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Assessment 2 Instructions: Biopsychosocial Population Health Policy Proposal
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· Develop a 2-4 page proposal for a policy that should help to improve health care and outcomes for your target population.
Introduction
Note: Each assessment in this course builds on the work you completed in the previous assessment. Therefore, you must complete the assessments in this course in the order in which they are presented.
Cost and access to care continue to be main concerns for patients and providers. As technology improves our ability to care for and improve outcomes in patients with chronic and complex illnesses, questions of cost and access become increasingly important. As a master’s-prepared nurse, you must be able to develop policies that will ensure the delivery of care that is effective and can be provided in an ethical and equitable manner.
As a master’s-prepared nurse, you have a valuable viewpoint and voice with which to advocate for policy developments. As a nurse leader and health care practitioner, often on the front lines of helping individuals and populations, you are able to articulate and advocate for the patient more than any other professional group in health care. This is especially true of populations that may be underserved, underrepresented, or are otherwise lacking a voice. By advocating for and developing policies, you are able to help drive improvements in outcomes for specific populations. The policies you advocate for could be internal ones (just within a specific department or health care setting) that ensure quality care and compliance. Or they could be external policies (local, state, or federal) that may have more wide-ranging effects on best practices and regulations.
Preparation
As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.
· What are the relevant best practices from a population health standpoint (cultural competence, disease prevention, and interventions) for your chosen health issue and vulnerable population?
1. How are these best practices relevant to your chosen health issue and vulnerable population?
1. Do the best practices make any reference to standards of care or benchmarks that should be achieved?
. How could these best practices be leveraged to help inform or develop a policy and guidelines to improve care and outcomes for the vulnerable population you are working with?
· How could technology be used to identify health concerns or collect data that could help health care practitioners determine which health care issues to focus on in a population?
. What are the relevant laws, regulations, or policies for employing any of the technology you might find useful?
· What type of policy and guidelines would be most likely to ensure improvements in care and outcomes related to your chosen health issue and vulnerable population?
. Are there any policies in existence that could help inform your own policy development?
. How might your proposed policy and guidelines influence the way in which care is accessed?
. How might your proposed policy and guidelines influence the amount of access that is available?
Assessment 2 will build on the health issue, vulnerable population, and position that you started to develop in the first assessment. For Assessment 2, you will develop a proposal for a policy and a set of guidelines that could be implemented to ensure improvements in care and outcomes. Refer to the resource listed below:
·
Guiding Questions: Biopsychosocial Population Health Policy Proposal [DOC]
.
Scenario
The analysis of position papers that your interprofessional team presented to the committee has convinced them that it would be worth the time and effort to develop a new policy to address your specific issue in the target population. To that end, your interprofessional team has been asked to submit a policy proposal that outlines a specific approach to improving the outcomes for your target population. This proposal should be supported by evidence and best practices that illustrate why the specific approaches are likely to be successful. Additionally, you have been asked to address the ways in which applying your policy to interprofessional teams could lead to efficiency or effectiveness gains.
Instructions
For this assessment you will develop a policy proposal that seeks to improve the outcomes for the health care issue and target population you addressed in Assessment 1. If for some reason you wish to change your specific issue and/or target population, contact your FlexPath faculty.
The bullet points below correspond to the grading criteria in the scoring guide. Be sure that your submission addresses all of them. You may also want to read the Biopsychosocial Population Health Policy Proposal Scoring Guide and
Guiding Questions: Biopsychosocial Population Health Policy Proposal [DOC]
to better understand how each grading criterion will be assessed.
· Propose a policy and guidelines that will lead to improved outcomes and quality of care for a specific issue in a target population.
· Advocate the need for a proposed policy in the context of current outcomes and quality of care for a specific issue in a target population.
· Analyze the potential for an interprofessional approach to implementing a proposed policy to increase the efficiency or effectiveness of the care setting to achieve high-quality outcomes.
· Communicate proposal in a professional and persuasive manner, writing content clearly and logically with correct use of grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
· Integrate relevant sources to support assertions, correctly formatting citations and references using APA style.
Example Assessment:You may use the assessment example, linked in the Assessment Example section of the Resources, to give you an idea of what a Proficient or higher rating on the scoring guide would look like.
Additional Requirements
· Length of proposal: 2-4 double-spaced, typed pages, not including title page or reference list. Your proposal should be succinct yet substantive.
· Number of references: Cite a minimum of 3-5 sources of scholarly or professional evidence that supports the relevance of or need for your policy, as well as interprofessional considerations. Resources should be no more than five years old.
· APA formatting: The
APA Style Paper Tutorial [DOCX]
will help you in writing and formatting your analysis.
Competencies Measured
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:
· Competency 1: Design evidence-based advanced nursing care for achieving high-quality population outcomes.
. Propose a policy and guidelines that will lead to improved outcomes and quality of care for a specific issue in a target population.
· Competency 2: Evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of interprofessional interventions in achieving desired population health outcomes.
. Analyze the potential for an interprofessional approach to implementing a proposed policy to increase the efficiency or effectiveness of the care setting to achieve high quality outcomes.
· Competency 3: Analyze population health outcomes in terms of their implications for health policy advocacy.
. Advocate the need for a proposed policy in the context of current outcomes and quality of care for a specific issue in a target population.
· Competency 4: Communicate effectively with diverse audiences, in an appropriate form and style, consistent with organizational, professional, and scholarly standards.
. Communicate proposal in a professional and persuasive manner, writing content clearly and logically with correct use of grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
. Integrate relevant sources to support assertions, correctly formatting citations and references using APA style.
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Copyright ©2018 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
Biopsychosocial Population Health Policy Proposal
Learner’s Name
Capella University
NURS-FPX6026: Biopsychosocial Concepts for Advanced Nursing Practice II
Instructor’s Name
November 1, 2021
Copyright ©2018 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
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Biopsychosocial Population Health Policy Proposal

The health care industry has come to acknowledge the rise of the opioid crisis over the
past two decades. However, this does not take away from the necessity of pain relief for patients
suffering from chronic pain, who are most often prescribed opioid treatment. Opioid treatment
does show promise in short-term trials (Sehgal et al., 2013), but long-term treatments carry with
them significant risk of addiction, adverse side effects, and prescription drug abuse (Franklin,
2014). The issue of opioid abuse and addiction is further complicated by the comorbidity of
mental health problems in patients. In this context, veterans are a particularly vulnerable
population because they often present with chronic noncancer pain while being comorbid with
mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder or substance abuse disorder (Sullivan
& Howe, 2013). Given this vulnerability, it is necessary to take steps to prevent or reduce the
potential for addiction or medication abuse among veterans who are prescribed long-term opioid
treatment.
Substance Abuse among U.S. Veterans: A Brief Retrospective

Opioids came to be used in the treatment of chronic pain in cancer patients as a result of
two WHO guidelines that were issued in 1985 and 1996 (Sullivan & Howe, 2013). Eventually,
the treatment was extended to chronic noncancer pain and suggested as a safe, non-addictive
method of treating pain. However, this claim was extrapolated from short-term opioid treatment
studies. The issue then becomes primarily about the lack of evidence to support the safe long-
term use of opioids. Opioids carry a significant risk of addiction and an array of unpleasant side
effects (Franklin, 2014). Further, opioids also complicate matters of mental health. Opioids can
relieve pain and produce a feeling of euphoria in patients. This physical relief could
inadvertently soothe the psychological or emotional pain that a patient is experiencing. However,
Copyright ©2018 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
3

this leads to the patient doubly associating the opioid drug with both physical and psychological
relief, potentially resulting in drug abuse and drug-seeking behavior. In this context, veterans’
health becomes a particularly complicated and layered issue to tackle. Many of them suffer from
chronic pain because of injuries and exposure to hazards during their military career and often
present with behavioral issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder or substance abuse disorder.
Veterans are seven times more likely to abuse prescription opioids than civilians (Snow &
Wynn, 2018). Further, Newhouse states that opioid medications were prescribed to over 400,000
veterans for pain relief and that approximately 1.7 million opioid medications were prescribed to
them in 2014 (as cited in Snow & Wynn, 2018), indicating that opioid treatments are quite
widespread.
Several institutes, including the American Osteopathic Academy of Addiction Medicine,
the American Society of Addiction Medicine, and the American Academy of Neurology, have
stated publicly that opioids present a significant challenge in the health care industry. These
institutes encourage raising awareness of the adverse side effects of opioid treatments, the use of
naloxone (an opioid antagonist), and proper procedure in case of an opioid overdose (The
American Osteopathic Academy of Addiction Medicine, n.d.; American Society of Addiction
Medicine, 2016; Franklin, 2014). Given how widespread the prescription of opioids is among
veterans suffering from chronic pain, it would be necessary to reevaluate the guidelines
associated with prescription as well. Further, the primary problems associated with prescription
opioids are the abuse of prescribed opioids and the transition from prescription opioids to black
market drugs such as heroin (Kolodny et al., 2015; Snow & Wynn, 2018).
Copyright ©2018 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
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In 2007, the National Drug Intelligence Center of the U.S. Department of Justice
estimated that a cumulative cost of approximately $200 billion resulted from direct and indirect
drug use in the form of lost productivity, health care, and law enforcement (as cited in Crowley
et al., 2017). Further, Ronan and Herzig note that the costs associated with opioid use disorder
were approximately $15 billion in 2012 (as cited in Crowley et al., 2017). Rydell and
Everingham and the National Institute for Drug Abuse state that money invested in preventing
drug abuse and subsequent treatment would lead to substantial savings on a national level (as
cited in Crowley et al., 2017). It is then necessary from an industry standpoint to revisit the
guidelines associated with the issue of opioid prescriptions, given the significant costs associated
with it.
An Interprofessional Approach to Substance Abuse and Health Care for Veterans

The proposed policy addressed below consists primarily of two aspects: raising public
awareness and encouraging interdepartmental communication and coordination. The first aspect
would help individuals learn about the crisis and identify potentially harmful patterns of
behavior. The second aspect would improve the condition of individuals who have been
prescribed long-term opioid treatment.
Raising Public Awareness

To approach the issue of the opioid crisis, it is important to understand it as a problem of
scale (given how widespread the issue is) and as a problem of understanding among the public
and those receiving opioids. Raising awareness would improve the public’s understanding of the
nature of the opioid crisis and would thereby help individuals recognize how and when opioids
would be helpful. It would also improve the public’s understanding of the potential harm opioid
use might mean for an individual being treated with opioids. A committee would be formed with
Copyright ©2018 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
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physicians who specialize in pain treatment, behavioral health specialists, and senior nurses to
oversee public awareness drives and educational programs to help raise awareness in the
community. The duties of the committee would include ensuring that these drives and programs
are organized effectively and regularly, evaluating the efficacy of holding such programs, and
understanding how to improve outreach. Trained physicians would oversee the educational
programs, while nurses would provide demonstrations of the correct procedure when
administering naloxone. The programs would contain information on how to identify potential
signs of opioid misuse and addiction (such as patients obtaining their prescriptions early or
patients sharing their prescriptions with those who are close to them) and how to approach such
situations. The committee would also work in close association with the closest veterans’ affairs
office to identify and cater to veterans who require opioid treatment for chronic pain, thereby
improving their understanding of the risks involved in prescription opioids and their misuse.
Precautions and Prescriptions

It is important to critically evaluate the current state of how opioids are prescribed and to
whom they are prescribed. Further, it is necessary to address each individual patient’s physical
and behavioral needs together rather than to focus solely on the pain that a patient might
experience. Individuals with behavioral issues are more likely to be prescribed opioids than those
without. However, they are also more likely to become addicted to opioids or misuse them.
Patients who have been prescribed long-term opioid treatment would be required to meet with a
psychiatrist regularly to monitor and evaluate the risk they present for addiction and misuse. The
psychiatrist would then be required to keep the attending physician informed about the state of
the patient’s mental health and whether any further action would be required while still
maintaining the confidentiality of the conversations the patient has had with the psychiatrist.
Copyright ©2018 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
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Further, during the initial diagnosis, physicians would be required to screen patients for histories
of behavioral issues, including post-traumatic stress disorder and substance abuse disorders.
Certain populations such as veterans are likely to be at a higher risk of opioid addiction and
misuse. To improve patient care, it would be necessary for physicians and nurses to sensitize
themselves to these at-risk populations to better serve their health care needs. For example,
veteran populations are known to present with both behavioral issues and chronic pain resulting
from their time in the military; it would be the responsibility of the physicians and the nurses
attending to a patient to familiarize themselves with the context of the patient so as to develop a
nurturing relationship in such a situation. To enable this, human patient simulators will be made
available to health care providers to train them through simulations that would provide
knowledge that can be used in real situations.
Copyright ©2018 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
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References

American Society of Addiction Medicine. (2016). Use of naloxone for the prevention of opioid
overdose deaths. https://www.asam.org/advocacy/find-a-policy-statement/view-policy-
statement/public-policy-statements/2014/08/28/use-of-naloxone-for-the-prevention-of-
drug-overdose-
deaths#:~:text=Naloxone%20is%20a%20remarkably%20effective,at%20the%20proper
%20low%20dosage.
Crowley, R., Kirschner, N., Dunn, A. S., & Bornstein, S. S. (2017). Health and public policy to
facilitate effective prevention and treatment of substance use disorders involving illicit
and prescription drugs: An American College of Physicians position paper. Annals of
Internal Medicine, 166(10), 733–736. https://doi.org/10.7326/M16-2953
Franklin, G. M. (2014). Opioids for chronic noncancer pain: A position paper of the American
Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 83(14), 1277–1284.
https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000000839
Kolodny, A., Courtwright, D. T., Hwang, C. S., Kreiner, P., Eadie, J. L., Clark, T. W., &
Alexander, G. C. (2015). The prescription opioid and heroin crisis: A public health
approach to an epidemic of addiction. Annual Review of Public Health, 36(1), 559–574.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122957

Sehgal, N., Colson, J., & Smith, H. S. (2013). Chronic pain treatment with opioid analgesics:
Benefits versus harms of long-term therapy. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 13(11),
1201–1220. https://doi.org/10.1586/14737175.2013.846517
Snow, R., & Wynn, S. T. (2018). Managing opioid use disorder and co-occurring posttraumatic
stress disorder among veterans. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health
Services, 56(6), 36–42. https://doi.org/10.3928/02793695-20180212-03
https://www.asam.org/advocacy/find-a-policy-statement/view-policy-statement/public-policy-statements/2014/08/28/use-of-naloxone-for-the-prevention-of-drug-overdose-deaths#:~:text=Naloxone%20is%20a%20remarkably%20effective,at%20the%20proper%20low%20dosage
https://www.asam.org/advocacy/find-a-policy-statement/view-policy-statement/public-policy-statements/2014/08/28/use-of-naloxone-for-the-prevention-of-drug-overdose-deaths#:~:text=Naloxone%20is%20a%20remarkably%20effective,at%20the%20proper%20low%20dosage
https://www.asam.org/advocacy/find-a-policy-statement/view-policy-statement/public-policy-statements/2014/08/28/use-of-naloxone-for-the-prevention-of-drug-overdose-deaths#:~:text=Naloxone%20is%20a%20remarkably%20effective,at%20the%20proper%20low%20dosage
https://www.asam.org/advocacy/find-a-policy-statement/view-policy-statement/public-policy-statements/2014/08/28/use-of-naloxone-for-the-prevention-of-drug-overdose-deaths#:~:text=Naloxone%20is%20a%20remarkably%20effective,at%20the%20proper%20low%20dosage
https://www.asam.org/advocacy/find-a-policy-statement/view-policy-statement/public-policy-statements/2014/08/28/use-of-naloxone-for-the-prevention-of-drug-overdose-deaths#:~:text=Naloxone%20is%20a%20remarkably%20effective,at%20the%20proper%20low%20dosage
https://doi.org/10.7326/M16-2953
https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000000839
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122957
https://doi.org/10.1586/14737175.2013.846517
https://doi.org/10.3928/02793695-20180212-03
Copyright ©2018 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
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Sullivan, M. D., & Howe, C. Q. (2013). Opioid therapy for chronic pain in the US: Promises and
perils. Pain, 154(Suppl 1), S94–100.
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4204477/
The American Osteopathic Academy of Addiction Medicine. (n.d.). Naloxone public policy
statement: The use of naloxone for the prevention of opioid overdose deaths.
https://www.aoaam.org/resources/Documents/AOAAM_NALOXONE_POLICY_2015.pd
f
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4204477/
https://www.aoaam.org/resources/Documents/AOAAM_NALOXONE_POLICY_2015.pdf
https://www.aoaam.org/resources/Documents/AOAAM_NALOXONE_POLICY_2015.pdf
Substance Abuse among U.S. Veterans: A Brief Retrospective
An Interprofessional Approach to Substance Abuse and Health Care for Veterans
Raising Public Awareness
Precautions and Prescriptions
MSN-FP6026 Assessment 2 Guiding Questions
MSN-FP6026 Assessment 2 Guiding Questions
Guiding Questions
Biopsychosocial Population Health Policy Proposal
This document is designed to give you questions to consider and additional guidance to help you successfully complete the Biopsychosocial Population Health Policy Proposal assessment. You may find it useful to use this document as a pre-writing exercise or as a final check to ensure that you have sufficiently addressed all the grading criteria for this assessment. This document is a resource to help you complete the assessment. Do not turn in this document as your assessment submission.
Propose a policy and guidelines that will lead to improved outcomes and quality of care for a specific issue in a target population.
· Does your policy encompass the key components that will lead to improved outcomes and quality of care for your chosen issue and target population?
· Is your policy succinct (about one paragraph)?
· Do your proposed guidelines help colleagues, stakeholders, and groups understand how to implement your proposed policy?
· Are your policy and guidelines realistic in the context of the team, unit, or organization you are considering?
· Are your policy and guidelines realistic in the context of the environmental factors that exist?
Advocate the need for a proposed policy in the context of current outcomes and quality of carefor a specific issue in a target population.
· What is the current state of relevant outcomes related to your policy?
· What is the current state of the quality of care related to your policy
· Why is it important to work toward improvements in outcomes and quality of care?
· How will your policy help ensure that improvements are achieved?
Analyze the potential for an interprofessional approach to implementing a proposed policy to increase the efficiency or effectiveness of the care setting to achieve high-quality outcomes.
· What are the relevant interprofessional best practices for successfully implementing your policy?
· How will they support an increase in efficiency for achieving high-quality outcomes relevant to your policy, chosen issue, or target population?
· How will they support an increase in effectiveness for achieving high-quality outcomes relevant to your policy, chosen issue, or target population?
Communicate proposal in a professional and persuasive manner, writing content clearly and logically with correct use of grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
· Is your writing clear and professional?
· Is your writing free from errors?
· Is your writing persuasive?
· Is your submission 2–4 pages (not including the title page and reference list)?
Integrate relevant sources to support assertions, correctly formatting citations and references using current APA style.
· Did you use 3–5 sources in your assessment?
· Are the sources you used no more than five years old?
· Are your sources cited in APA format throughout?
· Have you included an attached reference list?
· Did you use the APA Style Paper Template for formatting to include running head and title page?
· No abstract is needed for this assessment.
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