Posted: August 6th, 2022

Healthcare Policy and Delivery Systems

Week -14

I need  a  Reply to each discussions separately. 

See attached documents

200 words each reply

Week 14-Discussion 1

Population Health Focus

What are the ways in which a population health focus might be applied in transforming the health care delivery system?

Population health is the health prominence and results within a cluster of people, not bearing in mind an individual’s health at a time. Population health focus deals with the interrelated factors affecting the health status of an identified population and determines the systematic variations in the occurrence pattern. Knowledge of the occurrence pattern is then used to develop and implement policies and actions to improve the well-being of the identified population. Segmentations of the patient population, using value-based care instead of volume-based care, and identifying risk factors are ways population health focus is used to transform the healthcare delivery system.

Segmenting the patient population helps to group the population to improve care based on factors like age, gender, condition, risk stratification, behavior, and demographic factors. Unlike working with the general population without segmentation, healthcare workers can be more precise with the population under consideration. In the end, they can connect the population with the desired and appropriate health resources to improve healthcare delivery.

Moving from volume-based to value-based care has helped to focus on prevention, improving care, and reducing cost and expenditure. Before the shift, the system was not considering the cost of the care and how it affects the healthcare systems and patients (Click & Regueiro, 2019). Moving to value-based implementation in the healthcare systems has helped to improve communication and the continuum of patient care (Jivraj, Barrow, & Listl, 2021).

The last way is to identify the risk factors, as there are limiting factors that contribute to chronic diseases troubling the communities. Identifying the first-degree factors of chronic diseases in the unhealthy diet, lack of physical activities, and drug abuse that led to intermediate risks like diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, among others, can be well addressed to reduce the occurrence of a disease. On the other hand, there are non-modifiable risk factors, for example, age and heredity, which contribute to the long life history and are well studied. Prevention mechanisms are put in place to reduce the occurrence of chronic diseases (Ali et al., 2020).

Performing patients’ segmentations, using value-based care, and identifying the risk factors are significant ways that can be used to transform healthcare delivery. This way, the healthcare personnel will be able to identify the appropriate cause of health issues among a given patient segment and provide an appropriate solution. These three ways should be used often to ensure maximum delivery from the healthcare systems.



Ali, F., El-Sappagh, S., Islam, S. R., Kwak, D., Ali, A., Imran, M., & Kwak, K. S. (2020). A smart healthcare monitoring system for heart disease prediction based on ensemble deep learning and feature fusion. Information Fusion, 63, 208-222.

Click, B., & Regueiro, M. (2019). The inflammatory bowel disease medical home: from patients to populations. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 25(12), 1881-1885.

Jivraj, A., Barrow, J., & Listl, S. (2021). Value-based oral health care: implementation lessons from four case studies. Journal of Evidence-Based Dental Practice, 101662.


Week 14-Discussion 2

Transforming Healthcare Delivery System with Population Health Focus


           The healthcare sector is evolving rapidly, bringing about various challenges which impact the delivery of care services to populations. As a result, there is a growing need to develop the healthcare delivery model to meet the emerging demands of the people. For a long time, healthcare service delivery has been done based on the biomedical model of health. However, the model has not been able to meet the demands for effective care delivery to communities and individuals.

Some of the challenges that have emerged in the healthcare system include (1) the recent COVID-19 pandemic, which fundamentally revolutionized how healthcare systems across the world deliver services, and (2) the increasing cost of health services (Bakshi et al., 2021). The traditional model of care delivery which is based on the biomedical model of health, is hinged on face-to-face visits and fee-for-service insurance and reimbursement models. Healthcare sectors can utilize the population-based approach to improve healthcare service delivery by addressing the challenges facing traditional care delivery models.

            The population health focus approach describes the shift from the traditional care delivery model toward cross-sector collaboration in advancing the health of communities. Sectors that can collaborate in the adoption of a population-based approach to healthcare delivery include the primary care providers, the public health sector, and healthcare providers and organizations. Partnerships and collaboration between the sectors can effectively address population health needs and improve community health outcomes (Shahzad et al., 2019). The improvement in health outcomes is attributed to the robustness and agility of population-focused interventions as they seek to address the health determinants of the target population. Population-focused interventions are also crucial in optimizing the healthcare sector’s investments as they prompt the healthcare sector to understand and act on the factors that undermine community health.

            Moreover, the shift from individual-focused interventions to population-focused interventions emphasizes the need for health promotion. While the individual-focused approach is geared towards addressing the essential mission of healthcare, this approach’s most significant shortcoming is the inability to contribute to disease prevention. Note that this is because the individual-based approach focuses on the individual’s illness while ignoring the need to address the factors that cause disparities in health outcomes. The population-based approach helps overcome the issue by examining and addressing population-level risk factors.

            Further, the population focus approach enhances care delivery by producing data utilized to formulate effective policies. As the healthcare sector evolves, there is a need for new policies to help it adapt to emerging challenges. By utilizing clinical insights and data from a population-based approach, policymakers can formulate policies that streamline care delivery tailored to meet specific needs in the community (Bakshi et al., 2021). Thus, the population focus approach can be utilized to address population-specific risk factors. According to Shahzad et al. (2019), the population focus approach enables the formulation of policies to address inequalities faced by underserved populations.


Bakshi, S., Schiavoni, K. H., Carlson, L. C., Chang, T. E., Flaster, A. O., Forester, B. P., … &   Mendu, M. L. (2021). The essential role of population health during and beyond COVID-19. American Journal of Managed Care, 27(3).

Shahzad, M., Upshur, R., Donnelly, P., Bharmal, A., Wei, X., Feng, P., & Brown, A. D. (2019). A population-based approach to integrated healthcare delivery: a scoping review of clinical care and public health collaboration. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 1-15.


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