Posted: June 21st, 2022

EVALUATION

Project evaluation.
IT
ATTACHED FILE(S)
6/18/22, 12:22 AM WGU Performance Assessment
https://tasks.wgu.edu/student/000962164/course/21860008/task/2886/overview 1/2
INTRODUCTION
In this task, you will evaluate the completed project you planned in Task 2. Your work for this task will not be evaluated
until Task 2 has been submitted and passed.
REQUIREMENTS
Your submission must be your original work. No more than a combined total of 30% of the submission and no
more than a 10% match to any one individual source can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from
sources, even if cited correctly. The similarity report that is provided when you submit your task can be used as
a guide.
You must use the rubric to direct the creation of your submission because it provides detailed criteria that will be
used to evaluate your work. Each requirement below may be evaluated by more than one rubric aspect. The
rubric aspect titles may contain hyperlinks to relevant portions of the course.

Tasks may not be submitted as cloud links, such as links to Google Docs, Google Slides, OneDrive, etc., unless
specified in the task requirements. All other submissions must be file types that are uploaded and submitted as
attachments (e.g., .docx, .pdf, .ppt).

A. Write an abstract (suggested length of 200–250 words) of the completed project. Include each of the
following:
•a summary of the identified business problem
•a summary of the approved IT solution
•the key points of the project implementation, from design to completion
•the metrics that were used to manage quality and measure the proposed and actual outcomes of the
project

B. Write a detailed quality assurance summary that includes each of the following:
•how you approached formative evaluation (quality assurance), including quality assurance criteria (the
metrics that will measure the project’s success and actual results)
•how you tested your solution
•test cases and scenarios used
•an explanation of the acceptance criteria and the evaluation framework based on industry standards,
regulations, or other acceptable criteria

C. Write a detailed review of your completed project with all dates in the past. Include each of the following:
•whether all your assumptions were resolved as expected
•all the phases of the project
•any deviations in the project time frame
•project dependencies
•resource requirements
•important project milestones reached based on the implementation strategy
•what is being delivered to the company, such as hardware and software
•which deliverables you plan to submit to document and explain your implementation plan

D. Write a detailed explanation of any revisions made during implementation based on the formative evaluation
results.

E. Write a detailed explanation of your completed summative evaluation.

F. Write a detailed explanation of which groups received specific reports and evaluation results (e.g., general
information for stakeholders, high-level report for project sponsor), including how those reports and results were
disseminated.

G. Write a detailed post-implementation description of support for the implemented solution. Include each of the
following:
•the resources needed for post-implementation support and how those resources will be obtained
•a detailed plan for short- and long-term maintenance

H. Write a detailed post-implementation project summary for the implemented solution. Include each of the
following:
•the deliverables included to document the plan and process (e.g., samples or artifacts that provide
evidence of the implementation)
•the criteria used to evaluate each outcome
6/18/22, 12:22 AM WGU Performance Assessment
https://tasks.wgu.edu/student/000962164/course/21860008/task/2886/overview 2/2
•a justification of differences between proposed and actual outcomes
•what you learned from the process of completing this project

I. Acknowledge sources, using in-text citations and references, for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or
summarized.
J. Demonstrate professional communication in the content and presentation of your submission.

Running head:

1

12
Post-Implementation Report Title
Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees
Institutional Affiliation(s)
Abstract
The Abstract will need to be one large, block paragraph (no indents).Include a sentence or two for each of the bullet point items in the part A task instructions (part A is the Abstract).Note that in APA the abstract is around 250 words in one block paragraph, but you can go as high as 300-350 words if needed.You will then repeat all of this as an introduction in the opening section of the paper, but in more detail.
Keywords: Add a few keywords for search terms here.
Table of Contents
Abstract 2
Quality Assurance 4
Formative Evaluation and QA Metrics 4
Testing Methodology 4
Test Cases 4
Acceptance Criteria 5
Project Review 5
Assumptions 5
Project Phases 5
Timeline Deviations 5
Project Dependencies 5
Resource Requirements 6
Implementation Project Milestones 6
Project Deliverables 6
Documentation Deliverables 6
Formative Evaluation Results and Revisions 6
Summative Evaluation Plan and Results 7
Stakeholder Communication Plan and Reports 7
Ongoing Support and Maintenance 7
Resources for Post-Implementation Support 8
Short and Long Term Maintenance Plan 8
Post-Implementation Project Summary 8
Documentation Deliverables 8
Success Criteria for Each Project Outcome 8
Justification of Proposed versus Actual Project Outcomes 8
Lessons Learned 9
References 10
Tables 11
Post Implementation Report Title
As a brief introduction, you can use the four points from the abstract and elaborate a bit more.Keep in mind that this is a professional report for your bosses (upper leadership), so stay in the role of the IT Manager for your fictional company.As you go along, your APA formatted citations will look like this (Last Name, year) or (Website Name, year or n.d. for ‘no date.’).And remember, every source in your References list at the end must have a corresponding in-text citation, and vice-versa.You can’t have one without the other.
Quality Assurance
See “Manage Quality” Tools and Techniques in PMBOK chapter 8.Here you must thoroughly explain the methodology you used for evaluating project activities and results (your evaluation framework).Be sure and include measurement criteria!Also, to meet program outcome #6, make sure and discuss how data from this project will help the company “track information and support evidence-based decision making.”
Formative Evaluation and QA Metrics
Formative evaluation is what was used while the project was being implemented to help it stay on track.What QA metrics were used to formatively assess and make course corrections, to ensure the project was successful as it progressed?Again, see PMBOK chapter 8 if you need ideas!
Testing Methodology
See PMBOK chapter 8 for ideas, if necessary.
Test Cases
See PMBOK chapter 8 for ideas, if necessary.
Acceptance Criteria
This is the final evaluation (summative evaluation) before the final hand off of the finished deliverable for any project.What acceptance criteria did you use, and how were these based on industry standards and/or regulations, or other acceptance criteria?Again, see PMBOK chapter 8 for ideas, if necessary.
Project Review
In this opening section, critically review (take a critical look at) the project (and yes, you will be repeating a lot of what was in the opening section, but with a critical eye and noting issues as you go).Then you will extend your review/critique with the sub-sections below.
Assumptions
What assumptions did you make going into this project, and were they all resolved as expected?If not, how did you resolve them to the satisfaction of all stakeholders?
Project Phases
Discuss all project phases with a critical eye, explaining what went well and what went wrong.You will include the Gantt chart or timeline here (with all dates in the past), but you must also discuss all phases and milestones in detail.They also won’t pass this without clear start and end dates in the past for all phases and milestones.
Timeline Deviations
Here you must provide a discussion of any deviations in the project timeline.
Project Dependencies
Here you must provide a discussion of any project dependencies.In other words, what activities were linked to other activities (what milestone had to be completed before the next phase, and so on)?The project itself could also be dependent on funding, or on the completion of a prior project.Discuss any and all dependencies here.
Resource Requirements
Here you must provide and discuss your resource allocation plan from the completed project.This should include a list of resources (including financial resources, personnel, scheduling resources, etc.) that were required and detailed explanations of how they were used to complete the project.
Implementation Project Milestones
Here you will recap the important milestones that marked the completion of each project phase, based on your implementation strategy and methodology.Be sure and include start and end dates in the past for each project milestone you discuss.
Project Deliverables
Discuss what is being delivered to the company as the culmination of this project, in great detail (including hardware, software, documentation, etc.).These are the desired project outcomes that are delivered as proposed.
Documentation Deliverables
These are evidence of your project deliverables.You can use screen shots, network diagrams, redacted documentation, etc., depending on the type of project.But these must be graphic evidence (artifacts) that show what was delivered.And as always, you must also discuss and explain each artifact in detail.
Formative Evaluation Results and Revisions
As mentioned earlier, formative evaluations are the ongoing QA measures used to keep the project on track.So what was used while the project was being implemented to help it stay on track?You can refer to the tools and techniques under the Manage Quality process in PMBOK chapter 8. Remember that this is a work of fiction, so you can say you used things in this fictional implementation if they are appropriate. Also be sure and explain what project revisions or changes were made based on this formative assessment during project implementation.
Summative Evaluation Plan and Results
Here you will discuss the final QA measures that were used to evaluate the completed project and deliverables (see tools and techniques under the Control Quality process in PMBOK chapter 8).Also discuss the summative QA results in detail.
Stakeholder Communication Plan and Reports
This fulfills program outcome #1.You will show your detailed Stakeholder Communication Plan and discuss it in detail.In other words, how did you use the plan to make sure all stakeholders were involved and up-to-date?Also discuss the reporting to all stakeholders that took place, and discuss how well it worked during implementation (or if there were issues, discuss those).For example, was there general reporting to all stakeholders?Was there high level reporting to the Project Sponsor?And so on.Also include how all reporting was delivered.Which stakeholders were contacted via email? Which received regular formal reports? Were there any weekly conference calls for any stakeholder group?You get the picture!
Ongoing Support and Maintenance
Here you will give an overview of your plan for ongoing support and maintenance of the project deliverables.This should include any planned upgrades that are part of keeping the implementation optimal.As you create the support and maintenance plan, make sure all proposed dates are in the future.
Resources for Post-Implementation Support
Here you must discuss what post-implementation resources will be needed for the maintenance plan you have proposed.Will funds and time need to be set aside for regular maintenance? Will a support team need to be available?Based on your proposed maintenance plan, be sure and list all needed resources here and explain where the resources (funds, employee resources, etc.) will come from.
Short and Long Term Maintenance Plan
Here the task instructions require a detailed plan for short and long term maintenance.Make sure all dates are in the future for this plan.
Post-Implementation Project Summary
Here you will write a post-implementation project summary.And again, this will be repeating much of what you have already done, but in summary.This is the problem that was identified, this is the solution that was proposed, this is how it was implemented, these are the outcomes, and so on.
Documentation Deliverables
Make sure to again discuss the project outcomes and deliverables and provide documentation, including a couple of artifacts or samples that provide evidence of the implementation.
Success Criteria for Each Project Outcome
Summarize the success criteria and evaluation framework for each project outcome, and how your project successfully evaluated and addressed these.
Justification of Proposed versus Actual Project Outcomes
Here you need to explain and justify any differences between the proposed project outcomes and the actual outcomes.This would include course corrections that were made as part of your formative evaluation processes.
Lessons Learned
Document and explain what was learned from the challenges and successes of this implementation project, and explain how the lessons learned may help with future projects for the company.
References
Webpage Author or Organization (year or n.d.). Page or article title. Retrieved from http:// [Note that all lines after the first will have the distinctive APA ‘hanging indent’]
Author Last Name, First and Middle Initials (Year). Article title.Journal title, pages.City Name: Publisher Name, if book. [Note that all reference will be alphabetized]
Also, see provided APA reference and citations example document.
Tables
Table 1
Table Title
Column Head Column Head Column Head Column Head Column Head
Row Head 123 123 123 123
Row Head 456 456 456 456
Row Head 789 789 789 789
Row Head 123 123 123 123
Row Head 456 456 456 456
Row Head 789 789 789 789
Note:

Running head:

1

12
Post-Implementation Report Title
Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees
Institutional Affiliation(s)
Abstract
The Abstract will need to be one large, block paragraph (no indents).Include a sentence or two for each of the bullet point items in the part A task instructions (part A is the Abstract).Note that in APA the abstract is around 250 words in one block paragraph, but you can go as high as 300-350 words if needed.You will then repeat all of this as an introduction in the opening section of the paper, but in more detail.
Keywords: Add a few keywords for search terms here.
Table of Contents
Abstract 2
Quality Assurance 4
Formative Evaluation and QA Metrics 4
Testing Methodology 4
Test Cases 4
Acceptance Criteria 5
Project Review 5
Assumptions 5
Project Phases 5
Timeline Deviations 5
Project Dependencies 5
Resource Requirements 6
Implementation Project Milestones 6
Project Deliverables 6
Documentation Deliverables 6
Formative Evaluation Results and Revisions 6
Summative Evaluation Plan and Results 7
Stakeholder Communication Plan and Reports 7
Ongoing Support and Maintenance 7
Resources for Post-Implementation Support 8
Short and Long Term Maintenance Plan 8
Post-Implementation Project Summary 8
Documentation Deliverables 8
Success Criteria for Each Project Outcome 8
Justification of Proposed versus Actual Project Outcomes 8
Lessons Learned 9
References 10
Tables 11
Post Implementation Report Title
As a brief introduction, you can use the four points from the abstract and elaborate a bit more.Keep in mind that this is a professional report for your bosses (upper leadership), so stay in the role of the IT Manager for your fictional company.As you go along, your APA formatted citations will look like this (Last Name, year) or (Website Name, year or n.d. for ‘no date.’).And remember, every source in your References list at the end must have a corresponding in-text citation, and vice-versa.You can’t have one without the other.
Quality Assurance
See “Manage Quality” Tools and Techniques in PMBOK chapter 8.Here you must thoroughly explain the methodology you used for evaluating project activities and results (your evaluation framework).Be sure and include measurement criteria!Also, to meet program outcome #6, make sure and discuss how data from this project will help the company “track information and support evidence-based decision making.”
Formative Evaluation and QA Metrics
Formative evaluation is what was used while the project was being implemented to help it stay on track.What QA metrics were used to formatively assess and make course corrections, to ensure the project was successful as it progressed?Again, see PMBOK chapter 8 if you need ideas!
Testing Methodology
See PMBOK chapter 8 for ideas, if necessary.
Test Cases
See PMBOK chapter 8 for ideas, if necessary.
Acceptance Criteria
This is the final evaluation (summative evaluation) before the final hand off of the finished deliverable for any project.What acceptance criteria did you use, and how were these based on industry standards and/or regulations, or other acceptance criteria?Again, see PMBOK chapter 8 for ideas, if necessary.
Project Review
In this opening section, critically review (take a critical look at) the project (and yes, you will be repeating a lot of what was in the opening section, but with a critical eye and noting issues as you go).Then you will extend your review/critique with the sub-sections below.
Assumptions
What assumptions did you make going into this project, and were they all resolved as expected?If not, how did you resolve them to the satisfaction of all stakeholders?
Project Phases
Discuss all project phases with a critical eye, explaining what went well and what went wrong.You will include the Gantt chart or timeline here (with all dates in the past), but you must also discuss all phases and milestones in detail.They also won’t pass this without clear start and end dates in the past for all phases and milestones.
Timeline Deviations
Here you must provide a discussion of any deviations in the project timeline.
Project Dependencies
Here you must provide a discussion of any project dependencies.In other words, what activities were linked to other activities (what milestone had to be completed before the next phase, and so on)?The project itself could also be dependent on funding, or on the completion of a prior project.Discuss any and all dependencies here.
Resource Requirements
Here you must provide and discuss your resource allocation plan from the completed project.This should include a list of resources (including financial resources, personnel, scheduling resources, etc.) that were required and detailed explanations of how they were used to complete the project.
Implementation Project Milestones
Here you will recap the important milestones that marked the completion of each project phase, based on your implementation strategy and methodology.Be sure and include start and end dates in the past for each project milestone you discuss.
Project Deliverables
Discuss what is being delivered to the company as the culmination of this project, in great detail (including hardware, software, documentation, etc.).These are the desired project outcomes that are delivered as proposed.
Documentation Deliverables
These are evidence of your project deliverables.You can use screen shots, network diagrams, redacted documentation, etc., depending on the type of project.But these must be graphic evidence (artifacts) that show what was delivered.And as always, you must also discuss and explain each artifact in detail.
Formative Evaluation Results and Revisions
As mentioned earlier, formative evaluations are the ongoing QA measures used to keep the project on track.So what was used while the project was being implemented to help it stay on track?You can refer to the tools and techniques under the Manage Quality process in PMBOK chapter 8. Remember that this is a work of fiction, so you can say you used things in this fictional implementation if they are appropriate. Also be sure and explain what project revisions or changes were made based on this formative assessment during project implementation.
Summative Evaluation Plan and Results
Here you will discuss the final QA measures that were used to evaluate the completed project and deliverables (see tools and techniques under the Control Quality process in PMBOK chapter 8).Also discuss the summative QA results in detail.
Stakeholder Communication Plan and Reports
This fulfills program outcome #1.You will show your detailed Stakeholder Communication Plan and discuss it in detail.In other words, how did you use the plan to make sure all stakeholders were involved and up-to-date?Also discuss the reporting to all stakeholders that took place, and discuss how well it worked during implementation (or if there were issues, discuss those).For example, was there general reporting to all stakeholders?Was there high level reporting to the Project Sponsor?And so on.Also include how all reporting was delivered.Which stakeholders were contacted via email? Which received regular formal reports? Were there any weekly conference calls for any stakeholder group?You get the picture!
Ongoing Support and Maintenance
Here you will give an overview of your plan for ongoing support and maintenance of the project deliverables.This should include any planned upgrades that are part of keeping the implementation optimal.As you create the support and maintenance plan, make sure all proposed dates are in the future.
Resources for Post-Implementation Support
Here you must discuss what post-implementation resources will be needed for the maintenance plan you have proposed.Will funds and time need to be set aside for regular maintenance? Will a support team need to be available?Based on your proposed maintenance plan, be sure and list all needed resources here and explain where the resources (funds, employee resources, etc.) will come from.
Short and Long Term Maintenance Plan
Here the task instructions require a detailed plan for short and long term maintenance.Make sure all dates are in the future for this plan.
Post-Implementation Project Summary
Here you will write a post-implementation project summary.And again, this will be repeating much of what you have already done, but in summary.This is the problem that was identified, this is the solution that was proposed, this is how it was implemented, these are the outcomes, and so on.
Documentation Deliverables
Make sure to again discuss the project outcomes and deliverables and provide documentation, including a couple of artifacts or samples that provide evidence of the implementation.
Success Criteria for Each Project Outcome
Summarize the success criteria and evaluation framework for each project outcome, and how your project successfully evaluated and addressed these.
Justification of Proposed versus Actual Project Outcomes
Here you need to explain and justify any differences between the proposed project outcomes and the actual outcomes.This would include course corrections that were made as part of your formative evaluation processes.
Lessons Learned
Document and explain what was learned from the challenges and successes of this implementation project, and explain how the lessons learned may help with future projects for the company.
References
Webpage Author or Organization (year or n.d.). Page or article title. Retrieved from http:// [Note that all lines after the first will have the distinctive APA ‘hanging indent’]
Author Last Name, First and Middle Initials (Year). Article title.Journal title, pages.City Name: Publisher Name, if book. [Note that all reference will be alphabetized]
Also, see provided APA reference and citations example document.
Tables
Table 1
Table Title
Column Head Column Head Column Head Column Head Column Head
Row Head 123 123 123 123
Row Head 456 456 456 456
Row Head 789 789 789 789
Row Head 123 123 123 123
Row Head 456 456 456 456
Row Head 789 789 789 789
Note:
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company2

A. Abstract

The information technology (IT) management of XYZ Company has experienced tremendous
challenges with its technological operations emanating from the use of old devices and outdated
computer software. This has slowed down its productivity, increased the costs of operations, and
put the security of data at risk of loss. The company has been using old HP desktops with as low
as 8 GB RAM with 256 GB hard disk and windows 7 operating systems. The computers and the
operating systems will be replaced with new Dell laptops with 16 GB RAM and 512 GB SSD
and upgrade from windows 7 to windows 10. The company needs to replace 175 computers with
new laptops in two phases with the first phase having a pilot lot of 5 laptops delivered to various
departments under the guidance of the head of departments. Employees in these departments will
give feedback on the efficiency of these new computers and the company can make any
adjustments needed before installing the bigger remaining lot. The project will then commence
for all the departments in the company. The Company intends to implement this project for six
months with the first phase of 5 laptops beginning in July 2022 and the remaining setting in
between August and October 2022. To achieve the intended plan the company will allocate
enough financial resources and time to remain within the said timeframes. The procurement
department has been directed to purchase the latest operating system from Microsoft and the
computers from Dell in order to adjust to the current technology. The company has developed a
training team and mandated it to document the employees’ feedback on the frequently asked
questions on the new project. Employees will receive training on the new hardware and software
upon the completion of the installation.
Keywords: upgrade, computer, operating systems
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company3

Table of Contents
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company…………………………………………………………….5
Needs Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………7
Problem and Causes ……………………………………………………………………………………..7
Impact on Each Stakeholder Group ……………………………………………………………….8
Solution Alignment ……………………………………………………………………………………….9
Cost Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………9
Itemized Costs ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
Justification for Costs …………………………………………………………………………………. 10
Risk Assessment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
Quantitative and Qualitative Risks ………………………………………………………………. 12
Cost Benefit Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
Mitigation of Risks ……………………………………………………………………………………… 14
Justification of Approach ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 14
Project Resource Management Plan ……………………………………………………………………………… 15
Resources ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
Justification of Resources ……………………………………………………………………………. 16
Resource Allocation Plan …………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company4

Gaps and Impact on Other Projects …………………………………………………………….. 17
Project Plan ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18
Scope ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18
Assumptions ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19
Project Phases ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 19
Timelines …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19
Dependencies ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
Risk Factors ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
Important Milestones………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
Project Launch… ………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
Strategy for Implementation ……………………………………………………………………….. 22
Documentation Deliverables ………………………………………………………………………… 22
Hardware and Software Deliverables …………………………………………………………… 23
Evaluation Framework ……………………………………………………………………………….. 23
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
Tables ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company5

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company
The IT manager of XYZ Company has realized the company is running at a risk of data
loss, slowed productivity, and increasing the costs of operations. These have come along from
the use of old computers and outdated operating systems.The world of technology is evolving
each day and most companies are turning towards fast computers and enough storage systems to
cater to the growing need to store complex data. Using old computers by XYZ Company has
brought losses to the company and prevented it from competing with other companies using the
latest technology. The company intends to upgrade from Windows 7 operating systems to
Windows 10 and from old HP desktops to Dell laptops to gain a competitive with other
companies.
The company uses old HP desktops with 8GB ram and a windows 7 operating system.
These slow computers derail the morale of employees and increase their frustrations when trying
to complete their assigned tasks. The company is experiencing a loss of productivity caused by
this factor. The ability and capability of employees do not matter if they are not internally
motivated and are not willing to work harder to achieve the company’s goals (Basit et.al, 2018).
It requires more energy to execute and deliver the results by workers who use inappropriate
equipment at work. The company will replace the old computers with Dell laptops with high
storage capacity and a perfect processor to aid the problem of slow production. The RAM allows
multitasking and employees can open a number of tabs without hitches. The processor of Dell
laptops allows navigation through multiple applications with high speed and transition. They also
come along with a long battery life which allows the use of the computer for a long time without
recharging and can use away from the power source. Employee satisfaction will be increased
which in turn translates into hard work hence increased productivity.
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company6

The use of old computers and outdated software has resulted in a risk of data loss and
information insecurity in the company. Data privacy entails the link between gathering and
dissemination of data encompassing the legal and political challenges surrounding them.
Generally, most data privacy challenges have come up due to the broad nature of evolving
technology in the modern world. Everywhere in the world, technology is being applied may it to
operate daily routines, store companies’ information, etc. Maintaining data privacy is not a
simple task for a company or individual. As a result, this company seeks to seal different
loopholes faced in protecting data privacy and its possible solution to avoid data cybercrimes in
this speedy evolving technology.
The company must categorize data by its possible danger and try to safeguard the data
with better and stronger security strategies and technologies. These strategies can be supported
by using the current data handling systems incorporated by Dell computers and windows 10
operating systems. Maintaining data privacy is very costly; a company’s data exposure can lead
to billions of dollars in revenue lost. Then the company must capitalize on data security
technologies that can help safeguard and store its data, such as data backup, data archiving, and
data automating processes; these technologies help lower costs in a contest of labor, improved
control, and governance reduces risks. Using Dell laptops by the company will help achieve
these goals and mitigate the risks that arise from data exposure.
Handling data privacy is becoming harder due to advanced technology like the Internet of
Things (IoT), phones, and watches are growing at a high rate globally. Research has shown that
more than 90% of data security specialists are worried about the Internet of Things rather than
web security (Moradi, 2021). The company’s IT sector is prone to cybercrimes due to outdated
operating systems and old hardware. However, the company has re-evaluated its policy plans
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company7

covering the IT sector by planning to source laptops from Dell Company and operating systems
from Microsoft. These have high security in data control due to the adequacy of storage space
and speed to execute commands. The operating systems are compatible with Dell computers,
which increase the security of data and avoid malicious activities that may result in cybercrimes.

B. Needs analysis
For a company to grow it must keep up with the changing times and use the latest
technology to gain a competitive advantage over other companies. Sustainable competitive
advantage is a unique business strategy that is undertaken by a business corporation to maintain
performance within a certain timeframe (Liu & Xu, 2021). A company should gain a competitive
advantage in order to compete for longer. XYZ Company is gaining a competitive advantage by
upgrading the old computers and using the latest operating system. To achieve this the company,
need to purchase the best laptops from Dell with faster RAM to speed up its operations. The
main goal of this project is to improve the Company’s performance by replacing old computers
and upgrading the old, outdated operating system with a current and more efficient one.

Problem and Causes
Employees are constantly frustrated and are not able to complete assigned tasks on time
because of old and slow computers and outdated operating systems. The cost of maintaining old
computers is high, this is a result of replacing old parts that break down easily. Most of them being
out of warranty are to be repaired by the company which increases the cost of maintenance.
Microsoft has discontinued Windows 7 support since January 14, 2020, and the company is paying
for extended security updates, fixes, and technical support and the cost is increasing every year.
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company8

The computers have been under constant attacks of malware and risks of viruses which
have led to the loss of data and disruption of operations. The company has incurred extra costs in
paying for expenses to receive these services which will be cut down when it sources windows 10
that provided these services to its users. Installing Windows 10 on older computers will not be
secure as they are not fully compatible, installing windows 10 on a new computer will be most
effective.

Impact on Stakeholder Group
The primary and key stakeholder is the CEO who is responsible for the overall success of
the company and is accountable to the board of directors. The CEO needs to provide the board
with acceptable reasons and justify that this project will resolve the issue and thus need to fund the
project.
Another primary stakeholder group consists of department heads of the company. They
oversee the day-to-day operation of their respective departments and are accountable in front of
the CEO. The company is experiencing downtime, loss of productivity, increased costs of
operations and put the security of data at risk of loss because of old Computers and outdated
operating systems. This stakeholder group will be consulted in the planning and developing
requirements of the project.
Another stakeholder group is employees of the company. They are the principal users of
the computers and are constantly frustrated and are not able to complete assigned tasks on time
because of old computers and outdated operating systems. It is crucial to provide these
stakeholders with a more efficient and reliable computer and operating system that will equip them
to perform their tasks well by eliminating downtime which will increase productivity.
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company9

Solution Alignment
The XYZ Company wants to upgrade from old HP desktops with 8 GB RAM to Dell
laptops with 16 GB RAM and 512 GB storage. Computer performance is measured in its
capability to respond to commands, the speed at which it gives feedback, and the general
efficiency of its functions (Kumar & Ali, 2018). In order to settle on the best, the company
performed a market survey to determine the best to settle for.
The company compares two brands of computers i.e., Dell and HP in terms of
components like central processing unit (CPU) and memory capacity. The company performed a
test analysis of both computers where two employees from the IT department were assigned a
task and required to perform it using both computers simultaneously and exchange the computers
and perform the same task again. It was observed that the Dell laptop responded to commands
and had clear visuals compared to the HP. These results were analyzed, and the company
realized that Dell’s CPU was quicker than that of HP.
C. Cost Analysis
XYZ Company has set funds intended for the execution of this project in acquiring
laptops, docking stations, and operating systems. The laptops and docking stations will be
procured from Dell Inc and the operating system will be procured from Microsoft. Imaging the
laptops/ installing operating systems, deploying the laptops, and training employees will be
conducted by our IT department which will save the company around $12,000.
The pilot 5 computers will go at a cost of $1509 each for the Dell Latitude 5420 and the
total cost of 5 laptops would be $7,545. The cost of a docking station for the 5 laptops will be
$350 each with the total cost of 5 docking stations $1750.
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company10

For the completion of the whole process, the remaining 170 laptops will be purchased at
$256,530 and 170 docking stations will be purchased at $59,500.This amount is summed up
with earlier costs for the pilot computers and docking stations to give a total of $325,325 for the
total number of laptops and docking stations. Windows 10 Pro License costs $100 per license
and for the whole project which will be $17,500. Imaging the laptops will cost $8750 and for
training the cost will be $2800. The total costs to complete the whole project will be $354,375.

Itemized Costs
Table 1
Item Cost per unit Units Total Cost
Dell Latitude 5420 $1509.00 175 $264,075.00
Dell Dock -WD19S 130W $350.00 175 $61,250.00
Windows 10 Pro License $100.00 175 $17,500.00
Imaging laptops $50.00 175 $8750.00
Training- – $2800.00
Total $354,375.00

Justification for Costs
To equip employees to perform their tasks efficiently and increase productivity, it will be
important to examine and analyze the pros and cons of the existing system. This will be done
through interviews, surveys, and observing users while using the computers. In addition, we will
look into costs incurred for maintenance, extended security updates, fixes, and technical support.
The data and the information gathered during this phase will be a good input for the planning and
development phase to pinpoint the weak points of the current system. It will help to focus on
procuring a better operating system and laptops with better specifications which will alleviate the
problem. The majority of the costs of the proposal occur during the development phase of the
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company11

project. This is the primary and most important phase of the project in which hardware and
software deliverables will be built. The development will involve procurement and imaging. The
procurement includes hardware (laptops and docking stations) and software (Windows Operating
system). To build a fast and reliable laptop, the team will conduct QA and user testing at each
stage of the development process.

D. Risk Assessment
Table 2 Risk Register

Computer Refresh Risk Register

Asset
Threat /
Vulnerability
Existing
Controls

Likelihood
Consequence
Level of
Risk
Risk
Priority

Deploying
Laptops

Users’ data
Sync users’ data
to the network
drive

low
– Project delay
-Increase cost

High

High

Staff

Staff
Resignation
Competitive
Salary &
Benefits

Low
-Project delay
-Reduce scope
-Increase cost

Medium

Medium
Laptop/ dock
Procurement

Delivery
Will be ordered
ahead

Low
-Project delay –
-Increase cost
Low Low

The project expects quantitative and qualitative risks associated with upgrading the
computers. Risk assessment is a key part of XYZ Company as it will affect the future operations
of the company if the risks are not mitigated. Risks assessment is one of the main parts of
business continuity and a key determinant of business success in the future (Vulanović et, al
2020).
Users’ data backup and transfer to the new laptops have a high impact as a risk but this
risk would be considered of a low likelihood since the company has been Syncing users’ data on
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company12

OneDrive and on the network shared drives.Staff retention is another possible risk. This risk has
a medium impact, but it is of a low likelihood since most of the project team has been with the
company for more than 4 years and their pay rate and benefit are competitive with the job
market.The procurement/delivery risk likelihood is low, and its impact is also low as we have
enough time to order the machines ahead of the project development stage.
Bearing in mind the risks involved in initiating the project the company is yet willing to
undertake the project as it is beneficial, and the advantages outweigh the risks as the risks in the
project are of low likelihood.

Quantitative and Qualitative Risks
Employee retention is considered a quantitative risk since it can be calculated by
evaluating the staff turnover history of the company. Based on our evaluation the staff turnover
of the project team is over 4 years and it is safe to conclude that the retention risk is low. If staff
were to leave the company, the project would be highly impacted until that staff is replaced.
Replacing staff can take months so it will affect the timeline of the project and will eventually
delay the project.
Another quantitative risk that can be calculated would be the risk of delay in the shipping
of the purchased Laptop/ dock. Shipping delays could happen with foreseen or unforeseen
circumstances, and it could affect the project timeline and cost. In order to mitigate the effect of
shipping delays, the delivery will be scheduled ahead of the development phase. If it is not
scheduled ahead the effect would have an impact on the delay of the hardware and software
deliverables on time.
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company13

The qualitative risks associated with this project will arise during laptop deployment. The
risk associated with deployment is data loss. This risk might not be calculated but data loss
during laptop deployment would have an impact on the overall success of the project.

Cost Benefit Analysis
Retention of employees with competitive pay and benefits requires upfront costs for the
company. The project cost estimation includes this competitive pay and benefits as estimated by
previous projects. If the risk occurs, the cost and time impact on the project is substantial,
especially for a more experienced skilled professional. The market for experienced skilled
professionals is very competitive and it takes several weeks even sometimes months to hire a
new employee. This would affect the project timeline and would drastically delay the completion
of the project. Even after hiring, there will be some time to familiarize the new employee with
the project which is a significant cost burden. The time delay and cost effects will be averted by
providing competitive pay and benefits to retain those employees.
If data is not backed up properly there will be a total data loss during deployment. The
company must protect data with better and stronger security strategies and technologies. To
avert this, the user’s data will be saved into OneDrive and will be synced in real time. The risk is
high, but the likelihood is low because of the existing control which is using the OneDrive. If the
risk occurs, the effect on the project will be significant. So, the benefit of using the service of
OneDrive outweighs the cost of the service associated with it.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company14

Mitigation of Risks
In order to mitigate staff retention risk, it is important to provide benefits and competitive
pay for the project team members. They are more experienced and skilled professionals and must
be rewarded accordingly. It is vital that the team members feel valued.
Mitigating the risk associated with users’ data loss is key for the successful completion of
the project. Though there is an existing control mechanism in place, the team will evaluate and
monitor it at the time of deployment to make sure that it is actually backed up on OneDrive. In
addition to that communication will be sent to all employees to backup important information on
the company’s network drive.

E. Justification of Approach
The project implementation methodology used in the project plan will be a mix of agile
and waterfall. The strategy for the implementation of the main phases of the project will be a
waterfall approach while the phases within the main phase will be agile. In the waterfall
approach the phases will help to set up the requirements and the structure which is necessary for
the next phase to be successful. For instance, imaging of laptops will be required to be completed
before the laptop deployment process. The success of the deployment of laptops will be
determined by the timely and successful imaging process as outlined in the project requirements.
The project will adopt an agile approach within each phase. For example, in the
development phase the project will begin implementation with 5 laptops from five different
departments and these employees will provide feedback on the newly deployed computers and
operating system.This will help the project team to use the feedback and make any adjustments
needed before deploying the remaining computers.
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company15

F. Project Resource Management Plan
To execute the project the company has developed a resource utilization plan that will be
used to execute the project. The most important factor is the human resource that will be required
to execute this project. The company has selected a project manager to head all operations. The
project is directed to select a team of employees who will take part in the first phase of the
project and a technical team to help guide these employees. The project manager will report to
the chief executive of the company to determine the progress of the project. A budget for the
project has been formulated with time frames and costs in the different phases of the project. The
project manager is expected to account for all expenses and report to the CEO any adjustments
made.

Resources
In order to build and successfully complete the proposed computer refresh project,
several resources will be needed. The team will consist of a full-time project manager and six
professionals who are well experienced in an area and will contribute to the successful
completion of the project. Most of the team members will be available for most of the project’s
lifetime depending on the need of the project. It will be essential to engage the team members to
a certain extent throughout the project life to assist with any changing features.
Financial resources will be needed to fund the project. The approval of this project
proposal will provide the financial resources necessary for funding the tools and staff resources
required to complete the project development.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company16

Justification of Resources
A full-time project manager will manage all phases of the project from start to finish. The project
manager will be fully engaged in daily activities, planning, and forecasting. The project manager
will be crucial to ensuring the timely completion of the project and production deliverables that
satisfies all requirements. Also, the project manager will monitor the project budget and validate
approved change requests that don’t affect/impact either the budget or the timeline.
All six project team members would be required to work on the project in order to complete the
project. Four of the team members would be required for the imaging, deploying, and training
stages of the project while two of the team members will join the rest of the team on the
deployment and training stages.
Financial resources will be needed to fund the project since the company is experiencing
downtime, loss of productivity, and extra cost because of old Computers and outdated operating
systems. This proposed IT solution of computer refresh will alleviate these problems and equip
employees to perform their tasks efficiently by eliminating downtime which will increase
productivity.

Resource Allocation Plan
The IT department consists of the majority of the project management team necessary to
accomplish the proposed project. These team members are currently involved in other projects
and requests to release from their current assignments will be put in. During a transition phase
the team members will be willing to augment some of their time till they are fully assigned to the
project. A full-time project manager will be requested and assigned by the company’s IT
department to lead the project.
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company17

The budget for laptop and dock procurement has already been allocated for the project.
Five testing staff will be requested from the operational departments at the pilot deployment
phase in order to get feedback.
Gaps and Impact on Other Projects
Some of the departments are using modern software and application, but since the
computer and the operating system are old and outdated, they are not able to use them at full
capacity. The implementation of this project will have a positive impact on them so that they will
be able to use their software and applications at efficiently.
There is another project for the finance department at the final phase where we have
some of the staff who work on another project. This staff will be also working on our project as a
team member, but their assignment in our project is not required at the early phase of the project.
Since their engagement in the early phase of this project is minimal, there would be no impact on
both projects.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company18

G. Project Plan
Funds for each phase will be allocated separately with each phase receiving the required
funds calculated in the budget. Personnel involved in every phase are required to know their
responsibilities and the goal of the project to perform diligently. The aim of the project is to
equip the company with an IT competitive niche by upgrading its computers and installing the
latest software. Successful completion of the project will streamline the company’s operations,
increase its production, and enable it to compete with other companies.

Scope
The project is initiated by the IT manager of the Company who has realized fails in the
company’s computer and intends to replace the old computers with new laptops and upgrade the
operating system of the computers. The project will be undertaken by employees from the IT
department under a project manager where the technical team will monitor the training process.
A total of four employees will be required for the imaging phase of the project. After successful
completion of the first phase two employees will be added to the team and together perform the
deployment and training of employees.
To have a smooth and easy transition, the new operating system must be compatible with
the company’s current software. Users will be able to use applications the same way they used to
in the old system. Most of the existing application interfaces will be working the same way.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company19

Assumptions
The company assumes that replacing the computers and upgrading to recent software will
directly improve productivity, improve employee morale, secure the company’s data and reduce
the cost of maintenance.However, these assumptions may not be justified or may take a longer
period than expected to realize the outcomes. The company assumes that the project may take a
few months to complete and translate into results and success for the company without
considering the hindrances of natural phenomena. It is also assumed that all existing software
will be compatible with the windows 10 operating system.

Project Phases and Timeline
1. Initiation: Upon approval of the project Charter.
June 27th, 2022.
2. Planning and design: 280 Hours (7 weeks)
June 27th+ 35 business days = August 12
3. Development and Installation: 640 Hours (13 weeks)
August 13th + 64 business days = December 2nd
4. Monitoring and Control:(Including Training and documentation)680 Hours (14 weeks)
August 13th + 69 business days = December 9th
5. Project Closure: Upon acceptance of deliverables by the user.
December 10th, 2022

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company20

Dependencies
The project is dependent on certain factors for it to commence and be executed
successfully. The employees in training are expected to cooperate and learn the operations within
the given timeframe as it will affect the success of the project. The project depends on the
provided finances should there be deficiencies in between the phases it could disrupt the project.
The project manager should be novice and goal-oriented to execute all responsibilities willing
and give true feedback.
Risk Factors
The project might encounter a number of risks during both cases which will affect the
overall performance of the activities involved. Human beings are prone to sickness and other
aspects of nature like death. In cases where the death of an employee or the project manager
occurs this will affect the timeframe and overall execution of the project. The death of an IT
expert in the training team would mean a serious gap and delay the execution process. Again, the
employees might not be willing to undertake the new development or might be slow in learning
the new software which would prolong the entire process.
Financial risk factors will occur if there is additional time required in executing the
process. Extra finances will be required to pay for the training which will not be part of the
employees of the company. The Environment also poses a number of risks to the project, these
include the risk of fire outbreaks, breakages of computers caused by deadly earth tremors,
accidents caused by shipping vehicles, etc. these factors will directly affect the project at all
phases prolonging the timelines and causing losses.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company21

Important Milestones

The computer refresh project plan will consist of the following milestones.

Milestone 1: Computer refresh project Charter Approval
➢ June 27th, 2022
Milestone 2: Laptops and Docks delivery
➢ July 18, 2022
Milestone 3:Completion of imaging the laptops
➢ August 8, 2022
Milestone 4: Pilot Laptops deployment
➢ August 17, 2022
Milestone 5: Acceptance of feedback from Pilot deployment
➢ August 22, 2022
Milestone 6:Start of Laptops deployment
➢ August 25, 2022
Milestone 7:Completion of Laptops deployment
➢ December 2nd, 2022
Milestone 8:Employees’ first training Session Schedule
➢ December 3rd, 2022
Milestone 9:User feedback and completion of training
➢ December 8th
Milestone 10:Project Closure upon acceptance of deliverables by the user.
➢ December 10th, 2022

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company22

Project Launch
The project kickoff meeting will be led by the project manager and will include all
stakeholders. It will involve a high-level discussion, and a project charter will be signed and
officially approved by the Project Sponsor.
A formal communication will be sent to internal stakeholders/employees of the company
describing the project initiative and objectives.

Strategy for Implementation
The project implementation strategy will consist of a mix of agile and waterfall
methodologies. The strategy for the overall implementation of the phases of the project will be
the waterfall approach. The procurement and imaging of laptops will be required to be completed
before the laptop deployment process. The success of the deployment of laptops will be
determined by the timely and successful imaging process as outlined in the project requirements.
The project will adopt an agile approach in the deployment phase. The project will begin
implementation with 5 laptops from five different departments and these employees will provide
feedback on the newly deployed computers and operating system so the project can make any
adjustments needed before deploying the remaining computers.

Documentation Deliverables
The documentation deliverables will be operational/ technical documentation for
employees’ reference on frequently asked questions of the windows 10 operating system and a
lesson learned document which will be necessary for future project reference.
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company23

Hardware and Software Deliverables
The hardware deliverables will be replacing the existing HP 800 G2 desktop computers
with 8 GB RAM and 256 GB HDD with Dell laptops with 16 GB RAM and 512 GB SSD. The
software deliverables will be upgrading the operating system from windows 7 to windows 10.

Evaluation Framework
The project will be monitored, evaluated, and assessed by the team selected at various
levels.The project evaluation will be conducted at several times throughout the project life
cycle. The quality assurance (QA) team will review and evaluate each phase if it is in line with
the project requirements.In addition, the QA also checks the functionality of the project
deliverables and visual compliance.If these reviews fail the project requirements, the project
manager and the team will evaluate the severity of the failure and determine if change is required
or can be implemented without requiring any change in the next phase.
Another evaluation framework will be feedback from the users. A feedback form will be
available for all employee of the company online as well as print. The feedback form will be
used for questions or suggestions related to the project. The project can be evaluated and
assessed on the frequency at which the feedback form is used and in what manner the responses
are handled. A successful project should produce the least number of suggestions possible. It will
be important and necessary to address each suggestion and questions on time with great interest.
Computer Refresh for XYZ Company24

References
Basit, A. A., Hermina, T., & Al Kautsar, M. (2018). The Influence of Internal Motivation and
Work Environment on Employee Productivity. KnE Social Sciences.
Blaga, P. (2020). The importance of human resources in the continuous improvement of the
production quality. Procedia manufacturing, 46, 287-293.
Ding, D., Liu, X., & Xu, H. (2021, October). Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Case Studies
of Dell, Ikea and Byte Dance. In 2021 6th International Conference on Modern
Management and Education Technology (MMET 2021) (pp. 674-679). Atlantis Press.
Lu, P., Cai, X., Wei, Z., Song, Y., & Wu, J. (2019). Quality management practices and inter-
organizational project performance: Moderating effect of governance
mechanisms. International Journal of Project Management, 37(6), 855-869.
Moradi, M. (2021) Importance of internet of things (IoT) in Marketing Research and Its Ethical
and Data Privacy Challenges. Business Ethics and Leadership, 5(1), 22-30.
Nazir, M., Kumar, D., & Ali, L. (2018). Critical Analysis of High Performance Computing
(HPC). International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, 16(9), 153-
63.
Vulanović, S., Delić, M., Kamberović, B., Beker, I., & Lalić, B. (2020). Integrated management
systems based on risk assessment: Methodology development and case studies. Advances
in Production Engineering & Management, 15(1), 93-106.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company25

Tables
Table 1:Itemized Costs
Item Cost per unit Units Total Cost
Dell Latitude 5420 $1509.00 175 $264,075.00
Dell Dock -WD19S 130W $350.00 175 $61,250.00
Windows 10 Pro License $100.00 175 $17,500.00
Imaging laptops $50.00 175 $8750.00
Training- – $2800.00
Total $354,375.00

Table 2: Risk Assessment

Computer Refresh Risk Register

Asset
Threat /
Vulnerability
Existing
Controls

Likelihood
Consequence
Level of
Risk
Risk
Priority

Deploying
Laptops

Users’ data
Sync users’ data
to the network
drive

low
– Project delay
-Increase cost

High

High

Staff

Staff
Resignation
Competitive
Salary &
Benefits

Low
-Project delay
-Reduce scope
-Increase cost

Medium

Medium
Laptop/ dock
Procurement

Delivery
Will be ordered
ahead

Low
-Project delay –
-Increase cost
Low Low

Running Head: POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 1

Post-Implementation University Website Upgrade
Michael Decker
Western Governors University

POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 2

Post-Implementation University Website Upgrade 3
Quality Assurance 4
Formative Evaluation and QA Metrics 4
Testing Methodology 5
Test Cases 5
Acceptance Criteria 6
Project Review 6
Assumptions 7
Project Phases 8
Timeline Deviations 10
Project Dependencies 10
Resource Requirements 10
Implementation Project Milestones 11
Project Deliverables 11
Documentation Deliverables 12
Formative Evaluation Results and Revisions 12
Summative Evaluation Plan and Results 13
Stakeholder Communication Plan and Reports 13
Ongoing Support and Maintenance 14
Resources for Post-Implementation Support 14
Short and Long Term Maintenance Plan 14
Post-Implementation Project Summary 15
Documentation Deliverables 16
Success Criteria for Each Project Outcome 16
Justification of Proposed Versus Actual Project Outcomes 17
Lessons Learned 18
Tables 20

POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 3

Post-Implementation University Website Upgrade
In a previous project, the University website service, built on Drupal 7, was migrated
from an on-site server to a cloud hosting provider. After the completion of that project, it was
time to focus on the evolution of the service provided for the University community. Drupal 7 is
coming close to its end-of-life and soon will be unsupported. The end-of-life posed a problem
due to its lack of security updates from the Drupal security team. To provide a safe and secure
website service, it was necessary to build a new University CMS built on Drupal 8, the latest
version. The new Drupal 8 system will be able to evolve and easily migrate into Drupal 9 with
little effort (Hojtsy, 2020). Because of that, the system will be capable of security updates for at
least 5 more years.
The Drupal 7 CMS provided to the University had a dated appearance and it was slow
and lacked functionality that could be found in competitors like Squarespace. The project was to
build a new system with a modern appearance that would have a wide assortment of features.
The system was planned to be functional for the majority of the sites previously on the Drupal 7
platform. The project began with a discovery phase to analyze and categorize the Drupal 7 sites.
The analysis of the old sites provided information about what features were most commonly
used. The data provided was passed to a design phase to build a modern and attractive website
theme, using the University identity guidelines. The designs were then passed on to the
developers to build the appropriate functionality. The project initially launched a service with
some reduced functionality compared to the old service. Communication was provided to the
University community about the plans for future features. This allowed site owners the ability to
plan for their migration onto the new platform. Those additional features were released on a

POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 4

monthly basis to expand the functionality of the system and give the site owners the tools they
required. Towards the end of the project, new requisitions on the old Drupal 7 system was shut
down. All new sites had to be built on the newly built Drupal 8 platform.
Quality Assurance
Quality assurance was implemented throughout the project. Several implementations
were done to validate accurate development and ensure deliverables were met correctly. The
outcomes of these enforced the strength and the reliability of the project and the deliverables it
produced.
Formative Evaluation and QA Metrics
In the early phases of the project, a requirements documentation was built after reviewing
the functionality of the old Drupal 7 system. The requirements were then put into tickets to be
completed by the development teams. Based on the original requirements, 92% of the
functionality was completed successfully. After some work was completed, the remaining 8% of
the requirements were viewed as no longer necessary. The completed tasks were then manually
reviewed for quality assurance and through legal compliance. All necessary requirements were
fulfilled in regard to legal compliance.
Since the project used an Agile methodology it was useful to view the larger scope of
each phase of the project as an “Epic”. The epics were then scoped and sized appropriately.
During each phase of the project the tasks to implement each phase changed, but the overall
completion percentage of each phase was monitored closely. As the phase progressed there was a
clear progression towards the goal of each phase.

POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 5

Testing Methodology
Testing was implemented in several ways. During the initial discovery phase, user testing
was done on the old Drupal 7 system to discover requirements, and downfalls users were
experiencing. Documentation was developed as requirements to validate as the project
progressed. That documentation was used by QA individuals and each requirement was reviewed
and marked as completed or needed revisions as the work was complete. This testing ensured
that the product produced the expected results that end-users were expecting.
Testing was also implemented heavily during the development phase. Automated
regression and acceptance testing were implemented to ensure any changes would not affect
existing functionality. Performing those tests also helped to validate any dependencies that are
updated will still function as expected. As new bugs are discovered throughout the project, a new
test is written to replicate the error. Then the change is implemented to correct the bug until all
tests pass again.
Test Cases
With user testing, two cases were performed. Thorough tests were performed on random
students, staff, and public people to review the visual appearance and the usability of the
framework. This test case helped to identify areas that are in need of improvement for the public
face of each website. The public side of the service must be quick to navigate and be easy to read
and easy to find information. Also included in this test case was accessibility for impaired users.
It is critical to provide a usable website for non-sighted and color blind visitors.
The other user test case was with site owners. That test case was to ensure the product
was easy to build out an attractive website. Site owners were mostly familiar with the old Drupal

POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 6

7 system. It was important to keep some of the experience identical, but the product had to be
easier to understand and provide more flexibility. Tests were conducted for site owners with
various skill levels. Some tests were done on the experienced developer, while others were
performed on users with no prior platform knowledge.
Acceptance Criteria
The user test acceptance criteria were established based on similar tests conducted on the
Drupal 7 system. The criteria for public website access was to reduce the total number of mouse
clicks to find identical information. This validated that the product was easier to navigate on the
new platform. The criteria for the site owner tests was to reduce the amount of time that is
required to produce a web page. The product provided different tools for different skill levels
which provided interesting results from the tests. In almost all scenarios, the time to build a basic
web page was cut in half, while also producing a more visually appealing page.
Backend testing was more rigid and the criteria for success were established as 90% code
coverage and all tests must pass. The code coverage is a measurement of the number of lines of
code that are executed during the test. It is also a requirement to provide some form of
acceptance tests with all major functionality. The acceptance tests vary in complexity, but they
are constantly improved as new bugs are discovered.
Project Review
As a whole, the project went according to the proposed plan. The requirements were
established based on surveys and test data. Then the development team was able to turn those
requirements into a functioning system built on Drupal 8. As the project progressed, the scope of
each requirement was reviewed before implementation. Requirements had to be revised based on

POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 7

the experience during the development. For example, a user-friendly page building experience
was not available and had to be built. Nothing had previously been done similar to that work. It
was a large risk that paid out in dividends at the end. The product was produced with some
missing functionality when compared to the Drupal 7 system, but some groups within the
University have expressed interest in funding those improvements to the platform. The product
has received high praise from several groups and continues to push the capabilities of the service
forward.
Assumptions
The project was undertaken with the assumption that the existing hosting provider would
not change, and the new system would be able to live alongside the old Drupal 7 system. This
assumption was correct. The new Drupal 8 system is able to operate in parallel with the older
Drupal 7 system while websites are migrated to the new platform. However, newly created sites
had to navigate the name collisions with their older counterparts. For example, a website
could not be created if a Drupal 7 website existed with the same name. It was
possible to overcome this hurdle with some training and knowledge sharing with the site owners.
There were other assumptions that were correctly accounted for. The existing API
connection to the Drupal 7 platform was able to easily adapt to the Drupal 8 platform. The API
simply required an adjustment to create new sites on the new platform. Another correct
assumption was the decrease in velocity during the winter closure around new years. All team
members were able to observe the holiday season and take the requested time off without
impacting the schedule of the project.

POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 8

Project Phases
The product was able to be built in accordance with the planned phases. The project went
through an initial phase of discovery and documenting the necessary requirements. This phase
was short and consisted mostly of interviews and surveys. The research was able to acquire
feedback from 38 individuals from various disciplines around the University. The feedback also
consisted of various skill levels, ranging from novice to “power user” as it was termed. At the
end of the phase, a well-defined list of requirements was developed. The list was more extensive
than what was planned for the project, so a backlog of requests was created and was reviewed
when time permitted. The list of requirements was used by the design team to develop visual
mockups of the various areas users focused on most frequently. Great detail was put into this
phase to produce an attractive product for the University.
The second phase of the project consisted of building the base product. The goal of this
phase was to have a functioning product that was capable of hosting a majority of smaller
websites that existed on the Drupal 7 system. 80% of sites on the old platform were found to
consist of less than 25 pages and only use a small subset of the features available.During the
development of the project, the team constantly prepared for the future by building functionality
that would be functional for much larger websites. Because of this foresight, the phase explored
alternative technologies that appeared to be more flexible and easier to use for site builders. A
large risk was taken during this phase to build a brand new drag and drop interface that proved to
win over the stakeholders with flying colors. This phase produced a stronger product than was
originally anticipated and was immediately adopted by dozens of departments within the first
week.

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The final phase consisted of enhancements of the product by providing more content
types such as events and people. The features produced during this phase were introduced in a
staggered approach every other month. The development team was able to implement bug fixes
and other small feature requests at various times throughout this phase to further enhance the
product. But, during this phase, it was clear the product would not be able to be used by some
departments that relied on some features available in the Drupal 7 system. The lack of these
features provided other “mini-projects” that were able to spin off and provide enhancing features
that were easily adopted after meeting the necessary requirements. Because of the mini-projects
and the additional content types, the product was able to provide functionality that appears to be
adopted by 95% of the sites that used to be on Drupal 7.

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Timeline Deviations
The project was able to maintain the proposed timeline with little deviation. During the
second phase, a risk was taken to build a new drag and drop interface for site owners. Because of
the large amount of work needed for that interface, phase 2 was in danger of taking longer. When
it began to be a concern, the team re-evaluated the scope of that interface. The functionality was
greatly reduced, but it increased its stability. Because of the reduced scope, the development
phase was able to maintain its timeline.
Project Dependencies
The project dependency revolved around the funding of the project. It was determined
that the project did not rely on any other project and was able to be self-sufficient. However, the
project did have a dependency on the hosting provider creating a new repository location to host
the new system code. From past experiences, that process could have taken up to two months.
Luckily the Acquia hosting provider was able to complete the request within 4 weeks and the
project was able to continue with no delay.
Resource Requirements
Most of the resource requirements to produce the project consisted of team members. The
team consisted of 9 team members with various specialties. Not all team members were engaged
in the entire project. Some members, such as the designers, had a peak engagement, but then they
were engaged on an as-needed basis. The two front end developers and three back end
developers were engaged almost the entire time and comprised the majority of the resources.
Other resources that were required were some various licenses that were essential for
quicker development. A subscription to an automated testing infrastructure helped developers

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build out reliable testing suites and expose bugs that would have gone unnoticed. This service
has proved to be an enormous benefit since it has found critical bugs within days before the
product being released. The cost of the service has reduced the hours a developer would have
otherwise spent on troubleshooting and fixing issues.
Implementation Project Milestones
The milestones of the project were in various stages. The first milestone was an
established design and requirements document. With the designs and requirements, the project
was able to provide a tangible idea of what the product will become. With those in hand, the
development team was able to establish the groundwork for the product.
The second milestone was perhaps the largest. A fully functioning system, capable of
producing a simple website. The milestone was targeted at 75% of websites on the Drupal 7
platform that held less than 15 pages. The product was made available to the entire University
with limited features, but it had an amazing new user interface that gave more tools to the user
than anything in the Drupal 7 system. The product was quickly adopted and hosted over 50
websites within the first month after release.
The following milestones were smaller but introduced expanded functionality to the
platform. At bi-monthly releases, websites were able to create people, news articles, and event
lists. Each of these milestones was stepping stones toward a full-featured product capable of
hosting 95% of known websites.
Project Deliverables
The project deliverables consisted of a brand new Drupal 8 website building software.
The system has been built as a true SAAS and has been thoroughly tested and reviewed by

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various skill levels and disciplines. The websites hosted on the new system are quick to produce
and even faster for website visitors to load. The new system is capable of hosting custom themes
that provide departments with the ability to have unique looks and expanded functionality if
desired.
Documentation Deliverables
The project software also comes with a very detailed user guide, built on the same system
it explains. The user guide and developer information provide users with step by step instructions
to accomplish the most frequent tasks. The user guide also outlines what features compare to the
old Drupal 7 system and provides resources for anyone that needs additional functionality that
doesn’t exist.
Formative Evaluation Results and Revisions
During the development of each phase, the developer team was in constant
communication with the designers and UX team members. Preview environments were made
available to the designers and UX team to review and provide necessary feedback cycles on each
piece of functionality. These feedback cycles ensured the product was going to produce the
expected results and satisfy the established requirements.
Throughout each phase, the team would engage in bi-weekly meetings with the product
owner to review the roadmap and discuss any concerns about the timeline. In these meetings,
new ideas were brought up for discussion, and they were evaluated by the appropriate
individuals on the team. The team would then prioritize the new ideas based on the available
timeline.

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Summative Evaluation Plan and Results
Near the end of the second and third phases, the product was placed in a code freeze and
new features were paused or developed outside of the release. Then a thorough analysis of the
requirements was implemented. The product was evaluated by an in house QA team to review
compliance with the requirements as well as reveal bugs in the system. Bugs and flaws were
categorized based on their level of impact on the platform and if there were temporary
workarounds available to the user. During this code freeze, any critical bugs were corrected. If
time permitted during the code freeze, additional bugs were corrected by the developers.
After the product was released to the University, communication was made available to a
subset of users. These users were asked to review the product and provide feedback on the
functionality as well as any bugs they discover. The feedback was then placed into the backlog
for future improvements as time permitted.
Stakeholder Communication Plan and Reports
Communication with the stakeholders was done in two methods based on the group of
stakeholders. The more general stakeholders, the existing site owners on the old system, were
emailed with general information at the start of the project. A University-wide newsletter was
sent out at the beginning and when the product was made available. The newsletter gave
information on the available features and instructions on how to learn more.
Communication with the advisory group was more interactive. The advisory group was a
small group of individuals who have a large amount of influence on the product. Monthly
meetings were set up with the advisory group and upper management. These meetings included
formal presentations as well as discussion opportunities to review desired features. After the

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advisory group had experience using the initial product, surveys were sent out to gather feedback
on their experience. The advisory group was asked to rank some of the features that don’t exist to
determine which missing functionality is most desired. The results of the feedback and surveys
were put into the backlog for future improvements if funding is available.
Ongoing Support and Maintenance
Part of using open-source software such as Drupal, maintenance is a must. Security
announcements are released almost weekly, and they must be reviewed and implemented in a
timely manner. Also, additional functionality will certainly be desired by various groups around
campus. Funding from those groups will help to build additional functionality as well as provide
maintenance during those engagements.
Resources for Post-Implementation Support
After releasing the product to the University, there has been an overwhelming amount of
interest to enhance the product. Different schools and departments have expressed interest to
build specific functionality that they are familiar with on the old Drupal 7 system. Resources to
implement these features and support the product will be made available by engaging with these
groups. Some features that are requested will be considerably large and will require additional
personnel resources. Those engagements will be undertaken as individual projects and will have
a corresponding project plan with resource plans.
Short and Long Term Maintenance Plan
The short term maintenance of the product mostly consists of bug fixes. For the first 6
months after completion of the project, bug fixes will be addressed and released during

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maintenance windows. Any critical security issue or site breaking bug will be resolved with a
hotfix at the earliest window available.
As Drupal 8 progresses, Drupal 9 will be released. Luckily the upgrade to Drupal 9 will
be much less intrusive than this project was for the upgrade to Drupal 8. The long term
maintenance plan will consist of observing the Drupal 9 upgrade path. The product will be able
to lean on the open-source community to provide the majority of the upgrade requirements to get
to Drupal 9. If any module in use does not have Drupal 9 compatibility, the maintenance plan
will include upgrading those parts and providing the upgrade back to the open-source
community. Once the Drupal 9 upgrade is complete, the product will resume normal security and
bug fix maintenance as outlined in the short term maintenance plan.
Post-Implementation Project Summary
The old University website hosting system was based on Drupal 7. With the introduction
of Drupal 8, Drupal 7 was scheduled with an end-of-life date. As that date is coming in the near
future, the system will become insecure as new security vulnerabilities are not discovered or
patched. These vulnerabilities could compromise the websites hosted on the Drupal 7 platform
and sensitive information could be released to the public. It was vital that the University invests
in a new website system available to the University. Drupal 8 provided a great opportunity to
continue with a similar experience but also introduce new and exciting functionality. The Drupal
8 product was developed to meet the needs of 95% of the websites on the Drupal 7 system.
Upgrade paths and instructions were provided for faster adoption. After the product was
complete, new websites on the Drupal 7 platform were no longer allowed. As the product was
more widely adopted, the sites on the Drupal 7 system were retired and archived. The Drupal 8

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product began to gain even more popularity and was quickly adopted by some of the largest
departments on campus, including the University Library.
Documentation Deliverables
Documentation deliverables include many comparisons against the old Drupal 7
platform. Because the new Drupal 8 platform was much more locked down in regards to
customizations, a list was provided that outlines the similarities and differences. Many users
were able to reference this documentation to determine if the new product fits their needs before
beginning a new website project.
Documentation also includes step by step instructions to guide the user through the user
interface. Although some help text was provided within the user interface, additional information
was provided that expanded on these tips. Screenshots and videos helped to reinforce the
processes to build out specific pages that are most common with a modern look and feel. On top
of this user guide, a developer guide was provided to assist any new development team looking
to contribute back to the product.
Success Criteria for Each Project Outcome
The project was intended to assist in the building of websites consisting of 50 pages or
less. This metric does not include pages not existing in the menu structure. The primary
development consisted of building out a user-friendly page building experience. The criteria for
this outcome was based on user feedback. The experience had to be easier to navigate and faster
to build when compared to the Drupal 7 system. Surveys were provided to early adopters and the
advisory board that helped to validate these criteria.

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Alongside the primary website page building, supplemental page content was necessary
for a successful project. News articles, event listings, and a person directory were required to fill
out the needs of departments on campus. The success of each of these consisted of an intuitive
data entry interface that produced visually appealing pages. The data structure had to be similar
enough to the Drupal 7 platform for easy migration to the new system. Further requirements
consisted of methods to import content of these types from external sources such as the
University directory and the University event system. Criteria for these imports entailed an easy
to use configuration interface and automatic synchronization of that content without user
interaction. A website owner should be able to rely on automation to consume any new events,
people, or news articles.
Justification of Proposed Versus Actual Project Outcomes
The page building experience of the project went through various iterations before one
was found to be most intuitive for the user. The product first was implemented with tools that
were already available from the open-source community, but these tools were very limited and
didn’t align with the requirements of the project. The project reviewed various alternatives to
obtain an easy to the user interface. One alternative was the review of “Cohesion”, a product
provided by Acquia which allowed an easy drag and drop experience (Acquia Cohesion). Due to
the cost of that interface, the product had to pivot and review other options. Eventually, an in
house drag and drop system was built by the development team and was quickly adopted as the
most user-friendly Drupal experience. The platform outcome was quick to garner praise by all of
the advisory board and several early adopters.

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Lessons Learned
As discussed earlier, providing an easy to use interface for page building posed a greater
challenge than was originally anticipated. The development team quickly learned that using
alternative technologies can often enhance the experience for users and prevent roadblocks from
other systems. The team is now looking to take advantage of those technologies in a wider scope
and the available features that can be provided are growing rapidly.
The project also sheds light on how dependent the University is reliant on the availability
of free website service. These days with the impact of Covid-19, finances across the University
are becoming tighter. Departments and schools are re-evaluating their budgets and most are
changing the scope of their website presence. With the Drupal 8 product now available for free,
those groups around the University are less concerned with their websites and are able to build
amazing products with zero budget.

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References
Acquia Cohesion. (n.d.). Retrieved July 03, 2020, from
https://www.acquia.com/products-services/acquia-cohesion
Hojtsy, G. (2020, June 16). Upgrading a Drupal 8 site to Drupal 9. Retrieved July 03, 2020, from
https://www.drupal.org/docs/updating-drupal/how-to-prepare-your-drupal-7-or-8-site-for-
drupal-9/upgrading-a-drupal-8-site

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