Posted: August 5th, 2022

I need help writing a memorandum about the importance of ethics as well as create a ethics checklist

please see attached for further instructions

Final Paper Writing Requirement The submission should follow the general formatting requirements as noted below.

Part 1 (100 points)

Prepare a one page professional corporate Memorandum and address it to the President of a company (make up the name). You should organize the Memorandum to discuss the importance of ethics, how one learns ethics, and make your argument for the company to adopt your checklist. Be sure to specifically address the following topics/questions:

1. Do you (as the manager/director/consultant) think that ethics can be taught at the collegiate and/or during later stages in one’s life or do you feel one’s ethical framework is already established at the age when one’s age when entering college?

2. Explain your position in detail and explain why or why not and reference course materials when doing so.

3. Provide one recommendation for improved ethical learning at a later stage in life.

4. Explain why you developed and how you will use the ethical checklist and include the checklist as an exhibit to the Memorandum.

Part 2 (100 points)

Review the sample 12 and 6 point ethical checklists as posted in BB. Review the chapter related to ethics, consider your past experiences, and the supplemental PP materials posted in BB related to ethics.
Create and prepare your own
ethical checklist by creating an entirely new document. You may use all, some or none of the questions presented in the provided checklists. If you do use them, please be sure to either modify them or add to them to create a document that reflects the process you will follow in the future to address ethical dilemmas. However, you should have some original questions to add. Your checklist should be properly formatted for use by anyone in your company.


General Format for Submission:

• Include a cover page with all required information for a collegiate paper: name, instructor name, title of assignment, university name, and date;

• Part 1: The Memorandum should be one (1) to two (2) pages of content (not including the cover page and reference page) properly formatted as a corporate Memorandum. Be sure to mark it confidential or for internal use only.

• Part 2: One (1) page checklist as an exhibit.

• Use general APA format and as needed, cite your work and references you are using.

• Font should be at least 12-point, with proper headings for each section

Points All elements must be present to receive the points at each level. Partial credit for each point level will not be awarded.


200 points

1. Submitted a very thoughtful paper that demonstrates 100% mastery of content.

2. Covered 100% of the required items.

3. Grammar and writing style 100% correct.

160 points

1. Submitted a thoughtful paper that demonstrates 80% mastery of content.

2. Covered 80% of the required items.

3. Grammar and writing style 80% correct.

120 points

1. Submitted a thoughtful paper that demonstrates 60% mastery of content.

2. Covered 60% of the required items.

3. Grammar and writing style 60% correct.

80 or fewer points

1. Submitted a thoughtful paper that demonstrates 40% mastery of content.

2. Covered 40% of the required items.

3. Grammar and writing style 40% correct.

0 points Failed to submit.

INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS

Nature of Business Ethics

 Ethics defined
 Principles of conduct governing individual or group

OR study of morality

 Investigation that includes activity of investigating as well as
results of investigation

Nature of Business Ethics

 Morality – standards that individual or group has about
what is right & wrong or good & evil

 Moral standards – norms about kinds of actions believed to
be morally right & wrong as well as values placed on what
we believe to be morally god & morally bad

 Moral

norms

 “Always tell the truth”
 “It’s wrong to kill innocent people”

 Moral values
 “Honesty is good”
 “Injustice is bad”

Nature of Business Ethics

 Nonmoral standards – standards by which we judge
what is good or bad and right or wrong in
nonmoral way
 Standards of etiquette

 Rules of

behavior

set by parents

 Judgments of right or wrong are based on
standards or norms

Nature of Business Ethics

 Moral norms
 “Do not harm other people”

 Do not lie to other people”

 “Do not steal”

 Nonmoral norms (conventional)
 “Do not eat with your mouth open”

 “Do not chew gum in class”

 “Do not wear socks that do not match”

Nature of Business Ethics

 Moral norms & nonmoral norms
 From age of three we can distinguish moral & nonmoral

norms

 From age of three we tend to think that moral norms
are more serious than nonmoral norms & apply
everywhere independent of what people say

 Ability to distinguish moral between from nonmoral
norms is innate & universal

Nature of Business Ethics

 Characteristics of moral standards
 Involve serious wrongs or significant benefits

 Preferred to other values including self-interest

 Not established by authority figures

 Felt to be universal

 Associated with special emotions & vocabulary
 Act contrary to moral standard

 “I feel guilty, ashamed, or remorseful”

 Describe behavior as “immoral” or “wrong”

 Experience loss of self-esteem

Nature of Business Ethics

 Ethics – discipline that examines one’s moral
standards or moral standards of society to evaluate
their reasonableness & their implication for one’s
life

Nature of Business Ethics

 Normative study – investigation that attempts to
reach conclusions about what things are bad or
wrong or about what actions are right or wrong
 Aims to discover what ought to be

 Descriptive study – investigation that attempts to
describe or explain the world without reaching any
conclusions about whether world is as it should be

Nature of Business Ethics

 Business ethics – specialized study of moral right &
wrong that concentrates on moral standards as they
apply to business institutions, organizations &
behavior

Nature of Business Ethics

 Kinds of ethical issues
 Systemic – social, political, legal or economic systems

 Corporate – corruption & its policies, culture, climate

 Individual – decisions, behavior or character

Ethics Research

 Focus of ethics research – seeks to explain why
people behave in manner consistent with generally
accepted norms of morality & why they sometimes
violate those norms

Ethics Research

 Prescriptive – how people ought to act suing various
codes & principles
 Legal ethics
 Medical ethics
 Economics

 Descriptive – scientific studies to observes how
people tend to act based on certain individual &
situational characteristics
 Psychology

Ethics Research

 Some studies focus on unethical behavior—behaviors
that clearly violates accepted norms of society
 Discrimination

 Falsifying financial information

 Violating environmental regulations

 Prevalence of unethical behavior
 Research suggests that 76% of employees have observed

illegal or unethical conduct within past 12 months

Ethics Research

 Some studies focus on “merely ethical behavior”
 Behavior that adheres to minimally accepted standard

of morality
 Obeying labor laws

 Complying with formal rules & contracts

Ethics Research

 Some studies focus on “especially ethical behavior”
 Behaviors that exceed minimally accepted standard of

morality
 Charitable giving

 Whistleblowing

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Why do some authorities behave in unethically
while others engage in ethical behavior?

 Four-component model of ethical decision making
 Ethical behaviors result from multistage sequence

1) Moral awareness

2) Moral judgment

3) Moral intent

4) Ethical behavior

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Moral awareness
 Authority recognizes that moral issue exists in situation

or principle is relevant

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Recognizing situation as ethical
 Framing it as one that requires ethical reasoning

 Situation seen as ethical when it involves serious harm
that is concentrated, likely, proximate, imminent &
potentially violates moral standards

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Recognizing situation as ethical
 Obstacles to recognizing situation is ethical
 Euphemistic labelling – “downsizing”, “collateral damage” or

“enhanced interrogation techniques”
 Rationalizing our actions – terrorist sees himself or herself as

courageous fighter against brutal oppressor
 Diminishing comparisons – make harms appear minor
 Displacement of responsibility – “I was just following orders”
 Diffusion of responsibility – “I wasn’t very involved in situation”
 Distorting the harm – “No good evidence that anyone was hurt”
 Dehumanizing victim – victims not real or not full human beings
 Redirecting blame – innocent victim provoked by others or by

circumstances

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Moral awareness depends on characteristics of
issue itself
 Moral intensity – degree to which issue has ethical

urgency
 Potential for harm is perceived to be high

 Act that would injure 1,000 people vs. 10 people

 Social pressure surrounding it
 Act violates social norm vs. act that seems similar to what

everyone else is doing

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Moral awareness depends on way authorities
observe & perceive events

 Moral attentiveness
 Degree to which people chronically perceive &

consider issues of morality
 Likely to report that they face several ethical dilemmas in

typical day

 Regularly think about issues of morality

 Enjoy pondering moral issues

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Moral judgment
 Recognize moral issue exists but unable to determine

whether given course of action is right or wrong

 Theory of cognitive moral development (Kohlberg)
 As people mature, they move through stages of moral

development
 Authorities that operate at more mature stages should

demonstrate better moral judgement

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Theory of cognitive moral development (Kohlberg)
 Preconventional stage – right vs. wrong viewed in

terms of consequences of cations for individual

 Desire to obtain pleasure & avoid pain
 Relationships remain self-interested

 “You scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours”

 Children seek to avoid punishment

 Children obey laws

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Theory of cognitive moral development (Kohlberg)
 Conventional stage – right vs. wrong is refenced to

expectations of family & society
 Seek approval of friends & family, conforming to

stereotypes about what is right
 Later, emphasize laws, rule & orders
 “Doing one’s duty” & “Maintaining social order”

 Research suggests that most adults are at
conventional stage

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Theory of cognitive moral development (Kohlberg)
 Principle (or postconventional stage) – right vs. wrong

referenced to set of defined, established moral
principles
 Research suggests that 20% of Americans are at this

stage

 Moral principles serves as prescriptive guides for
making moral judgments

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Moral principles used in principle stage
 Consequentialist
 Utilitarianism – greatest good for greatest number

 Egoisim – pursue short-term or long-term interests

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Nonconsequentialist
 Ethics of duties – act should be performable by

everyone with no harm; act should respect human
dignity; act should be endorsed by others

 Ethics of rights – act respects right of others (life,
liberty, justice, etc.)

 Virtue ethics – lead “good life” by adhering to virtues
(wisdom, honesty, courage, etc.)

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Biases prevent us from getting information to make
moral judgment
 Biased theories about the world
 Do not consider all stakeholders

 Ignore possibility that public will find out

 Discount consequences relatively far in the future

 Do not take account of indirect effects

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Biases prevent us from getting information to make
moral judgment
 Biased theories about others
 “We” differ from “them”

 “Our” way is superior to “their” way is inferior

 Ethnocentrism

 Stereotypes

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Biases prevent us from getting information to make
moral judgment
 Biased theories about oneself
 We believe that we are more capable, insightful,

courteous, honest, ethical & fair than others

 Overconfident in our ability to control random events

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Moral intent
 Authority’s degree of commitment to moral course of

action
 Situational factors encourage people to go against moral

convictions
 Unethical cultures

 Economic pressures from assigned goals or specific incentives

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Decisions to do what is ethical is influenced by our
surroundings
 Ethical culture – kind of behavior organization

encourages or discourages by repeated use of
examples of behavior, incentives for ethical behavior,
clear rules, rewards for exemplary conduct

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Moral identity – degree to which person identifies
as moral person
 Define themselves as compassionate, generous, kind,

fair & hardworking
 “Moderates” its effects of moral judgment on ethical

behavior

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Good intentions do not always result in good
behavior
 Ego strength – ability to resist impulses & to follow

one’s convictions

 Locus of control – whether person believes that what
happens to him or her is due primarily within his or her
control or the result of external forces (e.g., fate or
chance)

 Willingness to obey authority figures

Four Component Model of Ethical Decision Making

 Tend to be ethical if:
 Morally aware

 Sophisticated moral judgment

 Posses strong moral intent

Ethical Behavior & Emotions

 Recent research begun to examine relationship between
emotions & moral attitudes
 Four component model of decision making
 Assumes that ethical decision making based on higher order

cognitive processes

 Moral emotions
 Sympathy for those suffering
 Guilt about own unethical behavior
 Anger about injustice to others
 Disgust at violations to moral norms

 Numerous studies suggest that moral reactions based on
feeling rather than “cold” cognition

Ethical Behavior & Emotions

 Case of Phineas Gage
 While setting explosive, 3 foot 7 inch bar flew into his

lower left jaw & out through top of his head

Ethical Behavior & Emotions

 Intellectual abilities unharmed
 Could read & speak & performed well on cognitive

ability tests

 BUT lost ability to experience emotion which took his
ability to reason
 Made irrational choices behaving erratically & against

his self interests

Ethical Behavior & Emotions

 Case of Phineas Gage
 “… emotions may not be intruders in bastion of reason

at all: they may be enmeshed in networks, for worse
and for better”

 Must have ability to experience emotions to be rational
 Emotions provide information that helps think process

 Good decision making employs both thinking & feeling

 Emotions are necessary for moral reasoning

Ethical Behavior & Emotions

 Consider time when you hurt someone
 Did you feel angry or upset with yourself?

 Consider time when you have seen someone else
treated unfairly
 Did you feel contempt for person acting unfairly, or did you

engage in “cool” rational calculus of justice of situation?

 Sense of emotion prompts ethical behavior
 Donating money to help others
 Apologizing & making amends
 Intervening on behalf of those who have been mistreated

Business Law

Tenth Edition

Chapter 42

Ethics and Social Responsibility of Business

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Learning Objectives
42.1 Describe how law and ethics intertwine.
42.2 Describe and apply the moral theories of business ethics.
42.3 Describe and apply the theories of the social responsibility of business.

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Law and Ethics
Ethics: A set of moral principles or values that governs the conduct of an individual or group
Rule of law and rule of ethics may demand the same response
Law may permit an act that is ethically wrong
Law may demand certain conduct, but a person’s ethical standards are contrary

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Exhibit 42.1: Law and Ethics

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Case 42.1: Business Ethics
Case
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. v. Samara Brothers, Inc.
529 U.S. 205 (2000)
Supreme Court of the United States
Issue
Must a product’s design have acquired a secondary meaning before it is protected as trade dress?

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Major Theories of Business Ethics
Ethical Fundamentalism
Utilitarianism
Rawls’s Social Justice Theory
Ethical Relativism
Kantian Ethics

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Ethical Fundamentalism
A person looks to an outside source or a central figure for ethical rules or commands
This may be a book or a person
Ethical fundamentalism does not permit people to determine right and wrong for themselves

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Utilitarianism
People must choose the action or follow the rule that provides the greatest good to society
Origins in works of Bentham and Stuart
It has been criticized because:
It is difficult to estimate the “good” that will result from different actions
It is hard to apply
It treats morality as an impersonal calculation

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Kantian Ethics
A person owes moral duties based on universal rules
The rules are based on two principles
Consistency – All cases are treated alike with no exceptions
Reversibility – Actor must abide by the rule he or she uses to judge the morality of someone else’s conduct
Critics argue that it is hard to reach a consensus as to what the universal rules should be

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Case 42.2: Moral Theory of Law and Ethics
Case
POM Wonderful, LLC v. Coca-Cola Company
134 S.Ct 2228 (2014)
Supreme Court of the United States
Issue
Can a private party bring an unfair competition lawsuit under the Lanham Act against a competitor that challenges the truthfulness of a food label?

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Rawls’s Social Justice Theory (1 of 2)
A person has a social contract with all others in society to obey moral rules that are necessary for people to live in peace and harmony
Origins in work of Locke and Rousseau
The principles of justice should be chosen by persons who do not yet know their station in society
This veil of ignorance would permit the fairest possible principles to be selected

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Rawls’s Social Justice Theory (2 of 2)
Major criticisms of this theory
Establishing the blind “original position” for choosing moral principles is impossible in the real world
Many persons in society would choose not to maximize the benefit to the least advantaged persons in society

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Ethical Relativism
A person must decide what is ethical based on his or her own feelings as to what is right or wrong
No universal ethical rules to guide a person’s conduct
Critics argue that actions widely regarded as unethical, would be seen as ethical, depending on perpetrator’s viewpoint

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Case 42.3: Nondisclosure of Evidence
Case
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company v. Haeger
137 S.Ct. 1178 (2017)
Supreme Court of the United States
Issue
Should the plaintiffs recover their entire lawyer’s fees of $2.7 million?

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Social Responsibility of Business (1 of 2)
Corporations and businesses should act with awareness of the consequences and impact that their decisions will have on others
Corporations and businesses are considered to owe some degree of responsibility for their actions

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Social Responsibility of Business (2 of 2)
Maximizing Profits
Moral Minimum
Corporate Citizenship
Stakeholder Interest

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Maximizing Profits
Corporation owes a duty to take actions that maximize profits for shareholders
Interests of other constituencies are not important in and of them

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Moral Minimum
Corporation’s duty is to make a profit while avoiding harm to others
As long as business avoids or corrects the social injury it causes, it has met its duty of social responsibility
Legislative and judicial branches of government have established laws to enforce moral minimum

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Sarbanes-Oxley Act
Companies must disclose whether they have a code of ethics for senior financial officers
Compelling public companies to act ethically in dealings with shareholders, employees, and other constituents
Makes certain conducts illegal and establishes criminal penalties for violations

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Stakeholder Interest
Corporation must consider the effects its actions have on persons other than its shareholders
Critics argue that it is difficult to harmonize the conflicting interests of stakeholders

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Corporate Citizenship
Business has a responsibility to do good
Corporations owe a duty to promote the same social goals as individual members of society
Major criticism of this theory is that the duty of a corporation to “do good” cannot be expanded beyond certain limits

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Public Benefit Corporations
A corporation that requires directors and officers to make decisions to accomplish general-public benefits and stipulated specific public benefit purposes stated in the articles of incorporation
Must consider stakeholders other than shareholders, such as employees, customers, suppliers, and the community, when making corporate decisions.

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Copyright

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