Posted: August 4th, 2022

ETHICAL THEORY

549532595
400 wordsEthical Theory 1.      
Which of the ethical theories discussed in this unit are you most sympathetic to? Why? Which of the ethical theories are you least sympathetic to? Why?

   2.      
Which of the ethical theories discussed in this unit are you most sympathetic to? Why? Which of the ethical theories are you least sympathetic to? Why?   3.      
Which of the ethical theories discussed in this unit are you most sympathetic to? Why? Which of the ethical theories are you least sympathetic to? Why?     Other information:
 The textbook for this course is below. I need someone who knows and tutor or teaches Business Ethics to respond to this. If you have experience in answering these type of questions let’s do business.  About 300 to 450 words per question.
   Textbook:
 Beauchamp, T. L., Bowie, N. E., & Arnold, D. G. (2009). Ethical theory and business (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Ethical Theory
and Business

EIGHTH EDITION

Edited by

Tom L. Beauchamp
Georgetown University

Norman E. Bowie
University of Minnesota

Denis G. Arnold
University of Tennessee

PEARSON

Prentice
Hall

Pearson Education International

Contents

PREFACE xiv

Chapter 1
ETHICAL THEORY AND BUSINESS PRACTICE 1

INTRODUCTION 1

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND PROBLEMS 1
Morality and Ethical Theory 1
Morality and Prudence 3
Morality and Law 4
The Rule of Conscience 6
Approaches to the Study of Morality and Ethical Theory 7
Relativism and Objectivity of Belief 8
Moral Disagreements 11
The Problem of Egoism 13

NORMATIVE ETHICAL THEORY 18
Utilitarian Theories 18
Kantian Ethics 23
Contemporary Challenges to the Dominant Theories 30
Rights Theories 30
Virtue Ethics 33
Common-Morality Theories 35

vi Contents

A Prologue to Theories of Justice 38
The Moral Point of View 39

Chapter 2
THE PURPOSE OF THE CORPORATION 45

INTRODUCTION 45

STOCKHOLDER MANAGEMENT VERSUS STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT

Milton Friedman, The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits 51
R. Edward Freeman, Managing for Stakeholders 56
John R. Boatright, What’s Wrong—and What’s Right—with Stakeholder Management 69

– Wayne F. Cascio, Decency Means More than “Always Low Prices”: A Comparison of Costco
to Wal-Mart’s Sam’s Club” 80

LEGAL PERSPECTIVES

Michigan Supreme Court, Dodge v. Ford Motor Co. 90
Supreme Court of New Jersey, A. P. Smith Manufacturing Co. v. Barlow 92
Johnson & Johnson: Our Credo 94

CASES

Case 1: The NYSEG Corporate Responsibility Program 95
Case 2: Outsourcing at Any Cost? Do Corporations Ever Have a Moral Obligation Not

to Outsource? 98
Case 3: Merck and River Blindness 101
Case 4: H. B. Fuller in Honduras: Street Children and Substance Abuse 102
Case 5: From Tension to Cooperative Dialogue: Holcim 104

Suggested Supplementary Readings 106

Chapter 3

ETHICAL TREATMENT OF EMPLOYEES 107

INTRODUCTION 107

THE HIRING AND FIRING OF EMPLOYEES

Patricia H. Werhane and TaraJ. Radin, Employment at Will and Due Process 113
Richard A. Epstein, In Defense of the Contract at Will 121

Contents vii

OCCUPATIONAL RISK

Ruth R. Faden and Tom L. Beauchamp, The Right to Risk Information and the Right
to Refuse Workplace Hazards 129

John R. Boatright, Occupational Health and Safety 136

WHISTLE-BLOWING

Michael Davis, Some Paradoxes of Whistle-Blowing 147
Ronald Duska, Whistle-Blowing and Employee Loyalty 155

LEGAL PERSPECTIVES

Superior Court of New Jersey, Warthenv. Toms River Community Memorial
Hospital 159

United States Supreme Court, Automobile Workers v. Johnson Controls Inc. 164
Superior Court of New Jersey, Potter v. Village Bank of New Jersey 167

CASES

Case 1: Off-Duty Smoking 171
Case 2: Fired for Drinking the Wrong Brand of Beer 172
Case 3: Exposing Workers to Plutonium 172
Case 4: BP Workers Ill-Trained for Dangers 173
Case 5: Roger Boisjoly and the Challenger Disaster: Disloyal Employee or Courageous

Whistle-Blower? 175
Case 6: The Reluctant Security Guard 177
Case 7: A Matter of Principle 180

Suggested Supplementary Readings 181

Chapter 4
DIVERSITY, DISCRIMINATION AND HARASSMENT
IN THE WORKPLACE 184

INTRODUCTION 184

DIVERSITY AND AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

Tom L. Beauchamp, Affirmative Action Goals in Hiring and Promotion 194
N. Scott Arnold, Affirmative Action and the Demands of Justice 202
James P. Sterba, A Defense of Diversity Affirmative Action 212
George Sher, Diversity 219

SEXUAL HARASSMENT

Larry May, Sexual Harassment and Solidarity 227
Jaimie Leeser and William O’Donohue, Normative Issues in Defining Sexual Harassment 236

viii Contents

LEGAL PERSPECTIVES

United States Supreme Court, Local 28 of the Sheet Metal Workers’ International Association
v. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 244

United States Supreme Court, Barbara Grutter, Petitioner, u Lee Bollinger et al. 249
Justice Sandra Day O’Connor, Opinion of the Court 249
Justice Clarence Thomas, Dissenting Opinion 253
Brief for Amid Curiae: 65 Leading American Businesses in Support of Respondents 255

United States Supreme Court, Meritor Savings Bank, FSB, v. Vinson et al. 258
United States Supreme Court, Teresa Harris, Petitioner, v. Forklift Systems Inc. 262

CASES

Case 1: How Would You Vote if You Lived in Michigan? 264
Case 2: Sing’s Chinese Restaurant 266
Case 3: Kaiser Aluminum and the United Steelworkers 266
Case 4: Promotions at Uptown Bottling and Canning Company 267
Case 5: Freedom of Expression in the Workplace 268
Case 6: “Harassment” at Brademore Electric 269

Suggested Supplementary Readings 270

Chapter 5

MARKETING AND THE DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION 273

INTRODUCTION 273

ADVERTISING AND DISCLOSURE
Robert L. Arrington, Advertising and Behavior Control 284
David M. Holley, Information Disclosure in Sales 290

MARKETING

George G. Brenkert, Marketing and the Vulnerable 297
Carl Elliott, The Drug Pushers 307

LEGAL PERSPECTIVES

United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, Irving A. Backman u Polaroid
Corporation 317

United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, B. Sanfield Inc. v. FinlayFine
Jewelry Corp. 320

United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, Coca-Cola Company v. Tropicana
Products Inc. 323

Supreme Court of California, Kasky v. Nike Inc. 325
The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, Code on Interactions

with Health-Care Professionals 328

Contents
CASES

Case 1: More HorsePOWER? 331
Case 2: Advice for Sale: How Companies Pay TV Experts for On-Air Product Mentions 331
Case 3: Sales at World Camera and Electronics 336
Case 4: Hucksters in the Classroom 336
Case 5: Kraft Foods Inc.: The Cost of Advertising on Children’s Waistlines 339
Case 6: Marketing Malt Liquor 344
Case 7: Merck & Company: The Vioxx Recall 345

Suggested Supplementary Readings 350

Chapter 6
ETHICAL ISSUES IN FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING 352

INTRODUCTION 352

AUDITING AFTER ENRON

Ronald F. Duska and Brenda Shay Duska, Ethics in Auditing: The Auditing
Function 355

Colin Boyd, The Structural Origins of Conflicts of Interest in the Accounting
Profession 364

John R. Boatright, Individual Responsibility in the American Corporate System: Does
Sarbanes-Oxley Strike the Right Balance? 373

“FINANCIAL SERVICES

John R. Boatright, Ethical Issues in Financial Services 387
Robert W. McGee, Applying Ethics to Insider Trading 395

LEGAL PERSPECTIVES

United States Supreme Court, United States, Petitioner, v. James Herman
O’Hagan, 402

American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, Code of Professional
Conduct 405

CASES

Case 1: An Auditor’s Dilemma 408
Case 2: Accounting for Enron 409
Case 3: Enron and Employee Investment Risk 414
Case 4: The Conventions of Lying on Wall Street 415
Case 5: Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia Inc.: An Accusation of Insider Trading 416

Suggested Supplementary Readings 421

x Contents

Chapter 7

ETHICAL ISSUES REGARDING EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES 423

INTRODUCTION 423

INFORMATION AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB
Deborah G. Johnson, Privacy 428
Jeffery D. Smith, Internet Content Providers and Complicity in Human

Rights Abuse 442
Richard T. De George, Intellectual Property and the Information Age 455

PHARMACEUTICAL PATENTS

Richard T. De George, Intellectual Property and Pharmaceutical Drugs: An Ethical
Analysis 465

Patricia H. Werhane and Michael E. Gorman, Intellectual Property Rights, Moral
•Imagination, and Access to Life-Enhancing Drugs 477

LEGAL PERSPECTIVES

United States Supreme Court, Sony Corp. v. Universal City Studios Inc. 486
United States District Court for the Northern District of California, A&M Records

v. Napster 491
World Trade Organization, Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property

Rights 498
World Trade Organization, Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health 501

CASES

Case 1: Privacy Pressures: The Use of Web Bugs at HomeConnection 502
Case 2: Spiders at the Auction 504
Case 3: Ditto.com 505
Case 4: Patents and the African AIDS Epidemic 507
Case 5: Aventis: Partnerships for Health 509

Suggested Supplementary Readings 510

Chapter Eight
ETHICAL ISSUES REGARDING THE NATURAL ENVTROMENT 512

INTRODUCTION 512

BUSINESS AND ENVIRONMENTAL OBLIGATIONS

Norman E. Bowie, Morality, Money and Motor Cars 516
Denis G. Arnold and Keith Bustos, Business, Ethics, and Global Climate Change 523

Contents 3

Joseph Desjardins, -Sustainability: Business’s New Environmental Obligation 533
Dennis R. Cooley, Genetically Modified Organisms and Business Duties 541

LEGAL PERSPECTIVES

United States Supreme Court, United States, Petitioner, v. Best Foods et al. 547
United States Supreme Court, Christine Todd Whitman, Administrator of Environmental

Protection Agency et al., Petitioners, v. American Trucking Associations, Inc., et al. 550

CASES

Case 1: Royal Caribbean: Exotic Promises and Toxic Waters 553
Case 2: Texaco in the Ecuadorean Amazon 555
Case 3: BP: Beyond Petroleum Spills? 558
Case 4: Maintaining a Seat at the Table: The Shell Group 562
Case 5: Interface Corporation and Sustainable Business 565
Case 6: Monsanto’s Roundup Ready Wheat 566

Suggested Supplementary Readings 569

Chapter 9
ETHICAL ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS 571

INTRODUCTION 571

UNIVERSALISM, RELATIVISM, AND HUMAN RIGHTS

Norman E. Bowie, Relativism and the Moral Obligations of Multinational
Corporations 577

Denis G. Arnold, The Human Rights Obligations of Multinational Corporations 583
Patricia H. Werhane, Exporting Mental Models: Global Capitalism in the Twenty-First

Century 590

SWEATSHOPS AND BRIBERY

Ian Maitland, The Great Non-Debate over International Sweatshops 597
Denis G. Arnold and Norman E. Bowie, Sweatshops and Respect for Persons 608
David Hess and Thomas Dunfee, Taking Responsibility for Bribery: The Multinational

Corporation’s Role in Combating Corruption 624

LEGAL PERSPECTIVES

Supreme Court of Texas, Dow Chemical Company and Shell Oil Company v. Domingo Castro
Alfaro et al. 633

United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Doe 1 v. Unocal 638
United Nations, Draft Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations

and Other Business Enterprises with Regard to Human Rights (2003) 644
United Nations, Global Compact 647

xii Contents

CASES

Case 1: Foreign Assignment 648
Case 2: Facilitation or Bribery: Cultural and Ethical Disparities 650
Case 3: Chrysler and Gao Feng: Corporate Responsibility for Religious and Political

Freedom in China 651
Case 4: Should Wal-Mart Do More?: A Case Study in Global Supply Chain Ethics 653
Case 5: adidas: Application of Standards of Engagement to Child Labor Dilemma 657
Case 6: Tackling HIV/AIDS: Unilever Tea Kenya 661

Suggested Supplementary Readings 663

Chapter 10

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC JUSTICE 665

INTRODUCTION 665

THEORIES OF SOCIAL JUSTICE
John Rawls, An Egalitarian Theory of Justice 674
Robert Nozick, The Entitlement Theory 682
Peter Singer, Rich and Poor 686

COMPENSATION

Jeffrey Moriarty, Do CEOs Get Paid Too Much? 692

GLOBAL JUSTICE

Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works 702
Thomas Pogge, Priorities of Global Justice 712

LEGAL PERSPECTIVE

United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights 722

CASES

Case 1: Sapora’s Patriarchical Society 725
Case 2: Cocaine at the Fortune 500 Level 726
Case 3: CEO Compensation at Qwest 728
Case 4: Wages of Failure: The Ethics of Executive Compensation 729
Case 5: Covering the Costs of Health Care 731

Suggested Supplementary Readings 732

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