Posted: March 11th, 2023

help with disc (3) due in 24 hours

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Week 8 - Diseases of the Endocrine System

Discussion Topic

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Choose a topic from the chapters on diseases of the endocrine system and present it to the class, covering the basics of pathogenesis and prognosis, as well as how it affects you as an embalmer. When posting, approach as if you are discussing the topic with someone with little or no knowledge about the topic. This means you need to provide details to help the person understand. That is what I expect when reading and grading your post. You must include diagrams and graphics to support your post, so make sure you include in your post the significance of why the diagram/graphic is important. Simply including the diagram/graphic will not be enough. 

The discussions are a great way to learn and exchange information with others in the class. Students are asked to post on at least two different days of the week. Your post should add to and support the discussions. No posts are accepted after the week closes!

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Week Eight: Discussion Forum

Week Eight: Discussion Forum

Discussion Topic Top of Form

This week we discuss biochemistry. After all this talk of carbon chains, aromatic hydrocarbons, electron valences, and structural formulas it's time to decompress and do something fun. 

For this week's discussion I want you to find a  recipe of something you like. 

This could be something you like to cook yourself or have eaten but have never made. Paste a link to the recipe as part of your discussion. In case you've never used a recipe site, my go-to is but you can use whatever site you like.

Look at the ingredient lists and take a moment to classify three ingredients into their chemical constituents. 

For example, if I were to reference 



Phyllo dough is primarily all purpose flour with some salt, vinegar, water, and oil. I find that flour is a mixture of starches and proteins (the gluten). Honey is mixtures of glucose and fructose. Vanilla is a combination of an aldehyde, hydroxyl, and an ether (C8H803) and is a cyclic compound. 

I'm not looking for a deep dive into food chemistry, The goal here is to see that even in the food we eat we are performing organic chemistry "behind the scenes" and even in our kitchens we are applying chemical principles. 

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(C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 1 64 Biochemistry There are several definitions of biochemistry in this first paragraph: The study of the chemistry of living systems. The study of the structure, organization, and interaction of the substances within living matter. The study of the chemical processes in health and disease. The study of all the chemical processes that occur in living organisms. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 2 64 Biochemistry Biochemistry can also be known as: Biological chemistry. Physiological chemistry. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 3 64 Carbohydrates The carbohydrates are defined as derivatives of polyhydric alcohols containing an aldehyde or a ketone group. They can also be defined as the result of the oxidation of polyhydroxy alcohols. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 4 64 Carbohydrates As a class of compounds we often identify the carbohydrates with sugars, starches, cellulose, and glycogen. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 5 64 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are often named using the suffix “-OSE”. Those carbohydrates containing an aldehyde functional group are called aldoses. Those with a ketone group are called ketoses. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 6 64 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are composed of only 3 elements: Carbon. Hydrogen. Oxygen. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 7 64 Monosaccharides Carbohydrates can range from relatively simple compounds to those which are quite complex. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 8 64 Monosaccharides The simplest of the carbohydrates of the simple sugars we call monosaccharides. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 9 64 Monosaccharides The simple sugars may have from 3 to 7 carbons in their structure. Because the number of carbons is important they may be grouped according to this number. 3 carbons – triose. 4 carbons – tetrose. 5 carbons – pentose. 6 carbons – hexose. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 10 64 Monosaccharides The monosaccharides of greatest significant to the body are the hexose monosaccharides. They have the molecular formula C6H12O6. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 11 64 Monosaccharides Hexose monosaccharides are an excellent source of energy for the body providing about 4 calories per gram. Glucose, fructose, and galactose are the ones we will discuss. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 12 64 Glucose Glucose is an aldose which has several alternate names: Dextrose. Grape sugar. Blood sugar. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 13 64 Glucose Its importance to the body is its presence in the blood. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 14 64 Fructose Fructose is a ketose. It is the sweetest of the sugars, almost twice as sweet as table sugar. Fructose is also known as: Levulose. Fruit sugar. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 15 64 Fructose Honey is about 80% fructose and glucose and the remainder is water and a few other ingredients. This gives you an idea of why honey is as sweet as it is. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 16 64 Galactose Galactose is another aldose important to the body because it is found in the makeup of the brain and nerve tissue. It is derived from lactose (milk sugar). (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 17 64 Disaccharides Disaccharides are carbohydrates containing two saccharide groups. Disaccharides derived from the hexose monosaccharides will all have the molecular formula C12H22O11. This is basically the equivalent of dehydrating between two monosaccharides. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 18 64 Disaccharides You can derive the molecular formula by adding the formulas for two monosaccharides and then subtracting the formula for a water molecule. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 19 64 Disaccharides The disaccharides which contain the hexose monosaccharides discussed above are sucrose, maltose, and lactose. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 20 64 Sucrose Sucrose is table sugar (cane sugar). It is formed from the dehydration between a molecule of glucose and a molecule of fructose. Sucrose may be hydrolyzed to yield glucose and fructose. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 21 64 Maltose Maltose is malt sugar. It is formed by dehydrating between two glucose molecules. Maltose may be hydrolyzed to yield two molecules of glucose. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 22 64 Lactose Lactose is milk sugar. It is formed by dehydrating between a molecule of glucose and a molecule of galactose. Lactose may be hydrolyzed to yield glucose and galactose. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 23 64 Polysaccharides Polysaccharides are complex sugars which will have many saccharide groups. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 24 64 Polysaccharides The polysaccharides include starches, cellulose, and glycogen. They may be hydrolyzed repeatedly to eventually yield monosaccharides. A monosaccharide not be further hydrolyzed. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 25 64 Starches Starches occur in plants such as tubers and grains. Starches are the most important polysaccharides to humans. Complete hydrolysis of a starch yields monosaccharides. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 26 64 Glycogen Glycogen occurs as a stored polysaccharide in the liver of humans and other animals. The buildup of glycogen is important because this is how our bodies store sugar for later use. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 27 64 Cellulose Cellulose occurs in the makeup of many plants. It is not digestible by the human digestive tract so it serves only as a bulking agent in our diets. If you are not getting enough fiber, you are not getting enough cellulose. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 28 64 Reactions of Carbohydrates The hydrolytic products of carbohydrates are ultimately the monosaccharides. Hydrolysis refers to the splitting apart by the addition of water. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 29 64 Reactions of Carbohydrates One should note that merely adding water would not hydrolyze most sugars, each reaction requires the addition of the appropriate enzyme. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 30 64 Hydrolysis of Carbohydrates The oxidation of carbohydrates would ultimately yield carbon dioxide and water. Oxidation of carbohydrates is also referred to as animal metabolism of carbohydrates. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 31 64 Hydrolysis of Carbohydrates This process is the body’s chief source of energy. It is the opposite of the photosynthesis reaction that occurs in plants. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 32 64 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert carbon dioxide, water, and solar energy into carbohydrates and oxygen while in the presence of the catalyst, chlorophyll. Obviously it is the exact opposite of oxidation of simple sugars. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 33 64 Fermentation of Carbohydrates Fermentation has several definitions: The anaerobic breakdown of organic compounds (carbohydrates) by microorganisms into simpler products, releasing carbon dioxide. The oxidative decomposition of complex substances (carbohydrates) through the action of enzymes, produced by microorganisms. In the embalming textbook, this definition is simplified down to the breakdown of carbohydrates by anaerobic bacteria. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 34 64 Fermentation of Carbohydrates This is the reaction often associated with the fermentation of glucose in the presence of the enzyme mixture, zymase, which is found in yeast to produce ethanol. Fermentation is the foundation of all bad decisions and the phrase "hold my beer.” (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 35 64 Lipids Lipids are substances able to yield fatty acids when hydrolyzed. They are made with alcohol combined with a fatty acid. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 36 64 Lipids Technically, lipids are types of esters. The name “lipid” comes from a Greek word which means “fat”. The word “fat” refers to only a certain class of lipid rather than all of them. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 37 64 Lipids All lipids must have the same elements present as in a carbohydrate but also have other elements which may be present such as nitrogen and phosphorus. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 38 64 Lipids As a group, the lipids are very different. One of the few similarities the lipids have in common is that they are generally insoluble in water but they are soluble in organic solvents such as: Some alcohols. Some ethers. Acetone. Benzene. Chloroform. Carbon tetrachloride. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 39 64 Lipids A simple lipid is an ester of fatty acids. Fats and oils are simple lipids which once hydrolyzed will yield fatty acid(s) and glycerol. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 40 64 Fats and Oils Fats and oils can be described as glyceryl esters of fatty acids or esters of glycerol and fatty acids, sometimes just called glycerides. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 41 64 Fats and Oils Recall that an ester is derived from an alcohol and organic acid. Each molecule of a fat or an oil may be hydrolyzed to yield a single glycerin and up to 3 fatty acids. There are 2 major categories: simple glycerides and mixed glycerides. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 42 64 Types of Glycerides Glycerides in which all the fatty acids are the same are called simple glycerides. Those glycerides containing more than one type of fatty acid are called mixed glycerides. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 43 64 Types of Glycerides Those glycerides containing only one molecule of fatty acid are called monoglycerides (monoacylglycerols). 2 molecules equals diglycerides, 3 molecules; triglycerides. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 44 64 Fats and Oils The distinction between a fat or an oil is determined by the characteristics of the fatty acid(s) they contain. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 45 64 Fats and Oils If the fatty acids are saturated than the glyceride is a fat. Fats generally tend to be solid at room temperatures. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 46 64 Fats and Oils If the fatty acids are unsaturated, then the glyceride is an oil. Oils tend to be liquids at room temperatures. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 47 64 Fats and Oils Tristearin (stearin) is an example of a fat: It contains the fatty acid stearic acid which has a relatively high molecular weight and is saturated. Both stearic acid and palmitic acid are saturated acids. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 48 64 Fats and Oils Oils containing the unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid or linoleic acid, would be liquid at room temperatures. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 49 64 Fats and Oils The more unsaturated the fatty acid, the lower the molecules melting point which causes many to be liquids at room temperature. Fatty acids go by the general formula RX-COOH. If the RX is saturated than the lipid is a fat and will be a solid. If the RX is unsaturated than the lipid is an oil and will be a liquid. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 50 64 Fats and Oils Fats are very important to the human body. They are superior to carbohydrates as a source of energy in that they yield 9 calories per gram of fat as compared to 4 calories per gram of carbohydrate. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 51 64 Fats and Oils The body is able to store fats in unlimited quantities. Fats serve to prevent dehydration of body cells as well as to insulate the body in terms of heat retention and even serve to cushion certain body organs. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 52 64 Fats and Oils The oxidation of a fat or an oil results in the end products carbon dioxide, water, and a release of energy. When hydrolyzed, a fat or an oil results in the end products glycerol and fatty acids. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 53 64 Saponification Saponification is defined as the alkaline hydrolysis of a fat or an oil to produce a soap and a glycerol (glycerine). The alkaline substance used may be a base such as lye (NaOH). When sodium hydroxide is used the end products are glycerine and lye soap. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 54 64 Saponification Grave wax, also known as adipocere, is a result of the saponification of fatty acids and the dead human body by alkaline substances in the water or the earth surrounding the grave. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 55 64 Saponification Grave wax is usually associated with the body that has been immersed in water for period of time or is buried in a damp grave. The appearance of grave wax is not very frequent due to the use of protective caskets and vaults. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 56 64 Saponification A soap is defined as the substance besides glycerol produced when saponification of a fat or oil occurs. The anion of the base has become a part of what would have been the fatty acid to form the soap. Soaps are very important because they are used to make emulsions. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 57 64 Saponification An emulsion is a mixture of two liquids which do not ordinarily mix such as water and oil to which you add a soap which causes them to mix. This is the reason why we wash with soaps because the soap isolates the individual particles of oil on the surface of the skin containing dirt and allows these particles to be removed by mechanically washing the surface of the skin. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 58 64 Saponification Emulsification refers to the process of creating an emulsion by adding a soap. In the digestive tract of the human body bile serves as an emulsifier to allow absorption of the fats in our diet. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 59 64 Waxes Waxes are lipids that are esters of fatty acids and high molecular weight alcohols, other than glycerol. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 60 64 Waxes The more common waxes are: Beeswax. Lanolin. Spermaceti. Carnauba wax. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 61 64 Waxes Lanolin and spermaceti are significant to cosmetologists because they are used in creams, lotions, and cosmetics. Do not confuse paraffin with true waxes; paraffin does not contain an ester. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 62 64 Mixed or Compound Lipids A mixed or compound lipid is one which when hydrolyzed will yield fatty acids, and alcohol, and some other compound. Phospholipids and glycolipids, two important compounds found in the tissues of the brain, are in this category. (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 63 64 (C) 2017 - Professor Joseph Finocchiaro 64 References: The following Textbook References were used to create this presentation: Funeral Service Chemistry by Professional Trade Schools Embalming: Theory, History, and Practice by Robert G. Mayer (5th Edition). Charts were taken from the textbook unless otherwise indicated   Pictures and art used in this presentation have the reference and location stored in the graphic. Please hover the mouse over the image to find where it was obtained.   64 image2 image3 image4 image5 image6.gif image7 image8 image9 image10 image11 image12 image13 image14.gif image15.gif image16 image17.gif image18 image19 image20 image21.gif image22 image23 image24.gif image25 image26.gif image27 image28 image29 image30 image31.gif image32 image33 image34 image35 image36 image37.gif image38 image39 image40 image41 image42.gif image43 image44 image45 image46 image47 image48 image49.gif image50.gif image51 image52 image53 image54.gif




A. Pituitary Gland - called the master gland - found under the circle of willis - it is composed of two parts - Anterior pituitary controls skeletal growth, the thyroid and adrenal glands, and sexual development - Posterior controls smooth muscle contraction, as in birth and peristalsis 1. Anterior Pituitary - also known as the adenohypophysis - one of the secretions is somatotropin or the human growth hormone (HGH) - stimulates the growth of bone and soft tissues - problems with the secretion of this hormone will possibly lead to one of the following conditions: a. Giantism or Gigantism - the result of a condition of hyper-pituitarism during childhood - a hypersecretion of somatotropin that occurs while a child is still actively growing - giants are usually sexually impotent and frequently die of diabetes - leads to growth into a giant or abnormally tall person b. Acromegaly - the result of hyperpituitarism during adulthood - a hypersecretion of somatotropin after bones have solidified and can no longer grow - characterized by enlargement of the bones and soft tissues of the hands, feet, and head - especially the frontal bone, jaws, nose, lips, and ears - gives a "lion face" appearance - will eventually lead to sexual impotence, drowsiness, and possibly obesity Both of the above conditions are typically caused by the growth of an adenoma c. Dwarfism - the result of hypopituitarism during early life - a hyposecretion of somatotropin from the adenohypophysis - person remains quite small and never develops any secondary sex characteristics - leads to mental dullness and lethargy in adults d. Adult onset hypopituitarism - a hyposecretion of somatotropin in adulthood 2. Posterior Pituitary - the result of hypofunction of the posterior lobe of the pituitary - Diabetes Insipidus - a hyposecretion of the antidiuretic hormone occurs - found to be idiopathic in half of the cases - leads to the passing of large quantities of urine - accompanied by excessive thirst - trauma to the head or a tumor in that area causes the remainder of cases (polyuria) (polydipsia) - there is necrosis of the gland - also known as pituitary cachexia - a condition in which there is complete atrophy of the pituitary gland 3. Entire Pituitary - leads to a loss of function of the thyroid, adrenal and gonad glands - Simmond's Disease - characterized by the following: - considerable weight loss - atrophy of internal organs - loss of sexual function - premature aging to include: - mental changes - loss of hair and teeth B. Thyroid Gland - secretes the hormone thyroxin - consists of two lateral lobes - found on either side of the windpipe - which regulates general body metabolism - it influences body growth and development - exerts an influence over the nervous system - secretes the hormone thyroxin - enlargement of the thyroid gland 1. Goiter - can be due to lack of iodine in diet, inflammation from infection, tumors, hyper or hyposecretion of thyroxin 2. Hypothyroidism - caused by a lack of iodine in the diet - this enlargement is known as endemic goiter - the gland enlarges in an effort to compensate and secrete more thyroxin 2 conditions of hypothyroidism: - characterized by a lack of physical and mental development a. Cretinism - the condition resulting from congenital hypofunction of the thyroid gland To include: - dwarfism - slow bone development - low body temperature - retarded mental activity b. Myxedema the condition resulting from hypo-function of the thyroid gland in adulthood - due to the presence of a mucous-like edema - weight gain - mental dullness - swelling of eyelids & other soft tissues - thickening of the tongue and lips - body temperature and metabolism fall - general sluggishness - characterized by: BEFORE TREATMENT AFTER TREATMENT - will likely lead to the following condition: 3. Hyperthyroidism - an over-active thyroid - a goiter could develop due to hyperplasia a. Grave's Disease - the condition resulting from prolonged hyperthyroidism - also known as exopthalmic goiter - more prevalent in females - weakness - tachycardia - nervous excitability - the gland enlarges and produces excessive amounts of thyroxin - characterized by: - low body weight because of a very high BMR - profuse sweating - eyeball protrusion - due to edema in the back of the eyesocket - frequent in young adults and can lead to heart damage because of fibrillation C. Parathyroid Glands - regulate blood calcium levels - with the secretion of parathormone - calcium levels in the blood are reduced 1. Parathyroid Tetany - a condition due to hypofunction of the parathyroid glands - lowered amounts of parathormone are secreted - causing nerve cells to become irritable and overactive - also slows blood coagulation - this then leads to spasmatic muscular twitching, abnormal reflexes and convulsive seizures - usually fatal due to constant contractions of the heart muscle - increased amount of parathormone is secreted - calcium is drawn out of the bones and into the bloodstream 2. Hyperparathyroidism - results in hypercalcemia and bone absorption - which could lead to: - fibrous cysts may form in the bones causing a condition known as - softening and deformation of bones - formation of kidney stones - hardening of the arteries - heartbeat irregularities - osteitis fibrosa cystica or von Recklinghausen’s disease - the inner layer called the medulla - the outer portion called the cortex D. Adrenal Glands - located on top of the kidneys - composed of two layers - it secretes several hormones that regulate: - salt levels in the blood - blood glucose levels - production of some mild sex hormones - the cortex is the part of the gland that is essential to life - a condition due to the hypofunction of the adrenal cortex - characterized by a bronze pigmentation - weakness and loss of weight - low blood pressure - gastro-intestinal disturbances 1. Addison's Disease - affects the hormones that regulate metabolism and blood pressure - usually caused by a chronic adrenal cortical insufficiency as a part of an autoimmune disorder 2. Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome - caused by a meningococcal infection of the blood - causes acute adrenal insufficiency due to hemorrhage into the adrenal gland - a condition due to hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex 3. Cushing's Disease - due to excess exposure to hormones called glucocorticoids (steroids) - most often a complication of steroid treatments for inflammation - adiposity - fatigue impotence - excess hair growth - purplish skin discolorations - the build-up of a fatty pad over the shoulders and upper back - creates a “moon-shaped” facial appearance - characterized by E. Pancreas - the endocrine function takes place in the Islets or Islands of Langerhans - a heterocrine gland - insulin lowers blood sugar levels - glucagon raises blood sugar levels - produces two hormones - a condition caused by a deficiency in insulin secretion - causes a disorder in carbohydrate metabolism - called hyperglycemia or sugar diabetes - Diabetes Mellitus - sugars cannot be carried into the cells and a buildup in the bloodstream ensues - with excess fat in the bloodstream, several of the following complications occur: - when the cells have no glucose to use, they begin metabolizing fats and proteins 1. Atherosclerosis - predisposes to myocardial infarctions, gangrene, blindness 2. Poor wound healing 3. Vascular Obstructions 4. Hemorrhage 5. Gangrene - Juvenile-onset diabetes is the most serious - usually requires hypodermic injections of insulin and special diet - Adult-onset diabetes is not as serious - can be controlled with diet and oral medications - appears to be premature puberty - hypersecretion of estrogen in females and androgen in males F. Gonad Glands - actually a part of the adrenal cortex - has to do with the secretion of androgen and estrogen 1. Precociousness - a condition caused by a hyper-function of the gonads - involves a hypersecretion of androgen in females and estrogen in males 2. Androgenital syndrome - a condition caused by a hyperfunction of the gonads - in females it leads to: - excessive hair growth - deepened voice - decreased breast size - amenorrhea - in males it leads to: - testicular atrophy - decreased libido - gynecomastia - excessive breast development 3. Senile Involution - atrophy of the testes or ovaries due to old age XVIII. DISEASES OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM A. Acne - an inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles - the result of an abnormal or profuse production of oil in the sebaceous glands - this leads to the pores of the skin becoming clogged with sebum B. Abscess - many different types seen here - in the secondary stage a skin rash and lesions on the mucous membranes form to be the primary symptom C. Syphilis D. Superficial fungal infections - known as dermatomycoses - commonly known as ringworm or tinea - these infections are characterized by red, scaly, and itchy lesions - tend to localize in certain body areas a. Tinea cruris - a fungal infection of the groin area - commonly known as “jock itch” b. Tinea pedis - a fungal infection of the feet - commonly known as athlete’s foot E. Dermatitis - inflammation of the skin - caused by a variety of agents like poison ivy, soaps, fabrics, dyes, formalin - results when the skin is exposed to agents to which it has become sensitized - Contact Dermatitis or Eczema F. Seborrheic dermatitis - inflammatory skin disease beginning on the scalp - characterized by rounded, irregular lesions covered with yellow or brown-gray greasy scales - these are caused by an excessive secretion of sebum(oil) from the sebaceous glands - will spread to the face, neck and eyebrows if not cared for properly - tuberculosis of the skin G. Lupus vulgaris - characterized by ulcerations that leave scars when healed H. Other skin diseases or changes 1. Senile changes - old age changes in the skin 2. Melanocytic nevus - any nevus that contains melanin 3. Malignant melanoma 4. Squamous cell carcinomas I. Postmortem Conditions of Skin Diseases 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Discolorations Dehydration/dryness/scales Burns Lesions Pigmented or depigmented spots Edema XIX. DISEASES OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM - usually due to infection by a pyo-genic strepto-cocci A. Tonsillitis - a mass of lymphatic tissue found in the very back of the oral cavity - inflammation of a - inflammation of a tonsil - the enlargement of a lymph node B. Lymphadenopathy - caused by a variety of conditions - some may be signs of serious disease C. Lymphadenitis - inflammation of a lymph node D. Lymphangitis - inflammation of the lymphatic channels or vessels - usually occurs secondary to lymphadenitis - enlargement of the spleen E. Splenomegaly - caused by many, many diseases - the biggest danger is that an enlarged spleen is much easier to rupture - edema due to an obstruction of the lymphatic vessels F. Lymphedema H. Postmortem Conditions 1. 2. 3. 4. G. Lymphoma - see Tumors & Cysts Edema Emaciation Dehydration Metastasis image2 image3 image4 image5 image6 image7 image8 image9 image10 image11 image12 image13 image14 image15 image16 image17 image18 image19 image20 image21 image22 image23 image24 image25 image26 image27 image28 image29 image30 image31 image32 image33 image34 image35 image36 image37 image38 image39 image40 image41 image42 image43 image44 image45 image46 image47 image48 image49 image1

How to cite electronic sources (MLA)


In academic research and writing, there are several citation formats.


The most common are MLA (Modern Language Association) and APA (American Psychological Association).  In this CPI activity we will learn and practice the MLA format.


For this assignment,

I. Read this 

MLA guideLinks to an external site.

II. Take notes. Pay close attention to the format for the different sites (web sites, eBooks, images, journals, etc.)

III. Use the following links to generate citations on the citation machine (on the top of the MLA web site, see #I). 


BookLinks to an external site.


Web page 1Links to an external site.


Web Page 2Links to an external site.


PeriodicalLinks to an external site.

5. YouTube: to an external site.

IV. In the submission box, type in the proper MLA citation for  one of the above sources.



· The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. Works Cited: Electronic Sources. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2022, to an external site.

. Accessed 6 Jan. 2023.


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