Posted: August 6th, 2022

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Increase in ADHD Diagnoses

Grand Canyon University

ENG-105

August 3, 2022

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become more prevalent over the years. We see this occurrence mainly in young children. ADHD is a chronic disorder that affects paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Researchers and doctors are trying to figure out potential causes. Some causes could come from mothers with mental issues, genetics, environmental problems, premature birth and low birth weight or drug abuse.

A study was conducted on mothers who children were diagnosed with ADHD. The mother was more likely to be diagnosed with a depressive disorder. The study concluded that physiocratic disorders in mothers of children with ADHD is associated with maternal psychopathology both before and after birth (Holman et al. 2019). More research is needed to confirm this is one of the causes in children’s ADHD. Genetics and environmental factors are two possible causes in children’s ADHD.

ADHD could be genetically passed down from the parents to the children depending on what type of life they lived. Converging results from, family, twin, and adoption studies implicate genetic influences may contributors to the development of ADHD with heritability estimates accounting for about 75% of variance (Homan et al. 2019). Researchers are also looking into environmental factors. Some factors are, nicotine exposure while pregnant, alcohol exposure and pregnancy complications (Homan et al. 2019). Even though these things are not yet confirmed researchers believe these are some of the potential causes of this disorder. Premature birth and low birth weight are other possible causes.

In a Meta-analysis it was determined that there was a link between low birth weight and premature pregnancies with ADHD. The early the prematurity and lower the weight the greater the risk (Brown University 2018). Children with a low birth weight showed that they are more likely to have disorders like ADHD and Autism spectrum Disorder (ASD). They recommend that future research look at which factors related to to prematurity or low birth rate lead to ADHD (Brown University 2018). Drug abuse could be another possible cause of ADHD.

A study was performed on adolescents that have substance abuse disorders (SUD) to see if this a cause of ADHD. There are some epidemiological studies evaluating the clinical association between externalizing disorders and ADHD on SUD in childhood and adolescents (Yoshimasa et al 2016). Children with ADHD are more likely to use drugs to make them feel better about themselves. They feel substance abuse is their only escape from their diagnosis. Further studies of moderating role and meditating mechanisms that explain risks to early substance abuse (Yoshimasa et al 2016). Researchers are trying to discover the causes of ADHD by looking into the different effects on the mothers. In one study the researchers looked in to exposure to fluoride during their pregnancy. In an ecological study, higher prevalence of water fluoridation was associated with increased prevalence of ADHD diagnosis among youth in the united states (Riddell et al. 2019). The increase in ADHD has grown across the united states.

ADHD is becoming more common in the world, doctors and researchers are trying to figure out how the children are getting it. ADHD is today’s most common childhood behavioral disorder in the United States (Owens J. 2021). It is so many different possible causes that they do studies. A few studies using the mothers and finding out their mental state, environmental factors, what they exposed the child too during pregnancies, low birth weight and premature birth. These are the main things that are topics in different articles provided to me through the GCU library. The rates of ADHD have risen over the past 25 years. They are looking for valuable evidence of the causes so they can no longer say that they do not know the causes of ADHD. Parents, educators, researchers, and doctors want to know how it is caused and is it preventive.

Homan, K. J., Barbaresi, W. J., Mellon, M. W., Weaver, A. L., Killian, J. M., Lucchetti, A. R., & Katusic,

S. K. (2019). Psychiatric Disorders in Mothers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Population-Based Perspective. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 28(4), 1042–1051.

https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s10826-019-01334-7

Owens, J. (2021). Parental intervention in school, academic pressure, and childhood diagnoses of ADHD.

Social Science & Medicine, 272.

https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.113746

Prematurity and low birth weight associated with increased risk of ADHD diagnosis and symptoms:

Meta‐analysis. (2018). Brown University Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology Update, 20(2), 1–5.

https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1002/cpu.30273

Riddell, J. K., Malin, A. J., Flora, D., McCague, H., & Till, C. (2019). Association of water fluoride and

urinary fluoride concentrations with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Canadian youth. Environment International, 133(Part B).

https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.105190

Yoshimasu, K., Barbaresi, W. J., Colligan, R. C., Voigt, R. G., Weaver, A. L., & Katusic, S. K. (2016).

Mediating and Moderating Role of Depression, Conduct Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Developing Adolescent Substance Use Disorders: A Population-Based Study. PLoS ONE, 11(6), 1–12.

https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157488

ENG-105 Peer Review Worksheet: Commentary

Part of your responsibility as a student in this course is to provide quality feedback to your peers that will help them to improve their writing skills. This worksheet will assist you in providing that feedback. To highlight the text and type over the information in the boxes on this worksheet, double-click on the first word.

Name of the draft’s author:
Type Author Name Here

Name of the peer reviewer:
Type Reviewer Name Here

Reviewer

After reading through the draft one time, write a summary (3-5 sentences) of the paper that includes your assessment of how well the essay meets the assignment requirements as specified in the syllabus and the rubric.

Type 3-5 Sentence Summary Here

 

After a second, closer reading of the draft, answer each of the following questions. Positive answers will give you specific elements of the draft to praise; negative answers will indicate areas in need of improvement and revision. Please be sure to indicate at least three positive aspects of the draft and at least three areas for improvement in reply to the questions at the bottom of this worksheet.

Commentary Content and Ideas

· How effectively does the thesis statement identify the main points that the writer would like to make in this commentary?

Type Answer Here

· How descriptive is the writer’s choice of a label to name the issue in question?

Type Answer Here

· How effectively does the writer frame an issue at the beginning of the essay?

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· How effective is the writer’s analysis of the issue in terms of causes and consequences?

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· How persuasively is evidence used to support assertions and enrich the essay?

Type Answer Here

How effectively does the essay’s content support the thesis by using strategies appropriate for commentaries, as outlined in chapter 10 of Writing with Purpose?

Type Answer Here

Organization

· How effectively does the introduction engage the reader while providing an overview of the paper?

Type Answer Here

· Please identify the writer’s thesis and quote it in the box below.

Type Writer’s Thesis Here

· How effectively do the paragraphs develop the topic sentence and advance the essay’s ideas?

Type Answer Here

· How effectively does the conclusion provide a strong, satisfying ending, not a mere summary of the essay?

Type Answer Here

Format

· How closely does the paper follow APA formatting style? Is it double-spaced in 12 pt. Times New Roman font? Does it have 1″ margins? Does it use headers (page numbers using appropriate header function)? Does it have a proper heading (with student’s name, date, course, and instructor’s name)?

|_|Yes |_|No Add optional clarification here

· Are all information, quotations, and borrowed ideas cited in parenthetical APA format?

|_|Yes |_|No Add optional clarification here

· Are all sources listed on the references page in APA format?

|_|Yes |_|No Add optional clarification here

· Is the required minimum number of sources listed?

|_|Yes |_|No Add optional clarification here

Language Use and Style

· Are the voice and tone of the essay effective in characterizing ideas and creating the appropriate mood? If “No,” please provide examples of ineffective or inappropriate voice and tone.

|_|Yes |_|No Add optional clarification here

· How effectively does the paper incorporate a variety of sentence structures that strengthen the ideas, create vitality, and avoid choppiness in the writing?

|_|Yes |_|No Add optional clarification here

· How would you assess the writer’s diction (i.e., word choice)? Does the writer use active verbs, concrete nouns, and precise words?

|_|Yes |_|No Add optional clarification here

Grammar and Mechanics

· Does the writer use proper grammar, punctuation, and spelling? If “No,” please provide examples of errors in need of correction.

|_|Yes |_|No Add optional clarification here

· Is the writing clear and comprehensible throughout the draft? If “No,” please provide examples in need of improvement.

|_|Yes |_|No Add optional clarification here

Three things that I liked about your draft are:

1. Type First Thing You Liked

2. Type Second Thing You Liked

3. Type Third Thing You Liked

Three things that could be improved are:

1. Type 1st Area for Improvement

2. Type 2nd Area for Improvement

3. Type 3rd Area for Improvement

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