Posted: September 18th, 2022

In this forum, choose one of the disorder of the skeletal system (Chapter 3) Your post must include the following information cause(s) of the disorder how it affects the skeletal system and the body overall treatment(s) and/or cure. citation for any ref

TheSkeletalSystem-Chapter311.pptx
 

In this forum, choose one of the disorder of the skeletal system (Chapter 3)

Your post must include the following information

  • cause(s) of the disorder
  • how it affects the skeletal system and the body overall
  • treatment(s) and/or cure.
  • citation for any references (text, website etc) used. DO NOT COPY AND PASTE (this will result in a severe reduction of your grade). Paraphrase and cite your reference.

At least 250 words.

Course Materials: 

Marie A. Moisio and Elmer W. Moisio (2016). Medical Language: Focus on Terminology Third Edition. Thompson Delmar, Albany, New York. ISBN: 978-1-285-85421-2

Chapter 3

The Skeletal System

Structures and Functions of the Skeletal System (1 of 2)
Bones
Act as the framework of the body
Support and protect the internal organs
Joints
Work in conjunction with muscles, ligaments, and tendons
Make possible the wide variety of body movements
Calcium
Mineral required for normal nerve and muscle function; is stored in bones
Red bone marrow
Plays an important role in the formation of blood cells
Located within spongy bone

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.01: Identify and describe the major functions and structures of the skeletal system.
2

Structures and Functions of the Skeletal System (2 of 2)
The Formation of Bones
A newborn’s skeleton
Begins as fragile membranes and cartilage
Ossification
Starts turning into bone
Continues through adolescence
After growth is complete, new bone formation continues
Osteoclast cells break down old or damaged bone
Osteoblast cells help rebuild the bone
Ossification repairs minor damage from normal activity and also repairs bones after injuries, such as fractures

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.01: Identify and describe the major functions and structures of the skeletal system.
3

The Structure of Bones (1 of 4)
The Tissues of Bone
Bone is the form of connective tissue
Second hardest tissue in the human body
Capable of growth, healing, and reshaping itself
Compact bone, also known as cortical bone
Dense, hard, and very strong bone
Forms the protective outer layer of bones
Spongy bone, also known as cancellous bone
Porous (“sponge-like”), making it lighter and weaker than compact bone; more susceptible to fractures
Commonly contains red bone marrow
Long bones include femur and humerus
Short bones include the wrist and ankle

Anatomic features of a typical long bone.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.01: Identify and describe the major functions and structures of the skeletal system.
4

The Structure of Bones (2 of 4)
The Tissues of Bone
Medullary cavity
Central cavity located in the shaft of long bones and surrounded by compact bone
Red and yellow bone marrow stored here
Endosteum
Tissue that lines the medullary cavity
Bone Marrow
Red bone marrow is a hematopoietic tissue
Located within the spongy bone
Manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes
Yellow bone marrow functions as a fat storage area
Gradually replaces about half of red bone marrow after early adolescence

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.01: Identify and describe the major functions and structures of the skeletal system.
5

The Structure of Bones (3 of 4)
Cartilage
Smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue
Acts as a shock absorber between bones
Makes up the flexible parts of the skeleton, such as the outer ear and tip of the nose
Articular cartilage
Covers the surfaces of bones where they articulate
Makes smooth joint movement possible
Protects the bones from rubbing against each other
Meniscus
Curved, fibrous cartilage found in some joints
Examples: knee and temporomandibular joint of the jaw

A lateral view of the knee showing the structures of a synovial joint and bursa.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.01: Identify and describe the major functions and structures of the skeletal system.
6

The Structure of Bones (4 of 4)
Anatomic Landmarks of Bones
Diaphysis: shaft of a long bone
Epiphyses: wider ends of long bones such as the femurs of the legs
Proximal epiphysis: end of the bone located nearest to the midline of the body
Distal epiphysis: end of the bone located farthest away from the midline of the body
Foramen: opening through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass
Example: foramen magnum
Process: normal projection on the surface of a bone
Most commonly serves as an attachment for a muscle or tendon
Example: mastoid process

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.01: Identify and describe the major functions and structures of the skeletal system.
7

Joints (1 of 3)
Joints
Also known as articulations
Place of union between two or more bones
Classified by construction or based on the degree of movement they allow
Fibrous Joints
Hold the bones tightly together
Consist of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue
Known as sutures in adults, allow little or no movement
Called fontanelles or soft spots in newborns and very young children, these joints allow for passage through the birth canal and for growth of the skull during the first year

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.02: Describe three types of joints.
8

Joints (2 of 3)
Cartilaginous Joints
Allow only slight movement
Consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage
Breastbone
Where the ribs connect to the sternum
Allow movement during breathing
Pubic symphysis
Allows some movement to facilitate childbirth
Located between the pubic bones in the anterior (front) of the pelvis

Anterior view of the pelvis.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.02: Describe three types of joints.
9

Joints (3 of 3)
Synovial Joints
Ball-and-socket joints
Allow a wide range of movement in many directions
Examples: hips and shoulders
Hinge joints
Allow movement primarily in one direction or plane
Examples: knees and elbows
Components of Synovial Joints
Synovial capsule
Synovial membrane
Synovial fluid
Ligaments and bursa

Examples of synovial joints. (A) Ball-and-socket joint of the hip. (B) Hinge joint of the elbow. (C) Hinge joint of the knee.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.02: Describe three types of joints.
10

The Skeleton (1 of 11)
Typical Adult Skeleton
Consists of approximately 206 bones
Divided into axial and appendicular
Axial Skeleton
Protects major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems
80 bones of the head and body organized into five parts:
Bones of the skull
Ossicles (bones) of the middle ear
Hyoid bone
Rib cage
Vertebral column

Anterior and posterior views of the human skeleton.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.03: Differentiate between the axial and appendicular skeletons.
11

The Skeleton (2 of 11)
Appendicular Skeleton
Makes body movement possible
Protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction
Consists of 126 bones
Upper extremities (shoulders, arms, forearms, wrists, and hands)
Lower extremities (hips, thighs, legs, ankles, and feet)
Appendicular means referring to an appendage
An appendage is anything that is attached to a major part of the body
An extremity is the terminal end of a body part such as an arm or leg

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.03: Differentiate between the axial and appendicular skeletons.

12

The Skeleton (3 of 11)
Bones of the Skull
Bones of the cranium
Frontal, parietal, occipital, external auditory meatus sphenoid, and ethmoid
Enclose and protect the brain
Auditory ossicles
Malleus, incus, and stapes
Three tiny bones located in the middle ear
Bones of the face
Nasal, zygomatic, maxillary, palatine, lacrimal, inferior conchae, vomer, and mandible

Anterior view of the adult human skull.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.01: Identify and describe the major functions and structures of the skeletal system.

13

The Skeleton (4 of 11)
Thoracic Cavity
Also called rib cage; consists of ribs and sternum
Bony structure that protects the heart and lungs
Ribs (12 pairs)
True ribs: first seven pairs attached anteriorly to the sternum
False ribs: Next three pairs attached anteriorly to cartilage that connects to the sternum
Floating ribs: only attached posteriorly to the vertebrae but are not attached anteriorly
Sternum (also known as the breast bone)
Manubrium: forms the upper portion of the sternum
Body of the sternum or gladiolus: forms the middle portions of the sternum
Xiphoid process: cartilage that forms the lower portion of the sternum

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.01: Identify and describe the major functions and structures of the skeletal system.

14

The Skeleton (5 of 11)
Shoulders and Arms
Shoulders
Clavicle (collarbone)
Scapula (shoulder blade)
Acromion (extension of scapula)
Arms
Humerus (bone of upper arm)
Radius (smaller, shorter forearm bone)
Ulna (larger, longer forearm bone)
Olecranon (proximal tip of the ulna; commonly known as the funny bone)

Anterior view of the ribs, shoulder, and arm. (Cartilaginous structures are shown in blue.)

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.01: Identify and describe the major functions and structures of the skeletal system.

15

The Skeleton (6 of 11)
The Wrists, Hands, and Fingers
Carpals
Eight bones that form the wrist
Form a narrow bony passage known as the carpal tunnel
Metacarpals
Five bones that form the palms of the hand
Phalanges (singular, phalanx)
14 bones of the fingers
Each finger has three: distal (outermost), middle, and proximal (nearest the hand)
The thumb has two bones (distal and proximal phalanges)

Superior view of the bones of the lower left arm, wrist, and hand.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.01: Identify and describe the major functions and structures of the skeletal system.

16

The Skeleton (7 of 11)
The Spinal Column (Vertebral Column)
Protects the spinal cord and supports the
head and body
The spinal column consists of 26 vertebrae
Each of these bony units is known as a vertebra
Structures of the vertebrae
Body of the vertebra: anterior portion
Lamina: posterior portion
Vertebral foramen: opening in the middle

Characteristics of a typical vertebra.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.01: Identify and describe the major functions and structures of the skeletal system.

17

The Skeleton (8 of 11)
The Spinal Column (vertebral column)
Intervertebral disks
Made of cartilage and pads of tissue
Separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other
Allow for movement of the spinal column
Types of vertebrae
Cervical: first seven vertebrae; form the neck
Thoracic: T1 through T12; have ribs attached
Lumbar: L1 through L5; form inward curve
Sacrum: triangular bone near base of spine
Coccyx: tailbone; forms the end of the spine

Lateral view of the vertebral column.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.01: Identify and describe the major functions and structures of the skeletal system.

18

The Skeleton (9 of 11)
The Pelvis
Bony pelvis
Protects internal organs and supports the lower extremities
Includes sacrum, coccyx, and pelvic girdle (ilium, ischium, and pubis)
Sacroiliac
Slightly movable articulation between the sacrum and posterior portion of the ilium
Pubic symphysis
Cartilaginous joint that unites the left and right pubic bones
Acetabulum
Also known as the hip socket

Structures of the proximal end of the femur and the acetabulum (hip socket).

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.01: Identify and describe the major functions and structures of the skeletal system.

19

The Skeleton (10 of 11)
The Legs and Knees
Femurs
Largest bones in the body
Knees
Patella (kneecap)
Popliteal: space behind knee
Cruciate ligaments: shaped like a cross; make possible the movements of the knee
Lower legs
Tibia (shinbone): larger, anterior weight-bearing bone of the lower leg
Fibula: smaller of the two bones of the lower leg
Lateral view of bones of the lower extremity.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.01: Identify and describe the major functions and structures of the skeletal system.

20

The Skeleton (11 of 11)
The Ankles
Joints that connect the lower leg and foot
Tarsal bones: similar to, but bigger than, the wrist
Malleolus: rounded bony projection
Talus: articulates with the tibia and fibula
Calcaneus: heel bone; largest of the tarsal bones
The Feet and Toes
Metatarsals form the part of the foot to which the toes are attached
Phalanges are the bones of the toes
The great toe has two phalanges
Each of the other toes has three phalanges

Bones of the right ankle and foot. (A) Lateral view.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.01: Identify and describe the major functions and structures of the skeletal system.

21

Medical Specialties Related to the Skeletal System (1 of 2)
Chiropractor
Holds a Doctor of Chiropractic (DC) degree
Specializes in the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine
Orthopedic surgeon
Also known as an orthopedist
Physician specializing in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles
Osteopath
Holds a Doctor of Osteopathy (DO) degree
Uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.04: Identify the medical specialists who treat disorders of the skeletal system.
22

Medical Specialties Related to the Skeletal System (2 of 2)
Podiatrist
Holds a Doctor of Podiatry (DP) or Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (DPM) degree
Specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot
Rheumatologist
Physician specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, and tendinitis that are characterized by inflammation in the joints and connective tissues

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.04: Identify the medical specialists who treat disorders of the skeletal system.
23

Pathology of the Skeletal System (1 of 11)
Joints
Ankylosis: loss or absence of mobility
Adhesive capsulitis: frozen shoulder; ankylosis caused by adhesions
Arthrosclerosis: stiffness of the joints
Baker’s cyst: popliteal cyst; fluid-filled sac behind the knee
Bursitis: inflammation of the bursa
Chondromalacia: abnormal softening of cartilage
Costochondritis: inflammation of cartilage connecting the ribs to the sternum

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

24

Pathology of the Skeletal System (2 of 11)
Joints
Hallux valgus: bunion; abnormal enlargement of the base joint of the great toe
Hemarthrosis: blood within a joint
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR): inflammatory disorder of muscles and joints
Sprain: ligament that connects bones to a joint is wrenched or torn
Synovitis: inflammation of the synovial membrane
Joint Dislocation
Dislocation: luxation; total displacement of a bone from its joint
Subluxation: partial displacement of a bone from its joint

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

25

Pathology of the Skeletal System (3 of 11)
Arthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA): wear-and-tear arthritis; degenerative joint disease
Osteophytes: formation of bone spurs
Spondylosis: spinal osteoarthritis
Gout: gouty arthritis; deposits of urate crystals in the joints
Pseudogout: buildup of calcium pyrophosphate crystals
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): chronic autoimmune disorder
Joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS): inflammation of joints between vertebrae
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): formerly juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA): Affects about 20% of people with psoriasis

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

26

Pathology of the Skeletal System (4 of 11)
The Spinal Column
Herniated disk: slipped or ruptured disk
Lumbago: low back pain (LBP)
Spondylolisthesis: forward slipping movement of lower lumbar vertebrae on
the vertebra or sacrum below it
Spina bifida: congenital defect; spinal canal fails to close completely
Curvatures of the spine
Kyphosis: hunchback; outward curvature
Lordosis: swayback; forward curvature
Scoliosis: lateral curvature

Abnormal curvatures of the spine. (A) Kyphosis. (B) Lordosis. (C) Scoliosis. (Normal curvatures are shown in shadow.)

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

27

Pathology of the Skeletal System (5 of 11)
Bones
Avascular necrosis: osteonecrosis; insufficient blood flow to bone tissue
Osteitis: inflammation of a bone
Osteomalacia: adult rickets; abnormal bone softening; vitamin D deficiency
Osteomyelitis: inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone
Paget’s disease: chronic bone disease of unknown cause
Periostitis: inflammation of the periosteum; often associated with shin splints
Radiculopathy: pinched nerve; compression of a nerve in the spine
Rickets: defective bone growth resulting from vitamin D deficiency in children

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

28

Pathology of the Skeletal System (6 of 11)
Bones
Spinal stenosis: narrowing of the spaces within the spine
Short stature: formerly known as dwarfism
Caused by more than 200 different conditions
Some adults of short stature prefer to be referred to as little people
Clubfoot: talipes
Congenital deformity of the foot involving the talus
Bone tumors
Primary bone cancer: relatively rare malignant tumor originating in the bone
Secondary bone cancer: bone metastasis; cancer spreads to bones from other organs
Multiple myeloma: cancer that occurs in blood-making plasma cells of red bone marrow
Osteochondroma: benign bony projection covered with cartilage

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

29

Pathology of the Skeletal System (7 of 11)
Osteoporosis and Osteopenia Compared
Osteoporosis (OP)
Marked loss of bone density
Increase in bone porosity frequently associated with aging
Most common in women over 50 years old; decrease in estrogen after menopause
Osteopenia
Thinner-than-average bone density
Condition of someone who does not yet have osteoporosis

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

30

Pathology of the Skeletal System (8 of 11)
Osteoporosis-Related Fractures
Compression fracture
Occurs when the bone is pressed together (compressed) on itself
Colles fracture
Broken wrist
Often occurs when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on the hand
Osteoporotic hip fracture
Broken hip
Usually caused by weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis
Can occur either spontaneously or as the result of a fall

A Colles fracture of the left wrist.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

31

Pathology of the Skeletal System (9 of 11)
Fractures
Broken bones
Described in terms of complexity
Closed fracture
Simple fracture or a complete fracture
No open wound in the skin
Open fracture
Compound fracture
Open wound in the skin
Comminuted fracture
Bone is splintered or crushed

Types of bone fractures. (A) Incomplete. (B) Closed (simple, complete). (C) Open (compound). (D) Comminuted.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

32

Pathology of the Skeletal System (10 of 11)
Fractures
Incomplete fracture
Bone does not break into two separate pieces
Occurs primarily in children
Greenstick fracture
One side of the bone is broken and the other side is only bent
Buckle fracture (torus fracture)
Affected side of the bone is compressed and buckles but does not break
Oblique fracture
Occurs at an angle across the bone
Pathologic fracture
Bone weakened by osteoporosis or cancer breaks under normal strain

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

33

Pathology of the Skeletal System (11 of 11)
Fractures
Spiral fracture
Complete fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart
Occurs as the result of a severe twisting motion
Stress fracture (overuse injury)
Small crack in bone that develops from chronic, excessive impact
Transverse fracture
Occurs straight across, perpendicular to the shaft of the bone
Additional terms associated with fractures
Fat embolus: fat cells from yellow bone marrow are released into the blood
Crepitation (crepitus): grating sound heard when ends of a broken bone move together
Callus: bulging deposit around the area of the break that forms as bone heals

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

34

Diagnostic Procedures of the Skeletal System (1 of 2)
X-ray imaging (radiography)
Uses a form of electromagnetic radiation to create x-rays
Arthroscopy
Visual examination of the internal structure of a joint using an arthroscope
Bone marrow biopsy
Necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete blood count test
Bone marrow aspiration
Use of a syringe to withdraw tissue from the red bone marrow
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Used to image soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

35

Diagnostic Procedures of the Skeletal System (2 of 2)
Bone Density Testing
Determine losses or changes in bone density
Used to diagnose osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteopenia, and Paget’s disease
Measures the amount of mineral in the bones
Ultrasonic bone density testing
Screening test for osteoporosis or other conditions that cause a loss of bone mass
Sound waves are used to take measurements of the calcaneus (heel) bone
Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
Low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips
Produces more accurate results than ultrasonic bone density testing

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

36

Treatment Procedures of the Skeletal System (1 of 11)
Medications
Bisphosphonates
Class of drugs used to slow the loss of bone density due to osteoporosis
Reduces the risk of broken bones
Low-dose hormone replacement therapy
Sometimes used in the short term to maintain bone density in women at high risk for bone loss after menopause

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

37

Treatment Procedures of the Skeletal System (2 of 11)
Bone Marrow Transplants (BMT)
Stem cell transplant used to treat certain types of cancers, such as leukemia and lymphomas
Initially both the cancer cells and the patient’s bone marrow are destroyed with high-intensity radiation and chemotherapy
Next, healthy bone marrow stem cells are infused into the recipient’s blood
Cells migrate to the spongy bone, where they multiply to form cancer-free red bone marrow
Stem cells produced by the bone marrow eventually develop into blood cells

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

38

Treatment Procedures of the Skeletal System (3 of 11)
Types of Bone Marrow Transplants
Allogenic bone marrow transplant (allogenic stem cell transplant)
Uses healthy bone marrow cells from a compatible donor, often a sibling
Unless donor is a perfect match, recipient’s body could reject the transplant
Autologous bone marrow transplant (autologous stem cell transplant)
Patient receives his or her own bone marrow cells
Harvested (usually from the hip), cleansed, treated, and stored before the remaining bone marrow in the patient’s body undergoes treatment
Peripheral blood stem cell transplant
Utilizes blood-forming stem cells from the bloodstream of the patient or donor

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

39

Treatment Procedures of the Skeletal System (4 of 11)
Medical Devices
Orthotic
Mechanical appliance, such as a shoe insert, leg brace, or a splint
Specially designed to support, control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function
Prosthesis
Substitute for a diseased or missing body part, such as a leg that has been amputated
Joints
ACL reconstruction
Surgery to replace a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee
Arthrodesis (surgical ankylosis)
Surgical fusion (joining together) of two bones to stiffen a joint

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

40

Treatment Procedures of the Skeletal System (5 of 11)
Joints
Arthroscopic surgery
Minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint
Example: torn cartilage removed using an arthroscope and instruments inserted through small incisions
Bone grafting
Transplanting bone to rebuild bones damaged by injury or disease
Uses synthetic material, allograft (donor tissue), or autograft (patient’s tissue)
Synovectomy
Removal of a synovial membrane from a joint

During arthroscopic surgery, the physician is able to view the interior of the knee on a monitor.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

41

Treatment Procedures of the Skeletal System (6 of 11)
Joint Replacements
Arthroplasty
Surgical repair of a damaged joint
Now usually refers to resurfacing of bones, or surgical placement of an artificial joint (implant)
Total knee replacement (TKR)
All parts of the knee are replaced
Also known as a total knee arthroplasty
Usually necessitated by damage to the joint from arthritis

X-ray (radiograph) of a total knee replacement. On the film the metallic components appear lighter than the bone.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

42

Treatment Procedures of the Skeletal System (7 of 11)
Joint Replacements
Total hip replacement (THR)
Total hip arthroplasty
Restores a damaged hip to full function
Hip resurfacing arthroplasty
Alternative to removing the head of the femur
Shoulder replacement surgery
Replaces top of the humerus with a metal ball, and damaged portion of the socket with a plastic prosthesis
Revision surgery
Replaces a worn or failed implant

Total hip replacement (THR).

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

43

Treatment Procedures of the Skeletal System (8 of 11)
Spinal Column
Phantom limb pain
Post-amputation phenomenon; sensation of pain from a body part that is no longer there
Percutaneous diskectomy
Removal of a fragment of the disk that is compressing a nerve
Percutaneous vertebroplasty
Bone cement injected to stabilize osteoporosis-related compression fractures
Laminectomy (decompression surgery)
Surgical removal of lamina; relieves pressure on spinal cord by enlarging spinal column
Spinal fusion
Immobilizes part of the spine by joining together (fusing) two or more vertebrae

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

44

Treatment Procedures of the Skeletal System (9 of 11)
Bones
Decompressive craniectomy
Surgical removal of a portion of the skull
Relieves increased intracranial pressure due to swelling from a traumatic brain injury
Craniotomy
Surgical incision or opening into the skull
Performed to gain access to the brain to remove a tumor, relieve intracranial pressure, or obtain access for other surgical procedures
Osteotomy
Surgical cutting and reshaping of a bone
Used to repair damaged joints, realign dental occlusions, correct congenital defects, and reshape arthritic knees and hips

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

45

Treatment Procedures of the Skeletal System (10 of 11)
Treatment of Fractures
Closed reduction (manipulation)
Attempted non-surgical realignment of a fracture or joint dislocation
Open reduction (surgical procedure) performed when closed reduction is not practical
Immobilization (stabilization)
Holding, suturing, or fastening bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast
Traction
Pulling force exerted on a limb to return the bone or joint to normal alignment
External fixation
Fracture treatment with external appliance

External fixation of the femur stabilizes the bone and is removed after the bone has healed.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

46

Treatment Procedures of the Skeletal System (11 of 11)
Treatment of Fractures
Internal fixation
Also known as open reduction internal fixation (ORIF)
Plate or pins placed directly into the bone to hold pieces in place
This form of fixation is not
usually removed after the
fracture has healed

Internal fixation of fractured hip. (A) Fracture of the femoral neck. (B) Internal fixation pins are placed to stabilize the bone. These pins are not removed after the bone has healed.

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.

47

Abbreviations Related to the Skeletal System
Refer to Table 3.1 in the text for an overview of the abbreviations related to the terms introduced in this chapter
Examples:
Bone density testing = BDT
Osteoarthritis = OA
Partial knee replacement = PKR
Rheumatoid arthritis = RA
Total hip arthroplasty = THA

Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder Smith/Ehrlich, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 9th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objective 3.05: Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the primary terms related to the pathology and the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the skeletal system.
48

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