Posted: September 20th, 2022
ARTICLE-WhereArethePeopleofColorinChildren xLectureNotes.Chapter9-Tagged Chapter9-Powerpoint-Tagged
Read the article which is an opinion
“Where Are the People of Color in Children’s Books?”
. Discuss in terms of working with children of color and the importance of identification. You may also include your thoughts on the argument presented by the author; do you agree or disagree? Your response must be supported by content presented in the reading material.
275 words at least, response.
Where Are the People of Color in Children’s Books?
By Walter Dean Myers
Of 3,200 children’s books published in 2013, just 93 were about black people, according to
by the Cooperative Children’s Book Center at the University of Wisconsin.
Reading came early to me, but I didn’t think of the words as anything special. I don’t think my stepmom thought of what she was doing as more than spending time with me in our small Harlem apartment. From my comfortable perch on her lap I watched as she moved her finger slowly across the page. She probably read at about the third grade level, but that was good enough for the True Romance magazines she read. I didn’t understand what the stories were about, what “bosom” meant or how someone’s heart could be “broken.” To me it was just the comfort of leaning against Mama and imagining the characters and what they were doing.
Later, when my sisters brought home comic books, I got Mama to read them to me, too. The magazines and comics pushed me along the road of the imaginative process. When I got my first books — “The Little Engine That Could,” “Bible Stories for Every Day,” and “Goldilocks and the Three Bears” — I used them on the same journeys. In the landscape of my mind I labored as hard as I could to get up the hill. I stood on the plain next to David as he fought Goliath, and tasted the porridge with Goldilocks.
As a teenager I romped the forests with Robin Hood, and trembled to the sound of gunfire with Henry in “The Red Badge of Courage.” Later, when Mama’s problems began to overwhelm her, I wrestled with the demons of dealing with one’s mother with Stephen Dedalus in “A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.” But by then I was beginning the quest for my own identity. To an extent I found who I was in the books I read. I was a person who felt the drama of great pain and greater joys, whose emotions could soar within the five-act structure of a Shakespearean play, or find quiet comfort in the poems of Gabriela Mistral. Every book was a landscape upon which I was free to wander.
In the dark times, when my uncle was murdered, when my family became dysfunctional with alcohol and grief, or when I realized that our economics would not allow me to go to college, I began to despair. I read voraciously, spending days in Central Park reading when I should have been going to school.
But there was something missing. I needed more than the characters in the Bible to identify with, or even the characters in Arthur Miller’s plays or my beloved Balzac. As I discovered who I was, a black teenager in a white-dominated world, I saw that these characters, these lives, were not mine. I didn’t want to become the “black” representative, or some shining example of diversity. What I wanted, needed really, was to become an integral and valued part of the mosaic that I saw around me.
Books did not become my enemies. They were more like friends with whom I no longer felt comfortable. I stopped reading. I stopped going to school. On my 17th birthday, I joined the Army. In retrospect I see that I had lost the potential person I would become — an odd idea that I could not have articulated at the time, but that seems so clear today.
My post-Army days became dreadful, a drunken stumble through life, with me holding on just enough to survive. Fueled by the shortest and most meaningful conversation I had ever had in a school hallway, with the one English teacher in my high school, Stuyvesant, who knew I was going to drop out, I began to write short columns for a local tabloid, and racy stories for men’s magazines. Seeing my name in print helped. A little.
Then I read a story by James Baldwin: “Sonny’s Blues.” I didn’t love the story, but I was lifted by it, for it took place in Harlem, and it was a story concerned with black people like those I knew. By humanizing the people who were like me, Baldwin’s story also humanized me. The story gave me a permission that I didn’t know I needed, the permission to write about my own landscape, my own map.
During my only meeting with Baldwin, at City College, I blurted out to him what his story had done for me. “I know exactly what you mean,” he said. “I had to leave Harlem and the United States to search for who I was. Isn’t that a shame?”
When I left Baldwin that day I felt elated that I had met a writer I had so admired, and that we had had a shared experience. But later I realized how much more meaningful it would have been to have known Baldwin’s story at 15, or at 14. Perhaps even younger, before I had started my subconscious quest for identity.
TODAY I am a writer, but I also see myself as something of a landscape artist. I paint pictures of scenes for inner-city youth that are familiar, and I people the scenes with brothers and aunts and friends they all have met. Thousands of young people have come to me saying that they love my books for some reason or the other, but I strongly suspect that what they have found in my pages is the same thing I found in “Sonny’s Blues.” They have been struck by the recognition of themselves in the story, a validation of their existence as human beings, an acknowledgment of their value by someone who understands who they are. It is the shock of recognition at its highest level.
I’ve reached an age at which I find myself not only examining and weighing my life’s work, but thinking about how I will pass the baton so that those things I find important will continue. In 1969, when I first entered the world of writing children’s literature, the field was nearly empty. Children of color were not represented, nor were children from the lower economic classes. Today, when about 40 percent of public school students nationwide are black and Latino, the disparity of representation is even more egregious. In the middle of the night I ask myself if anyone really cares.
When I was doing research for my book “Monster,” I approached a white lawyer doing pro bono work in the courts defending poor clients. I said that it must be difficult to get witnesses to court to testify on behalf of an inner-city client, and he replied that getting witnesses was not as difficult as it sometimes appeared on television. “The trouble,” he said, “is to humanize my clients in the eyes of a jury. To make them think of this defendant as a human being and not just one of ‘them.’ ”
I realized that this was exactly what I wanted to do when I wrote about poor inner-city children — to make them human in the eyes of readers and, especially, in their own eyes. I need to make them feel as if they are part of America’s dream, that all the rhetoric is meant for them, and that they are wanted in this country.
Years ago, I worked in the personnel office for a transformer firm. We needed to hire a chemist, and two candidates stood out, in my mind, for the position. One was a young white man with a degree from St. John’s University and the other an equally qualified black man from Grambling College (now Grambling State University) in Louisiana. I proposed to the department head that we send them both to the lab and let the chief chemist make the final decision. He looked at me as if I had said something so remarkable that he was having a hard time understanding me. “You’re kidding me,” he said. “That black guy’s no chemist.”
I pointed out the degrees on the résumé that suggested otherwise, and the tension between us soared. When I confronted my superior and demanded to know what about the candidate from Grambling made him not a chemist, he grumbled something under his breath, and reluctantly sent both candidates for an interview with the chief chemist.
Simple racism, I thought. On reflection, though, I understood that I was wrong. It was racism, but not simple racism. My white co-worker had simply never encountered a black chemist before. Or a black engineer. Or a black doctor. I realized that we hired people not so much on their résumés, but rather on our preconceived notions of what the successful candidate should be like. And where was my boss going to get the notion that a chemist should be black?
Books transmit values. They explore our common humanity. What is the message when some children are not represented in those books? Where are the future white personnel managers going to get their ideas of people of color? Where are the future white loan officers and future white politicians going to get their knowledge of people of color? Where are black children going to get a sense of who they are and what they can be?
And what are the books that are being published about blacks? Joe Morton, the actor who starred in “The Brother From Another Planet,” has said that all but a few motion pictures being made about blacks are about blacks as victims. In them, we are always struggling to overcome either slavery or racism. Book publishing is little better. Black history is usually depicted as folklore about slavery, and then a fast-forward to the civil rights movement. Then I’m told that black children, and boys in particular, don’t read. Small wonder.
There is work to be done.
An author of books for children and young adults including “Monster,” and the previous Library of Congress National Ambassador for Young People’s Literature.
LECTURE NOTES: CHAPTER 9
Culturally Competent Helping
I. Cultural Diversity in the United States and Globally
II. The Changing Face of America
III. The Need for Cultural Competence
IV. Defining Culturally Competent Helping
V. Developing Cultural Competence
a. Multicultural Counseling Competencies Model
i. Attitudes and Beliefs
b. Advocacy Competencies and Social Justice
i. Acting with the Client, Community, and Public
ii. Acting on Behalf of the Client, Community, and Public
c. Tripartite Model of Personal Identity
d. The RESPECTFUL Model
VI. Becoming Culturally Sensitive: Knowledge and Words
b. Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Racism
c. Discrimination and Microaggression
e. Minority and Nondominant Group
f. Power Differentials
h. Religion and Spirituality
i. Sexism, Heterosexism, and Sexual Prejudice
j. Sexual Orientation
k. Social Class (“Class”)
l. Political Correctness, or, “Oh My god, What Do I Call Him or Her?”
VII. Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues: The Client’s Right to Culturally Competent
VIII. The Effective Human Service Professional: Open to the Continual Development of a
SUMMARY: This chapter begins by showing the wide-range of diversity that exists in the
United States and the world. The need for cultural competence in human service work is
explained presenting eight viewpoints that some human service professionals hold that prevent
them from working effectively with clients from nondominant groups. These include: the
melting pot myth, incongruent expectations about the helping relationship, lack of understanding
of social forces, ethnocentric worldview, ignorance of one’s own racist attitudes and prejudices,
inability to understand cultural differences in the expression of symptomatology, unreliability of
assessment and research instruments, and institutional racism.
Two definitions of culturally competent helping including one that suggests it is “a consistent
readiness to identify the cultural dimensions of clients’ lives and a subsequent integration of
culture into counseling work” and a second that states it is important for the human service
professional to look at three client identities (individual, group, and universal) and to develop
culture specific and universal strategies and roles as he or she works toward treatment goals is
presented to students.
Four different models for developing cultural competence, including the multicultural counseling
competencies (focusing on attitudes and beliefs, knowledge, and skills) are explained. One
model of social justice work, the Advocacy Competencies, which encompass three domains: the
client, community, and public is explained showing each of these domains are divided into two
levels which includes a focus on whether the helper is “acting on behalf” of the domain “or
acting with” the domain. This discussion concludes with the Tripartite model of personal
identity, and then the RESPECFUL model.
The culturally competent helper is familiar with a wide range of diversity issues and understands
basic definitions of words and terms, which give a common framework within which to
communicate. Thus, basic definitions of the following are offered: culture; prejudice,
stereotypes, and racism; discrimination and microaggressions; ethnicity; minority and
nondominant group; power differentials; race; religion and spirituality; sexism, heterosexism,
and sexual prejudice; sexual orientation; and social class (“class”). The author concludes this
section with a short piece about political correctness relative to when one should use which
words and terms. Students may find the words in italics under “Political Correctness, or Oh my
God, What Do I Call Him or Her?” particularly interesting.
Finally the chapter concludes highlighting various aspects of the human service professional’s
ethical code which speaks to culturally competent helping and then note that becoming a
culturally competent helper is a process that encompasses four stages: the affective/impulsive
stage, the dualistic rational stage, the liberal stage, and the principled stage.
Culturally Competent Helping
©2017 Cengage Learning22
Meeting with Diversity and Different
Cultures in Our Day-to-Day Lives
Just because we may know people of different ethnicities, races, and religions
does not mean we understand their culture.
Eating different food and listening to different music does not equal
understanding a different culture.
Avoid transferring your own values onto other people.
©2017 Cengage Learning33
More than one-third of Americans are now racial and ethnic
minorities, and this increase is expected to continue (see Figure 9.3).
Such shifting demographics also changes the religious composition of
Other diversities include different sex role identities, sexual
minorities, those who are HIV-positive, the homeless and poor, older
people, individuals with mental disorders, those with physical
challenges, and other indices of diversity.
©2017 Cengage Learning44
Clients from diverse cultures are:
Frequently misunderstood and misdiagnosed
Often spoken down to and patronized
Have the impact of negative social forces minimized by the
Find the helping relationship less helpful
Seek mental health services at lower rates
Terminate helping relationships earlier
©2017 Cengage Learning55
Helper incompetence stems from the following viewpoints:
1. The melting pot myth
2. Incongruent expectations about the helping relationship
3. De-emphasizing social forces
4. Ethnocentric worldview
5. Ignorance of one’s own racist attitudes and prejudices
6. Inability to understanding cultural differences in the expression of
7. Unreliability of assessment and research procedures
8. Institutional racism
©2017 Cengage Learning66
Is “a consistent readiness to identify the cultural dimension of clients’ lives and a
subsequent integration of cultures into counseling work” (McAuliffe, 2013b, p. 6).
Sue and Torino (2004)
Uses modalities and defines goals consistent with life experiences and
cultural values of clients
Utilizes universal and culture-specific helping strategies and roles
Recognizes client identities to include individual, group, and universal
Balances aspects of individualism and collectivism in assessment, diagnosis,
Understands three identities: individual, group, and universal
Determines if the client has an individualistic perspective or a collective
See Figure 9.4 and discuss
©2017 Cengage Learning77
Multicultural Counseling Competencies Model
1. Having appropriate attitudes and beliefs—being aware of
one’s own assumptions, values, and biases (See Reflection
2. Knowledge about clients’ culture is needed to better
• Being aware of one’s own cultural heritage and how it
affects their relationship with clients
• See Reflection Exercise 9.2
3. A repertoire of skills or tools that can be effectively applied to
clients of diverse backgrounds (See Reflection Exercise 9.3)
©2017 Cengage Learning88
Advocacy Competencies and
Social Justice Work
Purpose of Social Justice Work
To broaden culturally competent helping by including a wide
range of activities that affect the client’s broader system. This
ultimately creates a better life for the client.
Acting with the client, community, and public
Acting on behalf of the client, community, and public
©2017 Cengage Learning99
Tripartite Model of Personal Identity
(Sue and Sue, 2013)
The Individual Level
Client’s unique genetics and distinctive experiences
The Group Level
The various factors a person may have in common with other
people (e.g., race, gender, age, culture)
The Universal Level
Shared experiences that define all of us as human
Common life experiences (birth, death, love, sadness, etc.)
Ability to use symbols, such as language
See Figure 9.7
©2017 Cengage Learning1010
R: religious/spiritual identity
E: economic class background
S: sexual identity
P: level of psychology development
E: ethnic/racial identity
C: chronological/developmental challenges
T: various forms of trauma/threats to well-being
F: family background and history
U: unique physical characteristics
L: location of residence and language differences
©2017 Cengage Learning1111
Becoming Culturally Sensitive:
Knowledge and Words (slide 1 of 4)
Culture — expressed through common values, habits, norms of
behavior, symbols, artifacts, language, and customs
Prejudice — judging a person or a group based on preconceived
notions about the group
Stereotypes — rigidly held beliefs that most or all members of a
group share certain characteristics, behaviors, or beliefs
Racism — a specific belief that one race is superior to another
Discrimination — an active behavior that results in differential
treatment of individuals within specific ethnic or cultural groups
Microaggression — a subtle type of discrimination that is
conscious or unconscious and includes brief, subtle, and common
putdowns or indignities directed toward individuals from diverse
©2017 Cengage Learning1212
Becoming Culturally Sensitive:
Knowledge and Words (slide 2 of 4)
Ethnicity — a group of people who share a common ancestry, which may
include specific cultural and social patterns such as a similar language, values,
religion, foods, and artistic expressions (not based on genetic heritage)
Minority (or nondominant group) — any person or group of people who are
being singled out due to their cultural or physical characteristics and are being
systematically oppressed by those individuals who are in a position of power
Power Differentials — real or perceived power disparities between people
Race — traditionally defined as permanent physical differences as perceived
by an external authority. Used to be based on genetics; now issue is clouded
and unclear, so better to avoid this term (see Reflection Exercise 9.4)
Religion — an organized or unified set of practices and beliefs that have
moral underpinnings and define a group’s way of understanding the world
©2017 Cengage Learning1313
Becoming Culturally Sensitive:
Knowledge and Words (slide 3 of 4)
Spirituality — residing in a person, not a group. Defines the person’s
understanding of self, self in relationship to others, and self in relationship to a
self-defined higher power or lack thereof.
Sexism — discrimination or stigmatization of another due to his or her gender
Heterosexism — (formerly known as homophobia) discrimination, denigration,
or stigmatization of a person for nonheterosexual behaviors
Sexual Prejudice — a blanket term for negative attitudes targeted toward
homosexual, bisexual, heterosexual, or transgender individuals
Sexual Orientation — the predominant gender for which a person has
consistent attachments, longings, and sexual fantasies (Szymanski, 2013).
©2017 Cengage Learning1414
Becoming Culturally Sensitive:
Knowledge and Words (slide 4 of 4)
The perceived ranking of an individual within a society and the
amount of power an individual wields
Based on factors such as education, income, and wealth
Even though individuals may share a similar culture, ethnicity, or
race, they may have little in common with one another due to
differences in social class.
Political Correctness —the identification of a universally nonoffensive
group label is difficult.
Instructor read out loud: Italicized paragraph on top of p. 225
Students: What do you think?
©2017 Cengage Learning1515
Ethical, Professional, and Legal
Issues/Effective Human Service Professional
We are often unaware of our own prejudices and bias, and thus it is
important to actively work on our knowledge and skills.
Read out loud each statement from NOHS ethical code, found in
The effective human service professional realizes that becoming
culturally competent is a process with many stages.
©2017 Cengage Learning1616
The range of diversity that exists in the U.S. and the world
The need for cultural competence
What is culturally competent helping?
The importance of social justice work
Basic definitions of common words and terms
The stages of becoming a culturally competent human service
The Changing Face of America
The Need for Cultural Competence
Sources of Helper Incompetence
Defining Culturally Competent Helping
Developing Cultural Competence
RESPECTFUL Model (D’Andrea and Daniels, 2005)
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