Posted: August 2nd, 2022

discussion

  1. Compare and contrast two of the following religious traditions.

    Confucianism
    Shinto
    Daoism

500-650 words, double spaced, 12 point font.

only used the power point

Chapter 6

Daoism and Confucianism

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Living Religions

Tenth Edition

1

Learning Objectives (1 of 2)
6.1 Describe the ancient Chinese tradition of ancestor worship and the concept of cosmic balance.
6.2 Identify the basic principles for life in harmony with Dao.
6.3 Outline the practices associated with popular religion and organized Daoism.
6.4 Explain the increasing interest in Daoist practices and philosophy in the West.

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Learning Objectives (2 of 2)
6.5 Outline the major teachings of Confucius.
6.6 Define Neo-Confucianism.
6.7 Discuss the ways in which Confucianism is being adapted to modern concerns in mainland China and other parts of East Asia.

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Simon Man-ho Wong Quote
“It is very hard to find a true sage who through his self-cultivation has perfectly combined himself with Heaven, or the transcendent Dao, or ultimate reality—whatever you may call it.”
Simon Man-ho Wong

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Simon Man-ho Wong, interviewed September 21, 2013.
4

Ancient traditions
Why are ancestor worship and cosmic balance important?
Chinese civilization old and continuous
By 2000 CE, people settled in agrarian villages
Musical instruments
Work in bronze, silk, ceramics, and ivory
Chinese religious ways as old as these works

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Worship and divination (1 of 2)
Prehistoric evidence of ancestor worship
Graves lined with funerary offerings
li: sacred rituals for ancestors
Early worship of spirits
Plants, animals, mountains, stars
Kings and priest made regular sacrifices
Demons and ghosts
Ghosts were ancestors not properly worshiped
Many practices developed to thwart their menace

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Worship and divination (2 of 2)
Rituals of common people unknown
Rituals performed by kings and priests
Sacrifices
Divination
Shangdi: Shang period Lord-on-High
Zhou period: focus shifted from Shangdi to Tian, impersonal power controlling the universe
tian: “Heaven” or “Supreme Ultimate”
“Mandate of Heaven” justified Zhou rule

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Cosmic Balance
qi: impersonal self-generating physical-spiritual substance.
yin: the dark, receptive, “female” aspect of qi
yang: the bright, assertive, “male” aspect of qi
Dao: “way,” the creative rhythm of the universe
Yijing or Book of Changes: a divinization text used to harmonize the cosmic process

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Daoism—
the way of nature and immortality
What are the basic principles for life in harmony with Dao?
Beneath the Daoist principles of a simple life is a tradition of strict mental and physical discipline.
“Daoism” is a broad philosophical (literati) tradition.
It also includes popular practices, such as home worship of gods.

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Teachings of Daoist sages (1 of 2)
Tradition attributes the earliest teachings to the Yellow Emperor (r. 2687–2597 BCE).
Dao de jing (“The Classic of the Way and its Power”)
Composed by Laozi (Old Master) during the Zhou dynasty (sixth century BCE).
5,000 words
Oral tradition

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Teachings of Daoist sages (2 of 2)
Zhuangzi (c. 365–290 BCE)
Elaborated on Daoist concepts
Asserted: best to detach from absurd civilization
Dao is “unnamable,” the “eternally real”
Experience the transcendent unity of all things
No “good” or “bad”
wu wei: “actionless action,” no intentional action contrary to the natural flow

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Popular religion and organized Daoism
(1 of 2)
What practices are associated with popular religion and organized Daoism?
Invisible spirits are worshiped:
In temples with incense and other offerings
In folk religion with nonvegetarian offerings
feng shui: “geomancy,” allowing things to take their own course

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Popular religion and organized Daoism
(2 of 2)
Deities from folk religions have become part of the pantheon.
Jade Emperor is the ruler of heaven.
Daoist masters are divine beings.
Vows are commonly taken for fulfillment of requests.

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Inner alchemy (1 of 2)
Inner alchemy is an internal spiritual practice for the sake of inner transformation, longevity, and immortality.
Within the body is a spiritual micro-universe.
Three treasures:
Generative force (jing)
Vital life force (qi)
Spirit (shen)

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Inner alchemy (2 of 2)
The process is to circulate and transmute jing into qi and then to shen.
This produces the Immortal Fetus, which can leave the body.

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Daoist Sects (1 of 2)
Practices institutionalized in Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE)
Celestial Masters
184 CE: rebellion leading to fall of Han dynasty
Zhang Daoling’s vision: Appointed representative of Dao on earth and given the title “Celestial Master”
Introduced pantheon of celestial deities
Now thriving in Taiwan and Hong Kong

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16

Daoist Sects (2 of 2)
Highest Purity Daoism
Revelations from deceased Lady Wei
365 CE
New deities, rituals, meditative and alchemical methods
Celestial Masters were crude
Not popular, but highly influential
Complete Perfection
Developed from fourth century Numinous Treasure School
Twelfth century
Dominant monastic tradition
Present Daoist canon was compiled in 1445 CE

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Daoism Today
Which Daoist practices are of increasing interest in the West?
All forms of Daoist practice are still actively undertaken.
Chinese temples combine various religions, but liturgy is Daoist.
Bureaucratic obstacles in communist China
Monks and nuns are of equal status.
New Daoist temples and social activities:
Schools
Hospitals
Environmental groups

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Confucianism—
the practice of virtue
Which virtue did Confucius feel could save society?
Confucius: Master Kong (sixth century BCE)
Rujiao: the teaching of the scholars
Teachings based on:
Beliefs in Heaven
Ancestor worship
Efficacy of rituals

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Master Kong’s life
Confucius born c. 551 BCE
Determined to be a scholar
Living ascetically, he studied ritual (li)
Returned to society and gained renown as teacher
3,000 disciples
5 Confucian “Classics”
Teachings contained in The Analects
Period of political chaos
Social rites would restore order
Died in 479 BCE

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The Confucian virtues
Codified in the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE)
ren: “humaneness”
Confucius believed this could save society.
Comprises Chinese character for “two” and “person”
Conveys the idea of relationships
Actions should be motivated by self-improvement, not recognition.
He supported ancestor worship as an extension of filial piety.
junzi: the noble person

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Confucianism after Confucius
What was the significance of Neo-Confucianism?
Mengzi (c. 390–305 BCE), the “Secondary Sage”
Inherent goodness of humanity
Learning is process of coming to understand the Way of Heaven.
Xunzi
Inherent self-centeredness of humanity
li ought to be legally enforced

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The state cult
During Han dynasty:
Teachings of Confucius adopted as the state cult
Traditional Book of Rites and Etiquette and Ritual reconstructed

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Neo-Confucianism
Revival of Confucianism after rise of Buddhism and Daoism in China
“Metaphysical thought” or “the learning of principle”
Zhu Xi (1130–1200 CE)
Developed Confucian school curriculum
Tradition continued for hundreds of years

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Confucianism in the modern world (1 of 2)
How is Confucianism being adapted to modern concerns in mainland China and other parts of East Asia?
Confucian ritual was attacked as one of the “Four Olds” during the Communist Cultural Revolution.
Chairman Mao had been against Confucianism since childhood.
1989: Communist government urged officials to maintain Confucian discipline.

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Confucianism in the modern world (2 of 2)
Communist temple renovation projects
Capitalist Confucianism: business conducted according to Confucian principles

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Confucianism in East Asia
Confucian principles may have aided economic rise of East Asian countries.
Korea adopted Neo-Confucianism as state religion in the 1392.
Confucianism Entered Japan in seventh century and influenced view of emperor.
Hong Kong, Taiwan, and other East Asian countries have made attempts to revive Confucian religious practices.

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Chapter 7

Shinto

Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Living Religions

Tenth Edition

1

Learning Objectives
7.1 Explain the importance of the natural world in the roots of “Shinto.”
7.2 Outline the elements of Confucianism and Buddhism that have been blended with Shinto.
7.3 Discuss the reasons why Shinto has been so closely tied to Japanese nationalism.
7.4 Define what is meant by “Sect Shinto” and give an example.
7.5 Summarize the main aspects of contemporary Shinto.

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Hitoshi Iwasaki Quote
“People come to shrines because these are sacred places from ancient times where people have come to pray. And other people want to go where people are gathered.”
Hitoshi Iwasaki

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Hitoshi Iwasaki, personal communication, April 1990.
3

Shinto
“Shinto” refers to collection of local traditions.
Not a single self-conscious religion
A way of honoring spirits
Japanese religion combining practices
Confucian ethics
Buddhist and Christian understanding of afterlife
Traditional veneration of ancestors and spirits
Religious participation is high, but affiliation to institutional religions is low

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The roots of “Shinto” (1 of 2)
Why is kinship with nature linked with Shinto?
Shinto not easily identified as a religion
No single founder
No orthodox canon of sacred literature
No ethical requirements
Shinto = shin (divine being) + do (way)

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The roots of “Shinto” (2 of 2)
Kojiki (712 CE) and Nihongi (720 CE)
Major chronicles of Shintoism
Myths, historical facts, politics, and literature
Not sacred scriptures
Aimed at conferring spiritual legitimacy on Imperial Throne
Jimmu
First emperor and founder of dynasty
Descendent of goddess Amaterasu

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Kinship with nature
Environment is embodiment of divine
Life organized around honoring natural world
Honoring sun, moon, and lightning in rice cultivation
Mount Fuji: embodiment of divine creation
Threat of industrialization and urbanization

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Relationships with kami
kami: spirits perceived in the natural world
Translations of “god” or “spirit” not exact
“Kami” both singular and plural
A single essence manifesting in many places
Refers to a quality
Kojiki and Nihongi
Amatsu (heavenly) kami organized material world
Stirred the ocean to create Japanese islands
Created Amaterasu (the one who illuminates the sky), the goddess of the sun
kannagara: the way of nature of the kami, another name for Shinto

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Shrines (1 of 2)
No shrines in early Shinto
Buddhist influences in sixth century led to shrines
Inari
The kami of rice
Fox messengers
Hachiman, the kami of war
Ise Shrine
Complex with more than 100 shrines
Constructed in 690 CE
Main shrine to Amaterasu; contains the Sacred Mirror
Imperial family responsible for administration and rituals

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Shrines (2 of 2)
kamikaze: “divine wind,” an aspect of Amaterasu
torii: tall gate-frames
Shrines for public worship
Kami invited to dwell in an object
Shinto is strongly iconoclast (opposed to images of the divine)

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Ceremonies and festivals (1 of 2)
Priesthood traditionally hereditary
Clergy may be priestesses
Rites conducted with great care
Offering to kami made daily
Life-cycle festivals
4 months before birth
32 or 33 days after birth: initiation by the deity
Coming of age: 13 years old
Arranging a woman’s hair: 16 years old
Marriage

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Ceremonies and festivals (2 of 2)
Seasonal festivals
Local kami shrines
New Year
House cleaning
December 31: national day of purification
January 1: watch sunrise, visit friends and family
End of winter (February 3): one throws beans for good fortune
Spring festival (March to April): purification for planting season
June: rites to protect crops
Fall: thanksgiving for harvest

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Purification
Ritual impurity obscures original pristine nature.
Impurity offends kami.
tsumi: the quality of impurity or misfortune
People can be purified through spontaneous movement.
oharai: purification ceremony in which Shinto priests wave branch of sacred sakaki tree
When entering a Shinto shrine, people wash their hands and faces and rinse their mouths.
Water is used for purification in ascetic practices, such as misogi.

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13

Buddhist, Daoist, and Confucian influences (1 of 2)
What elements of Confucianism and Buddhism have influenced Shinto?
Buddhism introduced into Japan in sixth century
Confucian ideals embedded in Japanese ethics
Confucianism used by government to control people in Edo period (1603–1868)
Buddhism and Shinto merged in Heian period (794–1192)

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Buddhist, Daoist, and Confucian influences (2 of 2)
In Kamakura period (1192–1333), Buddhas and bodhisattvas promoted as manifestations of kami
Meiji Period (1868–1912): Shinto nationalist revival
Today, Buddhism practiced alongside Shinto

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State Shinto
Why has Shinto been so closely tied to Japanese nationalism?
Meiji regime: Shinto was basis of government
Since the seventh century, emperor viewed as offspring of Amaterasu
Members of imperial family visited Ise Shrine
Consulted spirits on matters of importance
“State Shinto” administered by government officials, not priests
Nationalists idealized Japan’s ancient “Shinto” past
Japan projected as a large family with emperor as father
Emperor Hirohito (1901–1989): renounced divine status

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“Sect Shinto”
What is “Sect Shinto”?
In rural areas, female shamans fell into trances; kami spoke through them
Oomoto: New movement
Revelations given to Madam Nao Deguchi, an illiterate widow possessed by a kami
Attracted 9 million followers during Meiji regime
New god, “the Great Source”
Today: universalist approach, recognizing founders of other religions as kami

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Shinto today (1 of 2)
What rituals and ceremonies are practiced in contemporary Shinto?
Shinto commonly practiced in Hawai’i and Brazil
Threats to institutionalized Shinto
Reaction to World War II
Elimination of imperial mythology
Desire for modernization
Shinto symbolism of Japanese flag
Shinto shrines
80 million visitors at New Year
More visitors are tourists than believers

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Shinto today (2 of 2)
Codified in the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE)
Disasters of 2011 caused citizens to urge for more respect for nature
Sumo wrestling: many Shinto elements
Yasukuni Shrine: controversy over honoring war criminals
Shinto shrines: Brazil, Canada, France, North and South Korean, the Netherlands, Taiwan, and the United States

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