address each student’s unique needs and reduce the college readiness gap. State and national data could also be recommended for use in rating the school’s college readiness performance with other schools.

3. Students have equal access to the learning resources at the school based solely on their race.

5

4

3

2

1

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Learning resources are crucial for the success of any student and thus, can affect college readiness. Learning materials resources may include books, libraries, classrooms, and educators. The performance disparity is very low for students with equal access to the learning materials, while it is very high among students with unequal access to the learning resources. The question is intended to assist the researcher to determine whether college readiness disparities were solely based on race. If many respondents agreed with the statement, then discrimination did not exist in the school, and the achievement gaps emanated from other factors. However, if many respondents disagreed, the researcher would conclude that JMHS discriminated against students

4. What is your overall evaluation of JMHS’s learning environment?

The question was designed to help the researcher to understand whether disparity gaps emerged from the school environment or students’ family backgrounds. For instance, if most students agreed that the learning environment at the school was perfect, it would be probable that low college readiness among students from low-income and underserved communities resulted from their family background or student-specific challenges. However, if most learners said that the learning environment was unwelcoming, the implication was that the school created an unfavorable learning environment. The researcher would then recommend a better course of action based on the response (Morin, 2021)

5. What roles do instructors have in helping the students set their goals?

Teachers are instrumental in the students’ goal-setting process. The main aim of setting goals is to focus on what to achieve. The question would help the researcher assess whether educators were involved in their students’ goal-setting process as they can offer critical help. If educators help learners set their goals, most of them will likely discover what they need to do to succeed (Elias, 2019). The responses to the question helped the researcher in comprehending whether low college readiness among low-income and underserved communities is also contributed by poor goal-setting skills.

6. Mention things you feel can contribute most to higher college readiness rates at JMHS.

The question was intended to help the researcher identify what participants considered vital activities that supported their academic performance. Some activities done within the school can positively impact performance, while others can lower performance. The responses would help the researcher make a comparison between what participants think as important variables and what JMHS has identified as key performance indicators (Mokher & Leeds, 2019).

7. What is the best teaching/learning strategy you think can solve the low college readiness gaps at JMHS and why?

The question was intended to help the researcher to navigate through various teaching/learning techniques at JMHS. It required the participants to think about various teaching strategies during the learning process. They could range from student-centered, teacher-centered, collaborative, providing feedback, and inquiry-guided instruction. Some students may have probably benefited from one teaching approach more than the other. Moreover, some teaching approaches may have excluded some students leading to poor performance. The researcher would use the responses from the participants to identify the best teaching strategy that the JMHS administration can implement to deal with low college readiness gaps.

8. What is your perception of co-curricular activities on your overall performance as a student? Why?

When at school students participate in co-curricular and curriculum activities. These activities can contribute to better classroom performance or not. The researcher used the question to investigate whether students at JMHS participated in extra-curricular activities and how it affected their performances.

9. What observable difference do you see between students from underserved communities and those from affluent families?

The response to the question was intended to help the researchers assess whether low college readiness rates were associated with how the students were treated at the school.

10. What interventions does the school pursue to address any possibility of discrimination or inequality

Discrimination may manifest in school unintentionally and thus, there should be some specific policies to address these possibilities. The question was intended to help the researcher understand how JMHS sealed any possibility of discrimination.

Focus Group Procedures

The researcher’s third method of collecting data from the school was using focus groups. The participants in the focus group were selected randomly. The researcher prepared a focus group related to college readiness at JMHS. Eight people were selected to participate in the focus group session which was conducted at the school’s dining hall after classes. Among the eight participants, three were currently teaching at JMHS while one was a former teacher at the same school. Two participants were alumnus at JMHS while two others were neighboring community members who also happened to be parents at JMHS. The researcher analyzed data collected using a thematic data analysis method. Common themes were identified from the focus group questions.

Focus Group Questions

1. What causes low college readiness gaps at JMHS?

This intended to help the researcher collect different views on college readiness gaps at James Monroe. Different responses to this question would assist the researcher in narrowing down to causes of performance gaps at the school.

2. What is the student-teacher ratio at JMHS?

Teacher student ratio is a key determinant of performance. The question helped the research to determine whether JMHS had enough teachers. The problem with low college readiness rates could be informed by a lack of enough teachers.

3. Who influences how students perform at the JMHS?

The question aimed at helping the researcher to know where to focus when recommending solutions to improve college readiness. Parents, students, or the neighboring community could have a massive impact on how the students at the school perform.

4. What is the relationship between students and teachers at JMHS?

The question was intended to help the researcher understand whether the interaction between students and instructors was strained. The responses to the question would contribute toward developing the right recommendations.

5. What do you know about assessments and test scores and their influence on college readiness?

Teachers and government can use assessments in schools to make education reforms (Tillema et al., 2011). The question was intended to help the researcher evaluate whether GPA was being used by educators to prepare the students for colleges

6. How does racial composition at JMHS affect how students are treated?

The question was intended to help the researcher understand the relationship between racial composition and college readiness. Responses to the question would help assess whether the largest student racial group at JMHS received special treatment compared to the minority race.

7. How do you use data in improving teaching/learning experiences and performance?

Data is important in every sector including education. The question was included to help the researchers assess how JMHS used data. The same question was also included in the interview and the responses will be compared.

8. What type of data is considered critical at JMHS?

The question was related to question seven. While it is important to use data, the type of information uses is also relevant. The responses to the question assisted the researcher to determine whether the school needed to change the type of data that was being used.

9. What is the average number of students per grade?

Student population per classroom is important when it comes to teaching effectiveness. The number of students in each classroom can affect how they perform. The responses to the question assisted the researcher in assessing whether class size was to be changed.

10. How can parents be involved in the learning process?

Parents are core to the success of students. The question was intended to get parents’ and teachers’ perspectives on how JMHS parents should be involved in the learning process of their children.

Summary

The purpose of this study was to provide Recommendations for Solving Low Rates of College Readiness at James Monroe High School, West Virginia. The problem was that 28% of the low-income and underserved students were ready for college compared to an 84% overall college readiness rate. This report chapter presented interview procedures, quantitative survey procedures, and focus group procedures.

References

Castellano, M. E., Richardson, G. B., Sundell, K., & Stone, J. R. (2016). Preparing students for college and career in the United States: The effects of career-themed programs of study on High School Performance. Vocations and Learning, 10(1), 47–70.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12186-016-9162-7

Elias, M. J. (2019, November 14). A framework for student goal-setting. Edutopia. Retrieved July 22, 2022, from

https://www.edutopia.org/article/framework-student-goal-setting

Garner, I. (2019, January 18). Data in education: Learning A. Z. Retrieved July 22, 2022, from

https://www.learninga-z.com/site/breakroom/data-in-education#:~:text=Data%20usage%20enables%20more%20effective,of%20the%20state%20and%20district

Leeds, D. M., & Mokher, C. G. (2019). Improving indicators of college readiness: Methods for optimally placing students into multiple levels of postsecondary coursework. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 42(1), 87–109.

https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373719885648

Morin, A. (2021, May 15). How do students benefit when parents and teachers work together. Verywell Family. Retrieved July 16, 2022, 2022, from

https://www.verywellfamily.com/parents-and-teachers-working-together-620922

Tillema, H. H., Smith, K., & Leshem, S. (2011). Dual roles – conflicting purposes: A comparative study on perceptions on assessment in mentoring relations during practicum. European Journal of Teacher Education, 34(2), 139–159.

https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2010.543672

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