Posted: September 19th, 2022

Discussion 2: Interconnectedness of Life Discussion

 

Step one: Observation

  1.  Write a short summary, approximately a paragraph, of Table 2.1. Try to give a concise (short) but rich description of each of the four guppy pools. 
  2. Write a short summary, approximately a couple of sentences, of Tables 3 and 4. These tables discuss different characteristics related to guppy mating. 

Step Two: Draw a Conclusion

  1. What selection pressures caused the variation in the color pattern of male guppies? Support your claims with evidence. 
  2. Is it better to be bright or drab if you are a male guppy? Support your claims with evidence. 

9/8/22, 1:31 PM Discussion 3: Evolution by Natural Selection – BSC1005 GEN BIO NON-MAJOR ONLINE 703103

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Discussion 3: Evolution by Natural Selection
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Original Post – Due two days before the due date.

This discussion provides you with some data about four pools of guppies. These pools have

different turbidity (i.e. cloudiness), make-up of predators, depths, locations, numbers of

guppies, and contain bright or drab-colored male guppies. Your goal is to first observe the

data given about the pools and note any patterns you see that might relate to the color

patterns of the male guppies. Selection pressures are an aspect of the environment that

causes a change in characteristics over time. Then you will decide which of the selection

pressures on the male guppies have resulted in the variations in color patterns you see in the

data. The data you need for this assignment is posted in D2L titled “Data for Evolution by

Natural Selection Discussion.”

Step one: Observation

1. Write a short summary, approximately a paragraph, of Table 2.1. Try to give a concise

(short) but rich description of each of the four guppy pools.

2. Write a short summary, approximately a couple of sentences, of Tables 3 and 4. These

tables discuss different characteristics related to guppy mating.

Step Two: Draw a Conclusion

1. What selection pressures caused the variation in the color pattern of male guppies?

Support your claims with

evidence.

2. Is it better to be bright or drab if you are a male guppy? Support your claims with

evidence.

Respond to your peers – Due by the due date.

NOTE: Only those student who have submitted a main post two days before
due date are eligible to respond to peers.

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9/8/22, 1:31 PM Discussion 3: Evolution by Natural Selection – BSC1005 GEN BIO NON-MAJOR ONLINE 703103

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Evolution by Natural Selection Discussion

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Go through the majority of the posts and respond to two other students. Both of your

responses should be grammatically correct, well thought out, and further the

discussion. Some common ways to further a discussion are to ask a question, share

something related to the topic, or expand on a topic. Responses should be approximately a

paragraph in length.

For example, in this topic, you might note similarities and differences in your observations.

You may also find you disagree with a peer’s assessment of what causes the color variations

or the benefit of being bright or drab. Remember to always support your claims with

evidence!

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5

: Color Variation in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata)


What selection pressure causes the variation in color pattern of male guppies?

Introduction. Guppies (
Poecilia reticulata) exhibit a complex color pattern polymorphism, in which males display a variety of colors and color patterns (Endler

19

80). Guppies are native to the mountain forest streams of northeastern Venezuela, Margarita, Trinidad and Tobago (Endler 1978). Male color patterns are so different in these natural populations that no two males are alike. The color patterns consist of a mosaic of spots or patches varying in color, size, position and reflectivity (Figure 1). The patterns range from bright and conspicuous to more subtle and cryptic (inconspicuous). These patterns are controlled by genes on both the X and Y chromosome, and are only expressed in males.

Figure 1. Variation in guppy male color pattern (left and right columns). Center column shows females.

Photo: Kimberly Hughes

The Task. Use the data in the following tables to search for characteristics in the habitat and other selective pressures that might promote differences in male color pattern.


Table 2.1. Information About the Pools Where the Venezuelan Guppies Were Found

Characteristic

Ranges between
3.00 and 8.75

0

0

0

6

6

0

10

0

0

10

5

0

0

0

0

Pool

1

2

3

4

Type

Deep

(at a bend in the stream)

Deep

(above a natural rock dam)

Shallow

(at a bend in the stream)

Deep

(above a

6

ft. waterfall)

Pool location (see Figure 2.3)

50

m upstream from the river

10

0 m upstream from the river

15

0 m upstream from the river

200 m upstream from the river

Turbidity of water (NTU)

Ranges between

27.50 and 36.25

Ranges between

8.75 and 27.50

Ranges between

3.00 and 8.75

Predatory fish in the pool (total)

28

15

6 0

Cichlids

12

Rivulus

10

Acara

4

Guppies found in the pool (total)

102

165

187

231

Bright males

5 50

76

108

Drab males

41

19

Bright females

Drab females

56

96

101

118

Note: Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a !uid. Nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU) range in value from 0 (completely clear) to 50 (no light passes through the !uid).

Guppy Behavior and Female Preference Data Sheet

Overview: Guppy Mating System

· Prior to mating, males display to females using a sigmoid display. Females observe males then can select a male to mate with using a glide motion.

· There is very little male-male aggression.

Table 3. Factors Affecting Female Mate Preference

Factor Effect on Female Preference
Orange spots In general, when given a choice between males with dull, small orange spots or bright, big orange spots, females preferred to mate with males with big, bright orange spots.

Male boldness towards predators

When predators are present, male guppies may move toward them to inspect them.
Females prefer males who move towards predators to inspect them (i.e. males who are more bold), because they may be more informed about the predators in their habitat.

Novelty

When given a choice between males they have interacted with before, and novel (new) males they have never seen, females chose to mate with novel males.

Table 4. Fema
le Preference for Bright Males

Pool

Female Preference for Bright Males

1

2

2

4

3

7

4

9

(scale 1-10: 10 = very strong preference)

References: Breden & Stoner (1987); Houde & Endler (1990); Godin & Dugatkin (1996)

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