Posted: June 10th, 2022


Please see the attachment
This is a graded discussion: 30 points possible
due Jun 11
Discussion 4
15 15
“On Power and inequality in the global political economy,”

Do you agree with the speaker in this video?

Required material for this Discussion:
1. Chapter 8
2. “On power and inequality in the global political economy,”

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3. “The deadly cost of fashion,”

(You are welcome to use other resources only after using the
required material. Even while using outside resources, ensure that
you do not use online learning resources like lumens learning,
Wikipedia,, Khan Academy, Quizlet, etc. You must use
resources from reputable outlets like New York Times, Guardian,
BBC, etc.)
Assignment Details:
Your initial posting should be two paragraphs long and 200-250 words
(10 more words fine), excluding citations and references. It should
present your compelling response to the above prompt and provide
strong evidence from the sources listed above to support your position.
You should then make at least one posting, 100-150 words, that engage
your peers’ ideas/arguments.
Part I: Initial Post worth 20 points
Write an original post (similar to a short essay) with at least two
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Write an original post (similar to a short essay) with at least two
paragraphs that include sources and proper APA or Chicago or MLA
citations and references.
*You must post the initial essay by Thursday. Penalty of 10% for
late initial posts.
Part II: Follow up posts worth 10 points
Write at least one substantive posts which must be a compelling
response to one of your peers’ (initial) posts. It MUST be a substantive
reply (remember, this is your opportunity to demonstrate your
understanding of the material and earn the highest grade possible).
Do not just write laudatory responses to your peers, challenge them
and their arguments….move the discussion forward
*No discussion postings will be accepted after the deadline,
Saturday, 11:59 PM.

A Few Words of Advice…
Your argument should not be based on unfounded, preconceived
beliefs. Statements that start with or include “I believe that…” are only
valid to the extent that they are followed and supported by well-cited,
compelling evidence from reliable sources.
As with the other discussions in this class, your personal opinion on
the issue at hand does not matter for grading purposes. (Our
grading is not influenced by your political leanings). The point of this
discussion is to think about the (above) prompt and argue your point in
a thoughtful manner, using evidence to support your position and/or to
argue against your peers’ position(s).
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Search entries or author
” Reply
argue against your peers’ position(s).
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Zubaidah Al-Amear
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” Reply
Data on current global inequality is startling, well-known, and a departure
from the norm. Economists lead the way in research and policy, with a
focus on global poverty rather than inequality. Poverty is a problem within
countries, but inequality is not; on a global scale, it is arguably the other
way around. The international focus on poverty reduction coexists with
neoliberal policies that exacerbate inequality at home and abroad.
(Phillips, Nicola. “Power and Inequality in the Global Political Economy.” )
As a result, a common notion is that within-country inequality is highest
in poor countries, with the greatest disparity. The popular wisdom holds
that neoliberal policies and free trade raise all boats; however, the
countries and times where this strategy has been applied the most
consistently exhibit the highest rise in inequality. Global inequality
contributes to the perpetuation of domestic privilege. The cross-border
effects of environmental degradation, migration and transnational crime
contradict the idea that the hazards posed by global inequality can be
managed at the global boundaries. Economic explanations disregard
power imbalances when understanding global inequality. Developmental
discipline, global integration, and marginalization and confinement
strategies can all be seen as part of a single hierarchical integration
process with turbulence built-in. In conclusion, I do agree with the video
and yes labor can be another face of global inequality.
1. Phillips, Nicola. “Power and Inequality in the Global Political Economy.”
OUP Academic, Oxford University Press, 1 Mar. 2017,
( .
2. FacultiTV. “On Power and Inequality in the Global Political Economy.”
YouTube, YouTube, 26 Feb. 2019,
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Jeromy Wilson
” Reply
Hi Zubaidah, great point about the countries with the most rising
inequality being the ones with the popular free trade policies. I
wonder if the state of those countries before implementing such
policies has anything to do with that, or if it is genuinely a direct
result of implementing these neo-liberal ideas? I am also curious
what you think about this domestic privilege you mentioned. That
could be read and interpreted a few different ways, and I am having
trouble deciding what I think that means in the context provided.
Otherwise, great post and I look forward to your answer, should you
choose to respond. Have a nice day.
Malynn Nooney (
I do agree with the speaker, but I’d like to hear her go more in-depth on
the inequality she is referencing. I think that when most people think of
inequality they automatically think about wages and the inequality
between men and women. However, on an international scale, I think that
goes much broader in terms of defining inequality. For example, in third
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goes much broader in terms of defining inequality. For example, in third
world countries over 90% of students do not possess the necessary life
skills for a career and to sustain themselves. This can fall under
inequality, but only if it’s looked at comparatively to other countries. The
American Economic Association states “A common narrative frames
globalization as the cause of inequality: by shifting low-skilled jobs from
wealthier countries to poorer countries, economic integration has
increased inequality within countries while lowering inequality between
them.” (Schoder, 2018) This explains that while the top 1% of the world
are experiencing incredible gains, those less fortunate may not be seeing
any improvement from economic globalization, thus contributing to the
worldwide inequality. Globalization according to Luke Martell is “the
integration of poor countries into a world economy of open competition”
While this seems like a great idea, it may introduce an uneven playing

Word Count: 203

Heinze, J. (2020, March 26). The impact of globalization on poverty and
inequality in the Global South. E. Retrieved June 7, 2022, from
PricewaterhouseCoopers. (n.d.). Six big challenges facing governments in
2021. PwC. Retrieved June 7, 2022, from
Schoder, D. (2018, June 18). Is a globalized world a less equal world?
American Economic Association. Retrieved June 7, 2022, from
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” Reply
American Economic Association. Retrieved June 7, 2022, from
Victoria Blanchard
I agree with the speaker that there is inequality in the global political
economy. Many large fashion companies that are known for cheaper
fashionable clothes underpay their workers that are in another country.
The business owners get to sit comfortably while the ones in unsafe
warehouses, living in harsh conditions, and barely scraping by get paid a
very small percentage of what the owner gets. The constant greed of
large corporations feeds into inequality for these type of workers. The
type of working conditions is unfair to these workers as there is little to
no consideration for their safety as shown in the video “The Deadly Cost
of Fashion.” For those people, they are doing this as a living to get out of
poverty but it pays so little it is hard to climb out of it.
Inequality also shows up in the United States. For example, in the
education system, teachers do not get paid equal to the amount of work
and time they invest into their classrooms, students, and now with current
situations, putting their lives on the line to save these children in case of
a shooting. With the economy getting worse nowadays, just the regular
full time worker getting paid minimum wage cannot afford to pay rent,
groceries, utilities, insurance, etcetera all at once. Large American
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” Reply
groceries, utilities, insurance, etcetera all at once. Large American
corporations want higher profits for themselves and investors and seek
out the cheapest location for manufacturing these goods. Those
locations are usually out of the country.
(word count:246)
“On Power and Inequality in the Global Political Economy.” YouTube, 26
Feb. 2019,
“Rana Plaza Collapse Documentary: The Deadly Cost of Fashion | Op-
Docs | The New York Times.” YouTube, 15 Apr. 2014,
Caitlyn Trombly (She/Her)
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” Reply
Hey Vicroia, the same as you, I agree with the speaker in the video
about there being inequality in the global political economy. I like
how you mentioned the word greed in your post when speaking about
big time fashion organizations. I agree that all it can come down to is
greed when exploiting human beings to the extent that they are
risking their lives to go to work and doing so for an undesirable wage.
I read the comments on the video “The Deadly Cost of Fashion” and
one girl made a great point. She said “why is this the first we are
hearing of this?”. It’s not the first time something like this has
happened but I never heard of this case. Makes you wonder if the
companies want these situations to be swept under a rug so they may
continue business as usual.
Malynn Nooney
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” Reply
Victoria, the point you bring up about teachers is really fantastic. I
have first-hand experience with this as my mother is a 20-year
veteran teacher, currently teaching first grade. She invests so much
time and personal money into her classroom and students and never
sees any type of compensation for it.
This also introduces another layer of teaching inequalities when
speaking on the difference in resources of well-funded versus
underfunded schools. A school in a poor neighborhood may not have
the same quality of resources that a well-off school has, thus creating
significant inequality in the level of education that students are
receiving.The teacher may feel responsible for this, causing him or
her to invest their personal money to provide better materials for the
Inequality in education is a huge issue and is clearly not discussed
often enough. Thank you for shedding light on this.
Word Count: 148

Joselyn De La Cruz (She/Her)
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” Reply
Hello Victoria,

You mentioned that currently, in our country many people are
struggling to pay for necessities even with a full-time job.
Corporations want the biggest sale by any means necessary. These
corporations very well know that their business choices affect the
consumers and laborers. Are these CEOs or owners obligated to help
out their country, even though these big corporations win and
everyone else loses? Purchasing fairer labor, higher taxes, and
keeping consumer prices the same to even out the income class
difference could be beneficial. Should presidents and leaders enforce
stricter regulations on corporations from distancing the income class
even further? No matter who you are in this world or what your job is
everyone is dispensable in this economic world. If one falls from a
higher position to a menial job, would people then open their eyes to
see the difference and inequality in this globalized world?
Word Count: 150
Caitlyn Trombly (She/Her)
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” Reply
I agree with the speaker in the video On Power and Inequality in the
Global Political Economy, especially where she mentioned “labor
exploitation and global production leads to the creation or reinforcement
of inequalities across a number of different dimensions”. This point is
further proven in the collapse documentary. People are dying to make
cheap and quick turn over clothing for 1st world countries. The fashion
industry not only uses and abuses its employees all over the world but
they are also one of the top five polluters in the world. These global
fashion companies, such as Shein, have been known to pay next to
nothing to third world citizens in order to sell clothing in larger countries
like America. The distribution of money in these companies is unequal,
the owner or investor making millions and paying close to pennies for
their workers depending on where the factory is. The conditions in places
like these for work are unsanitary most of the time and the more people
exploit, the more money they make. This leads to a never ending cycle of
the investor increasing their wealth from exploitation as the more money
they have the more workers they can exploit and so on.

Phillips, N. (2019, February 26). On Power and Inequality in the Global
Economy . YouTube. Retrieved June 7, 2022, from

Ferdous, I., & Fitch, N. (2014, April 5). Rana Plaza collapse documentary:
The deadly cost of fashion – youtube. YouTube. Retrieved June 7, 2022,
Victoria Blanchard
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” Reply
Hello Caitlyn,
In relations to what you said about the distribution of money in the
companies being unequal, these companies do their best to find the
cheapest area to open those jobs knowing very well that those people
are in desperate need of money. They take advantage of these poor
people and exhaust them for pennies while they are also in harms
way with the conditions they put them in. It is a cruel reality of the
large companies in the world, constantly trying to find the cheapest
workers to make the most profit off of them. Some of those in power
have no consideration for the poor and do not mind using them as
stepping stones.
(word count:119)
Jeromy Wilson (
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” Reply
The inequality in the global market is indisputably real. The issue of
labor exploitation is prevalent and urgently requires attention. In a basic
chain of consequences, cheap (inhumane) labor forces attract profit
driven corporations (for example Apple, Microsoft, etcetera) and provide
irresistible incentives for such organizations to pull from this labor force
to drive profits up and keep costs of the products lower. This reinforces
and encourages the continuity and expansion of the underpaid labor
force, attracting more companies to indulge in the use of this force out of
necessity because it is the only way to keep up with competitors. This
has a number of negative consequences.
The loss of jobs within the nation of origin of these companies is
detrimental to the health of a nation. Lack of locally produced goods
means loss of knowledge on how to produce those goods within a
community, loss of income sources for local populations, and loss of
resources because if the work needs to be done overseas, the resources
needed to make the goods and do the work also need to be sent
overseas. This leads to a level of dependance on outside parties to have
basic things needed for modern daily life. This also promotes a scenario
where the locals do not know how to build what they need, but they can
afford it, while the people who are doing the work can not even afford to
purchase the goods they produce. This is unsustainable and
counterproductive to the prosperity of any nation, and it should be
reversed as quickly as possible if any involved wish to have a realistic
shadow of the future to plan for.
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Digna Turcios (She/Her)
I do agree with Nicola Phillips, she states that inequality is a problem in
todays world and its mostly hysterical politics. She has done research on
different angles of inequality and forms of inequality. She states that
transnational companies, like huge corporations make all the money and
it only goes toward one source. There are connections between inequality
and the global political economy. In today’s world we can see how
exploitation of laborers in global production leads to the creation of
inequality. Multinational companies are set in many locations across the
world and have the ability to trade with other companies. These
companies ensure economic growth not only in their respective country
but also in trading with their allies. The World Trade Organization which
was formally named General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade became a
formal institution in 1995. The World Trade Organization is responsible
for 90% of all trades across the world. The WTO has two procedures, the
first being Trade policy review, which monitors any trades made from
member states. The second being the dispute settlement body, which
handles any conflict between states. They listen to both sides and have a
panel to give a fair resolve between both parties. Companies like shein
exploit their workers and make very little profit off of the time and
amount of work they are given. This is a big problem in today’s world,
corporations are the ones that make the most profit while their workers
are treated as second class citizens and slave away just to make ends
word count: 261
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Edited by Digna Turcios ( on Jun 8 at 5:29pm
” Reply
On Power and inequality in the global political economy. (2019, February
26). YouTube. Retrieved June 8, 2022, from

Mingst, K. A., & McKibben, H. E. (2021). Essentials of International
Relations (Ninth Edition) (9th ed.). W. W. Norton & Company.
Joselyn De La Cruz (She/Her)
Yes, I do agree that there is inequality in the global political economy.
Over the many decades, other countries have shared the upper to lower
classifications. A possible reason that income inequality exists is due to
our technological advances. Over time our technology has gotten
advanced and that can lead to the replacement of human beings with
possible robots or computers. Unfortunately, having lower education
could potentially take away job opportunities which could lead to
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personnel not having the required skills to do specific jobs. One of our
popular products, Apple is manufactured in the most favorable trade
country, China. China offers lower tariffs and cheaper labor. “The
corporate tax rate in China is 25%. It’s 35% in India, 34% in Brazil, and
30% in Mexico. Right off the bat, China is at least 5% cheaper”
Since the idea is to buy the cheapest deal from anywhere, corporations
prefer to avoid having business deals with any Unions. Unions favor the
workers by having better wages and working conditions. China is chosen
again for its cheaper labor due to worker exploitation. “China has
comparatively weak labor protections on one hand, and a diverse pool of
talent on the other—from stitch-and-sew factory workers to scientists and
other high tech, advanced machine tool operators are all at the ready”
(Rapoza). Personnel can receive higher wages, but their cities will adjust
the balance by increasing prices on goods or any everyday necessities.
Inequality is inevitable in this globalized world and potential fixes can be
people obtaining higher education to receive more job opportunities and
distribution of wealth from the rich and powerful to help the lower

Word Count: 207 (without citations or references) / 305 (with citations
and references)
Works Cited
Rapoza, K. (2021, June 29). Why American companies choose China over
everyone else. Forbes. Retrieved June 7, 2022, from

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” Reply
Frances Martinez (She/Her)
Nicola Phillips presents a point that historically has been proven to be
right. We have seen time and time again, from the slave trade until now
that human beings have been exploited for the gain of power. They have
been used to increase profit in many areas from the industrial age to the
ongoing crisis of labor related human trafficking. Companies many times
seek to offset their costs by taking their business interests abroad, which
in turn has a horrific side effect, human exploitation. Human trafficking is
the most profitable business in the world, which furthermore proves the
downside of Free trade.
Capitalism, which is the belief of economic liberals, is based on the idea
that free trade is the best way to create growth in an economy. It gives
the opportunity to foreign investors to expand their capital beyond their
borders. They believe in lesser government regulation and can provide
access to better quality goods. Those with lower incomes can have the
opportunity to have access to a myriad of products. The downside is that
free trade, unlike we have been led to believe, doesn’t create new jobs.
Statistically is has proved to be responsible for over 20% of job loss that
occurs worldwide. It creates a disparity within communities and presents
a higher risk of a state currency being influenced for the advantage of a
state to benefit their economy. Developing countries, which are usually
used to mass produce for Multinational Corporations typically don’t have
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” Reply
used to mass produce for Multinational Corporations typically don’t have
laws to protect against labor exploitation and the marginalized continue
to be at a disadvantage in this economical structure.
Word Count: 266

Human Trafficking Statistics




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Andrea Cedeno Barcia
As explained in the video “On Power and inequality in the global political
economy,” an quoting the words of Professor Nicola Phillips “inequality is
the defining problem of our age.” It is sad to admit but it is true, and I
agree with this statement, according to the papers Professor Nicola
Phillips has published, focusing on the labor issues in a micro scale and
explaining the situations in Latin America as well as India, is shocking
but at the same time there is a clear need to learn and understand about
this topic, and that is that the path globalization is taking is impacting
for the worse the lives of many unfortunate individuals to have been born
on the upcoming countries that are fighting to have a place in this race,
also known as globalization and many are suffering and even loosing
their lives in the process.
Additionally, according to the article “Income Inequality and Global
Political Polarization: The Economic Origin of Political Polarization in the
World,” the authors explain that “[Income inequality]has increased in
nearly all regions in the world since the turn of the century.” As previously
mentioned globalization is now perceived as a race and its growth is
currently being built on the wrong foundation, which leads to assume that
it will not be sustainable in the long run, which is never a good sign when
building something new.
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Edited by Andrea Cedeno Barcia ( on Jun 9 at
” Reply
Gu, Y., & Wang, Z. (2021, November 23). Income inequality and global
political polarization: The economic origin of political polarization in the
world – journal of chinese political science. SpringerLink. Retrieved June
9, 2022, from
Mingst, K. A., & McKibben, H. E. (2021). Essentials of International
Relations. W. W. Norton & Company.



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Valerie Martin (
I agree with the speakers in both videos. As stated by Nicola Phillips,
“There is no question of the saliency of the issue” of global inequality.
When we look into the specifics that would answer her question of, ”
What are the connections between inequality and the global political
economy?”, (Nicola Phillips, Faculti, 2/26/2019), we find answers in video
#2, the Rana collapse where 1,100 people died and 2,500 were injured.
When large states or MNC’s are able to penetrate the labor markets of
lesser developed countries, in attempt to cut prices for the consumer, we
see the effect on people like the workers in the garment factories in
Bangladesh. To paraphrase our textbook, MNC’s find the countries with
the cheapest source of labor, with governments that are willing to make
labor concessions, in markets close to their target consumer, and to set
up production. This also allows them to circumvent taxes and import
barriers. This is done to satiate the consumer desire for lower prices and
maximize the MNC’s goal of profitability (Karen A. Mingst and Heather
Elko McKibben, 2021). But, this combines for situations like in
Bangladesh where the government standards for building regulation and
worker protection are low. Some of the MNC’s involved were Walmart, JC
Penny, and Cato Clothing. Companies that combine to be worth billions,
paying people low wages to risk their lives making clothes that cost more
per item, than they make in a month. Then when there is an accident the
MNC’s are protected by the concessions that were made by the
government and are able to leave the workers (or their surviving relatives)
to fend for themselves after making a company a considerable amounts
of money. As pointed out in the video about the collapse, “The Rana
Plaza Donors Trust Fund, which supports victims and their families, needs
an additional $25 million to cover lost of income and medical costs.”
(Ismail Ferdous and Nathan Fitch, New York Times, 2014) As reported in
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2021, Walmart’s net income (meaning after expenses were paid out) was
$37 million per day (Jeff Burton, The Small Business Times,12/18/2021).
For less than one day of profit, Walmart alone could have shored up the
needs of the trust fund.

[Jeff Burton “How Much Money Does Walmart Make a Day?” (The Small
Business Times,12/18/202 )
money-does-walmart-make-a-day/) ]
[Nicola Phillips, “On Power and Inequality in the Global Political
Economy”, Faculti, 2/26/2019)

[Ismail Ferdous and Nathan Fitch, “Rana Plaza Collapse Documentary:
The Deadly Cost of Fashion” (The New York Times, 4/15/2014)

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” Reply
[Karen A. Mingst and Heather Elko McKibben, “Essentials of International
Relations”, Ninth Edition,, (New York: W. W. Norton, (2021)]

( Grace Floresca (
Hello Professor and Class,

I agree with the speaker in the video. Inequality is a significant problem
that faces many people. The global production processes reflect the
dynamics of global inequality. Transnational corporations such as Apple
have high concentration of assets and wealth. Many companies have
been investing in third world countries. For example, Coca-Cola has
invested in many African countries. The companies utilize cheap labor in
third world countries to maximize profits. They acquire more wealth by
exploiting cheap labor in other countries.
The Rana Plaza collapse is a perfect example of the problem of
inequality. The collapse relates to American lives. The factories in Rana
Plaza were associated with brands and companies such as Walmart,
Mango and Joe Fresh. When the building collapsed, there were clothing
labels that were photographed. The clothing labels were found in various
US stores. This showed that many Americans were able to access clothes
at low prices because of individuals working in countries such as
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at low prices because of individuals working in countries such as
Bangladesh. Those in the Rana Plaza were working for first world
countries. The Bangladesh workers were toiling in sweatshops for low
wages. The building collapse was a proof that the workers were subjected
to unsafe working conditions. This shows that there isa problem of
inequality as laborers in other countries work under poor working
conditions and low wages to benefit transnational companies. It also
shows that there is labor exploitation in global production that leads to

Works Cited
“On Power and inequality in the global political economy.” YouTube,
uploaded by Faculti, Feb 27, 2019.

“Rana Plaza Collapse Documentary: The Deadly Cost of Fashion | Op-
Docs | The New York Times.” YouTube, uploaded by The New York Times,
April 16, 2014.

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” Reply
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