Posted: August 3rd, 2022

COM2006 Week 3 Project

I’m working on a question for that I need some help.

Dimensions of Communication

This week, you will read about the dimensions of communication—verbal and nonverbal. In this lesson, we will focus on our verbal

messages. Our language, or what we say, is the verbal dimension and is both context and culture bound.

Words have power. The power to create perceptions. The power to in�uence thought. The power to create action. However,

meanings are not in words but in the interpretation of the words. Meanings can be misconstrued and interpreted differently by the
sender and the receiver. Competent communicators understand that it is the responsibility of the sender to clarify the intended

meaning.

In other words, it is not the sole responsibility of the receiver to interpret the sender’s meaning correctly.

So what are the pitfalls of or barriers to understanding? There are different types of word barriers that can cause a misunderstanding

and miscommunication between the sender and the receiver. Let’s examine three different word barriers—bypassing, allness, and

polarization.

Bypassing

Raina and Marla were shopping at the mall. Raina needed to go to the other end of the mall to buy her mom a gift. She said to Marla,

“Meet me at 2:00 in front of Penny’s.” Marla thought that “in front” meant outside, in front of the parking lot entrance. Raina meant in

front of the entrance to Penny’s, inside of the mall. Because Raina’s cell phone had died on the way to the mall, they ended up waiting

a half hour for each other.

This simple example illustrates how word bypassing can cause misunderstanding. Obviously, if they both had had their cell phones,

this would not have been an issue. However, it is better to know how to reduce the chances of misunderstanding at the time of
communication. How could this have been remedied when they �rst made their plans? Competent communicators understand that

meaning can easily be misconstrued. Therefore, to avoid misunderstandings from bypassing language, where one word has a number

of different meanings, the sender can be more conscious of being precise in his or her words. The receiver of the message can also

clarify by paraphrasing what he or she thinks the sender is saying. In the case of this example, Raina could have clari�ed that they

should meet in front of the entrance to Penny’s, inside the mall. Marla could have paraphrased Raina’s message saying that what she

understands is that they are to meet in front of the store from the parking lot entrance.

Allness

Jim and Abraham are working out at the gym together when Syed walks past them. Syed is very muscular and good looking and can

easily �nd women to date. Jim remarks to Abraham that Syed must be a real shallow person because he dates a woman only twice

before moving on to the next. Abraham agrees by remarking that Syed never sticks around in a relationship, just like all Middle

Eastern men.

How does this example illustrate the word barrier of allness? Allness is when you overgeneralize meanings to make unquali�ed and
often erroneous statements about someone else. Allness has an ethical dimension in this case because Jim and Abraham’s

conversation can easily be heard by others, which can seriously affect Syed’s reputation.

This is an example of allness because Jim and Abraham are making a general assumption that Syed must be a shallow person because

he is good looking and dating a number of women and that he is just like all Middle Eastern men. You need to be careful when

generalizing about people because you really do not know what their circumstances are and assumptions are harmful. Allness is

about characterizing a group of people into one category.

Polarization

Polarization is when you label a situation as an either-or situation, leaving out intermediate possibilities or interpretations. In this

instance, you describe or interpret words or actions at one of the two ends of the continuum. For example, polarization would be

identifying someone as either good or bad or evaluating a situation as either black or white. It is easy to recognize polarization

because of the key words—either and or.

For example, it would be polarization to say to your friend that either you are my friend or you are not my friend. Polarization also has

an ethical dimension as you are reducing people and situations to one of the two extremes and not allowing other interpretations for
the situation. By polarizing the situation, you are not leaving the interpretation of the situation open for negotiation or other

alternatives that may suit both parties.

 

Additional Materials

Communication Dimensions

Click each dimension to learn about it along with an example.

Content Timing

Selection of
Audience

Choice of
Communication

Medium

Presentation
Style and
Structure

View a PDF transcript of Communication Dimension (media/transcripts/Week3/SU_COM2006_W3_G1 ?

_&d2lSessionVal=G8yTd5fDEtOWhKGrLSjs64OmW&ou=91172)

https://myclasses.southuniversity.edu/pub/content/4acb0406-596a-42a6-880c-95154bec05e9/SU_COM2006_W3_G1

https://myclasses.southuniversity.edu/content/enforced/91172-17115841/media/transcripts/Week3/SU_COM2006_W3_G1 ?_&d2lSessionVal=G8yTd5fDEtOWhKGrLSjs64OmW&ou=91172

Teamwork and Roles

Oftentimes at work, we are required to work in teams. Teamwork can be dif�cult if there are differences of opinion and differences in

commitment to the team and its assigned jobs. This week, you will read about different con�ict management styles. Let’s examine the

collaborative style in con�ict management. Using a collaboration style implies that all parties view the con�ict as solvable and use

negotiation to �nd a solution acceptable for all involved.

It is helpful to use a step-by-step process to ensure that everyone in the team contributes to the generation of possible solutions.

Beebe et al. (2017) suggest that an effective way to solve problems is to go through a process involving de�ning the problem,

analyzing the problem, determining the overall goal, generating multiple solutions, and selecting the best solution.

The following are the steps for problem solving:

1. De�ning the problem is an important step because the problem we name is the problem we set out to solve. Frequently,

team con�icts are due to a lack of organizational resources. For example, a team is charged with a big project that has a
short turnaround timeline. This problem can be articulated as either the short amount of time allotted to complete the

job or the lack of enough people to do the job in the allotted time. As you can see, if you de�ne the problem as the

deadline, this will lead to solutions looking at how to extend the deadline or rede�ne the scope of the project. On the

other hand, if you de�ne the problem as not having enough people to work on the project, then solutions will look more at

how to get more help.

2. In analyzing the problem, it is critical to set up a structure for analysis. For example, imagine that your team’s project is to

create an organizational event for the community by partnering with the local chapter of “Habitat for Humanity.” In
analyzing the problem, team members should think like reporters and look at the situation from many different angles by

asking the basic questions of who, what, where, when, and why. After the facts are collected and analyzed, the team can

proceed to the next step—to determine the overall goal.

3. In determining the overall project goal, it is important that team members look at all parties involved. For example, this

project for creating an event with Habitat for Humanity has several different stakeholders. Obviously, the organization’s

management, which is setting up the task, is a stakeholder, but this project also has other stakeholders, who have their
own goals. First, the team agrees that the primary management goal for this event is to create better community relations

and more visibility in the community and, therefore, help expand the company’s positive reputation. Other stakeholders

are people who work for this organization. Organizational members who are being encouraged to participate in this

event may have a goal of being able to include this participation in their performance reviews. Habitat for Humanity’s

goal may be to get more resources for building houses, in the form of donations, volunteers, and media attention. At this

stage, the team has to determine whether there are any competing goals and rank the importance of different goals for
de�ning the overall project goals. For example, the team may determine that management’s goal should be considered

�rst, before other stakeholder’s goals.

4. Next, the team needs to generate multiple solutions. For this step, it is best to start with brainstorming, where each

member suggests a number of possible solutions. In team brainstorming sessions, it is important that all ideas are

accepted and no one evaluates the merits of any team member’s ideas. Also, it is critical that everyone in the team

generates ideas. This stage is for thinking outside the box. Evaluating the merits of ideas and discarding ideas will come in

the next step. For example, team brainstorming for the Habitat for Humanity event has generated several ideas, including
having a block-laying race, competition between two teams building two houses, a painting competition, and a children’s

fair for entertaining the workers’ children. Obviously, some ideas require more resources than others, but at this stage, all

ideas are accepted and recorded.

5. The �nal step is selecting the best solution and requires the team to set up criteria listing the parameters for the best

solution. In other words, what will the best solution look like? For example, criteria can include de�ning resources, such as

the manpower needed to hold events, funds allocated, time allotment, and selection of place. Let’s look at our Habitat for
Humanity team. First, the team is given a budget from management, which is a well-de�ned criterion. The budget is

adequate but not overly generous and has helped the team to eliminate the idea of a competition where two teams

compete to �nish building their house �rst. The second criterion is to get as many people involved in the community and

organization as possible. This criterion eliminates the block-laying and painting competitions because not everyone

volunteering will have these skills. With these event ideas being eliminated, the team decides that it can get more parents

involved in volunteering if it holds an event for their children where some of the volunteers entertain and engage the

children in activities while their parents work. Even though this is a simplistic example of problem solving, you can see

that this process helps create ideas that get buy-in from all team members. Collaboration is about �nding positive

solutions that meet de�ned goals.

Developing Communication Strategies

Assertive Communication

You can apply the following steps to show your assertiveness in communication:

1. Describe the situation or issue using nonjudgmental words.
2. Define how this situation has affected you.
3. Name a future solution.
4. Listen actively for the other’s response or negotiate an acceptable future solution.

Example

Tina was unhappy with her girlfriend Joy because Joy, more often than not, arrived late for their outings.
Tina didn’t want to lose Joy as a friend, but she did need Joy to be more considerate of her time. Tina,
after reading about how to be an assertive communicator, decided to talk to Joy about the issue.

First, Tina described how she had waited for Joy for a half hour at the mall. Then, she explained that she
felt hurt because her time was not respected. Next, Tina suggested that if Joy felt that she was going to
be late, she needed to call Tina before Tina left her house to meet her. Finally, Tina listened to Joy’s
response to make sure that they both were in agreement.

Expert Feedback

Assertive communication, unlike aggressive communication, does not attack the other person. Instead,
assertive communication focuses on the issue or situation and on what can be done for future actions.
Assertive communication is not about using accusing “you” statements but focuses on the “I” by
explaining how the action affects you.

Page 1 of 1
Interpersonal Communication

©2014 South University

Communication Strategies

Oftentimes, it is the hardest to communicate when a situation is emotional. Communication can easily denigrate to accusations and

overgeneralization. You read in the last section about polarization, allness, and bypassing, where a meaning is misconstrued because

of our word choices. Other words that have a great likelihood of setting off arguments and hard feelings are always and never. In

arguments, when you use the words “always” and “never,” you are categorizing the other person. This can be harmful to the
relationship.

For example, Maria and Bob, a newly married couple, are having a heated argument. Maria is angry with Bob because he came home

late after going out with his friends. Maria confronts Bob, saying that he is always inconsiderate to her when he goes out with his

friends and he never considers her feelings. Bob retorts that Maria is always too sensitive and never considers Bob’s needs—only her

own.

So now let’s discuss the communication strategy of assertive communication. First of all, when being assertive, you need to be careful
of not verbally pointing a �nger at the other person. When you say “you always” or “you never,” this can be interpreted as being

aggressive. Beebe, Beebe, and Redmond (2017) advise that you should avoid evaluating others and instead use an extended “I”

language to describe how the other’s actions have affected you.

In the case of Maria and Bob, both Maria and Bob are acting aggressively by saying “you always” and “you never.” When you

communicate with the words “always” and “never,” you put the other person on the defensive. Because there are very few occasions

when someone always or never does or says something, you are categorizing the other person with little chance of redemption.

More effective communicators are careful to be assertive, especially in emotionally charged conversations. Assertive communication
has three components. First, neutrally describe the situation. Second, describe how you feel about the action. Finally, give an option

for future actions.

In the case of Maria and Bob, Maria can act assertively by �rst describing the situation, saying that she sat up until midnight waiting

for Bob to either call or come home. Next, using an extended “I” language, Maria needs to explain how Bob’s action affected her.

Maria can explain that she was worried that something may have happened on the road because she knows Bob likes to drink beer

when he is out playing pool with his buddies. Finally, Maria should request a future action. She can suggest to Bob that if he is going to
be home late or stay out past midnight, he should call Maria so that she is assured that Bob is �ne and able to drive.

Being assertive rather than aggressive in emotional discussions is not always easy. This is a learned skill that will help forge a better

understanding and ensure less hurt feelings. Assertiveness is an ethical choice because it is focused on the action or problem and not

on demeaning the other person. Assertive responses give the other person an opportunity to understand our feelings and amend his

or her behavior in the future.

Additional Materials

Developing
Communication Strategies

Assertive Communication

You can apply the following steps to show your assertiveness in
communication:

1. Describe the situation or issue using nonjudgmental words.

2. Define how this situation has affected you.

3. Name a future solution.

4. Listen actively for the other’s response or negotiate an acceptable
future solution.

View a PDF transcript of Developing Communication Strategies (media/transcripts/Week3/SU_COM2006_W3_G2 ?

_&d2lSessionVal=G8yTd5fDEtOWhKGrLSjs64OmW&ou=91172)

https://myclasses.southuniversity.edu/pub/content/1ef3d3c5-0035-4cdb-bc2e-9b67f93960fe/SU_COM2006_W3_G2

javascript:void(0)

javascript:void(0)

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https://myclasses.southuniversity.edu/content/enforced/91172-17115841/media/transcripts/Week3/SU_COM2006_W3_G2 ?_&d2lSessionVal=G8yTd5fDEtOWhKGrLSjs64OmW&ou=91172

Instructions $25.00

Nonverbal Rule-Breaking

In this assignment, you will explore the dimensions of nonverbal communication. We conceptualize nonverbal communication along four dimensions:

Kinesics

Haptic

Proxemics

Paralinguistic

This assignment requires that you manipulate the norms in at least three of these dimensions. How you manipulate them is up to you. Use the following guidelines to complete this assignment (follow this general pattern for each of the three dimensions chosen):

Provide an introduction (for the whole assignment) defining nonverbal communication, identifying its components, and explaining its importance to the interpersonal communication process.

Define and describe the particular nonverbal behavior you are investigating. Thoroughly define and explain the general area (say, proxemics) as well as the particular behavior of interest to you. Do not assume the reader to be knowledgeable about the subject. Explain what would constitute normative behaviors for the situation (such as a person or a group) you will be testing.

Develop an experiment where you break with normative behavior in the chosen dimension of nonverbal communication. For example, devise a subtle and inventive way of invading someone’s space (proxemics). Explain in detail the intent of your experiment, the expected outcome, and how you will carry it out.

Carry out your experiment with an individual or a small group of people. These people may not be relatives (i.e., don’t experiment with your family), and at least two of the three experiments may not be with familiar people (such as roommates).

Explain how you carried out your experiment. Include the contextual variables that had bearing on the situation (such as environmental noise, other people in the environment, other situational norms, etc.). Give the results of the experiment, in some detail, focusing on how the “victim” coped with this “breach” or made an effort to maintain social equilibrium. In your description of the results, give a detailed description (be very specific) of your verbal (if there was any) and nonverbal communication as well as your subject’s verbal and nonverbal communication.

Provide a summary evaluation of the results of each experiment. Ponder on the following questions, as you write your thoughts:

Why do the norms exist?

How important are the norms?

How uncomfortable did the norms make the person feel?

What did the person do to address the breach?

Is the norm relatively universal or is it situational or specific to the relationship?

Did the person use primarily verbal or nonverbal tactics to deal with the situation?

What did the person do to save face?

Submission Details:

Provide your answers in a 5- to 6-page Microsoft Word document.

Cite all sources using APA format on a separate page.

Communication Dimensions

© 2014 South University

2
Communication Dimensions

Given below are the dimensions of communication with examples.

Content

Words create meaning. Use words to support others. Being other oriented necessitates that you assess
how your words will be received. Indexing helps you avoid overgeneralizing. Allness, or
overgeneralizing, places people in categories and does not recognize individuality. Content needs to be
concrete and specific.

Example

My teacher Dr. Brown helps me understand complex theories, but my other teacher Dr. Ransom does
not explain concepts very well.

Timing

One issue of timing in communication is to know when to talk and when to listen. This is particularly
relevant in gender communication, where men tend to be task oriented and women tend to be more
relational oriented.

Example

Yvette came home from work upset and wanted to talk to her husband, Jon, about her day. Instead of
listening to Yvette’s feelings about her issues, Jon interrupted Yvette with questions about how she had
contributed to the situation. Since Yvette felt that Jon was not listening to her, she decided to call a
girlfriend instead.

Selection of Audience

Oftentimes, you just need to talk about what bothers you. It is particularly important that you consider
your audiences before you speak. Since it is not always necessary to confront someone who you feel has
wronged you, it can be more beneficial to speak with another person who is not engaged in the
situation so that you can get a more unbiased viewpoint.

Example

Yolanda has a girlfriend, Mariel, whom she has known since first grade. Yolanda was upset because
Mariel didn’t return her third phone call. She was going to leave a reprimanding message but, instead,
decided to talk to her mother about the situation. Yolanda’s mother advised her to give Mariel some
time as she may be busy or unavailable for some other reason.

Presentation Style and Structure

Whether you are speaking to one person or a group of people, it is important to consider your topic and
audience. The presentation style can be formal or informal. Presentations need to be structured and
organized so that your information is clear and easy to comprehend.

Page 2 of 3
Interpersonal Communication

©2014 South University

3
Communication Dimensions

Example

Toby’s assignment is to give a speech to his class about how to study. Since Toby knows his classmates,
he decides to create an informal speech and write his studying tips in a sequential structure. He writes
his speech, explaining the steps for productive studying.

Choice of Communication Medium

Your choice of communication medium (face-to-face, e-mail, texting, social media, and phone) does
affect how your message will be received. Only when you speak to someone face-to-face can you
express and assess nonverbal cues. This is particularly important when trying to resolve interpersonal
conflicts since nonverbal cues can reinforce verbal messages.

Example

Lucinda was upset with her boyfriend, Sam. The more Lucinda thought about their argument, the more
Lucinda became angry. She was going to send him a nasty e-mail but thought that speaking to him
face-to-face was the best way to air their differences. She really did not want to break up with Sam; so
she decided to let herself cool down and then meet Sam for dinner. This, she decided, would be the best
way for her to express her mood and work out a solution with Sam since Sam would be able to see that
she really did care for him.

Page 3 of 3
Interpersonal Communication

©2014 South University

COM2006 Week 3 Project Rubric
Course: COM2006-Interpersonal Communication SU01

Criteria
No Submission
0 points

Emerging (F
through D Range)
(15-17)
17 points

Satisfactory (C
Range) (18-20)
20 points

Proficient (B
Range) (20-22)
22 points

Exemplary (A
Range) (23-25)
25 points

Criterion Score

Wrote an

introduction

(for the whole

assignment)

defining

nonverbal

communicatio

n, identifying

its

components,

and explaining

its importance

to the

interpersonal

communicatio

n process.

/ 25Student did not

submit

assignment

Work does not

meet assignment

expectations;

shows little or no

understanding of

assignment

concepts

Assignment

partially

meets

expectations

with minimal

depth;

demonstrates a

limited

understanding of

the assignment

concepts
Assignment
meets
expectations

with all

components

being addressed;

demonstrates

the ability to

evaluate and

apply key

assignments

concepts
Assignment

exceeds

expectations

with exceptional

depth; presents

all requirements

of the

assignment;

demonstrates
the ability to

evaluate, apply

and synthesize

key assignment

concepts
Criteria
No Submission
0 points
Emerging (F
through D Range)
(15-17)
17 points
Satisfactory (C
Range) (18-20)
20 points
Proficient (B
Range) (20-22)
22 points
Exemplary (A
Range) (23-25)
25 points

Criterion Score

Criteria
No Submission
0 points
Emerging (F
through D Range)
(15-17)
17 points
Satisfactory (C
Range) (18-20)
20 points
Proficient (B
Range) (20-22)
22 points
Exemplary (A
Range) (23-25)
25 points
Criterion Score

Defined and

described the

particular

nonverbal

behavior

investigated.

/ 25Student did not
submit
assignment
Work does not
meet assignment
expectations;
shows little or no
understanding of
assignment
concepts
Assignment

partially meets

expectations
with minimal
depth;
demonstrates a
limited
understanding of
the assignment

concepts.

Assignment
meets
expectations
with all
components
being addressed;
demonstrates
the ability to
evaluate and
apply key
assignments
concepts
Assignment
exceeds
expectations
with exceptional
depth; presents
all requirements
of the
assignment;
demonstrates
the ability to
evaluate, apply
and synthesize
key assignment
concepts
Criteria
No Submission
0 points

Emerging (F
through D Range)
(30-35)
35 points

Satisfactory (C
Range) (35-40)
40 points

Proficient (B
Range) (40-45)
45 points

Exemplary (A
Range) (45-50)
50 points

Criterion Score

Criteria
No Submission
0 points
Emerging (F
through D Range)
(30-35)
35 points
Satisfactory (C
Range) (35-40)
40 points
Proficient (B
Range) (40-45)
45 points
Exemplary (A
Range) (45-50)
50 points
Criterion Score

Developed an

experiment.

Explained in

detail the

intent of your

experiment,

the expected

outcome, and

how you will

carry it out.

Carried out the

experiment

with an

individual or a

small group of

people.

/ 50Student did not

submit
assignment
Work does not
meet assignment
expectations;
shows little or no
understanding of
assignment
concepts
Assignment
partially meets
expectations
with minimal
depth;
demonstrates a
limited
understanding of
the assignment
concepts
Assignment
meets
expectations
with all
components
being addressed;
demonstrates
the ability to
evaluate and
apply key
assignments
concepts
Assignment
exceeds
expectations
with exceptional
depth; presents
all requirements
of the
assignment;
demonstrates
the ability to
evaluate, apply
and synthesize
key assignment
concepts
Criteria
No Submission
0 points
Emerging (F
through D Range)
(30-35)
35 points
Satisfactory (C
Range) (35-40)
40 points
Proficient (B
Range) (40-45)
45 points
Exemplary (A
Range) (45-50)
50 points
Criterion Score

Criteria
No Submission
0 points
Emerging (F
through D Range)
(30-35)
35 points
Satisfactory (C
Range) (35-40)
40 points
Proficient (B
Range) (40-45)
45 points
Exemplary (A
Range) (45-50)
50 points
Criterion Score

Provided a

summary

evaluation of

the results of

each

experiment.
/ 50Student did not
submit
assignment
Work does not
meet assignment
expectations;
shows little or no
understanding of
assignment
concepts
Assignment
partially meets
expectations
with minimal
depth;
demonstrates a
limited
understanding of
the assignment
concepts
Assignment
meets
expectations
with all
components
being addressed;
demonstrates
the ability to
evaluate and
apply key
assignments
concepts
Assignment
exceeds
expectations
with exceptional
depth; presents
all requirements
of the
assignment;
demonstrates
the ability to
evaluate, apply
and synthesize
key assignment
concepts
Criteria
No Submission
0 points
Emerging (F
through D Range)
(30-35)
35 points
Satisfactory (C
Range) (35-40)
40 points
Proficient (B
Range) (40-45)
45 points
Exemplary (A
Range) (45-50)
50 points
Criterion Score

Wrote in a

clear, concise,

and organized

manner;

demonstrated

ethical

scholarship in

/ 50Student did not
submit
assignment

Numerous issues

in any of the

following:

grammar,

mechanics,

spelling, use of

slang, and

Some

spelling,

grammatical,

and/or structural

errors. Some

errors in APA

formatting

(

citations and

Minor

errors in

grammar,

mechanics, or

spelling in the

initial posting.

Minor errors in

APA formatting

Minor to no

errors in
grammar,
mechanics, or

spelling in both

the initial post

and comments to

Criteria
No Submission
0 points
Emerging (F
through D Range)
(30-35)
35 points
Satisfactory (C
Range) (35-40)
40 points
Proficient (B
Range) (40-45)
45 points
Exemplary (A
Range) (45-50)
50 points
Criterion Score

the

accurate

representation

and attribution

of sources (i.e.,

APA format);

displayed

accurate
spelling,

grammar, and

professional

vocabulary.

incomplete or

missing APA

citations and

references. If

required for the

assignment, did

not use course,

text, and/or

outside readings

(where relevant)

to support work.

references). If

required for the

assignment,

utilizes sources

to support work

for initial post

but not

comments to

other students.

Sources include

course/text

readings but

outside sources

(when relevant)

include non-

academic/authori

tative, such as

Wikis and .com

resources.

(citations and

references). If
required for the
assignment,
utilizes sources
to support work

for both the

initial post and

some of the

comments to
other students.
Sources include

course and text

readings as well

as outside

sources (when

relevant) that are

academic and

authoritative

(e.g., journal

articles, other

text books, .gov

web sites,

professional

organization web

sites).

others. APA

formatting is

correct. If

required for the
assignment,
utilizes sources
to support work
for both the
initial post and

the comments to

other students.
Sources include
course and text
readings as well
as outside
sources (when
relevant) that are
academic and
authoritative
(e.g., journal
articles, other
text books, .gov
web sites,
professional
organization web
sites).

Total / 200

Overall Score

No Submission
0 points minimum

Emerging (F through D Range)
139 points minimum

Satisfactory (C Range)
160 points minimum

Proficient (B Range)
179 points minimum

Exemplary (A Range)
200 points minimum

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We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
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