Posted: September 19th, 2022

J.A

see instructions (week2JA x)
Homeland Security Hw

Research & Report

Journal Assignment, you should find
two articles that relates to the material covered in your reading this week:

·
Chapter 5: Political and Social Foundations of Terrorism

·
Chapter 6: The Nature and Geography of Terrorist Groups, State Sponsors of Terror, and Safe Havens Click for more options

·
Chapter 7: Transnational Organized Crime and Terrorism Click for more options

·
Chapter 8: Intelligence and Counterintelligence and Terrorism Click for more options

Use
(government websites) to find an article that discusses the same topic. Then write in an APA review of the article. You should submit
two of these. Submit them in the same document.

Requirements:

·
Complete two article reviews.

· Each review shouold have a minimum of 250-350 words.

· Each review should explain the significance of the article and relate it to your reading this week.

· Each review should end with your opinion on the pros or cons of the article being reviewed.

·
Note: Do NOT use any articels older than 5 years.
This field is always changing, so you should be using current information (no older than five years).

·
Note: Do NOT simply cut-and-paste from a website or from an article. Yes, you should be sources to find the information for this journal assignment, but do not simply cut-and-paste someone else’s words. As you review the article, put it in your own words. Be sure to cite in APA. If you copy and paste, you will NOT get credit for doing this. Your reviews must be your own words, thoughts, and analysis.

Criteria No
Submission:
O Points

Emerging (F
through D range)
12 points

Satisfactory (C
Range)
14 points

Proficient (B Range)

16 points

Exemplary (A Range)

20 points

Criterion
score

20/20

Thesis and Ideas:
Explores the
appropriate topic based
on chapters read in the
week and displays
college level thinking
Submits the correct
number of Journal
articles.

Student did
not submit
the
assignment

Work does not
meet assignment
expectations;
shows little or no
understanding of
assignment
concepts

Assignment
partially meets
expectations with
minimal depth;
demonstrates a
limited
understanding of

the assignment
concepts

Assignment meets
expectations with
all components
being addressed;
demonstrates the
ability to evaluate

and apply key
assignments

Assignment exceeds
expectations with
exceptional depth;
presents all
requirements of the
assignment;
demonstrates the

ability to evaluate,
apply and synthesize
key assignment
concepts

20/20

Criteria

No
Submission:

O Points

Emerging (F
through D range)

12 points

Satisfactory (C
Range)

14 points

Proficient B Range

16 points

Exemplary (A Range

20 points

Criterion
score
20/20

Comprehension:
Synthesizes
information and
communicates it
through student’s own
thoughts and words.

Student did
not submit
the
assignment

Work does not
meet assignment
expectations;
shows little or no
understanding of
assignment
concepts

Assignment
partially meets
expectations with
minimal depth;
demonstrates a
limited
understanding of
the assignment
concepts

Assignment meets
expectations with
all components
being addressed;
demonstrates the
ability to evaluate
and apply key
assignments

Assignment exceeds
expectations with
exceptional depth;
presents all
requirements of the
assignment;
demonstrates the
ability to evaluate,
apply and synthesize
key assignment
concepts

20/20

Criteria No
Submission:

O Points

Emerging (F
through D range)

12 points

Satisfactory (C
Range)

14 points

Proficient (B Range)

16 points

Exemplary (A Range)

20 points

20/20

Evidence critical and
analytical skills

Student did
not submit
the
assignment

Work does not
meet assignment
expectations;
shows little or no
understanding of
assignment
concepts

Assignment
partially meets
expectations with
minimal depth;
demonstrates a
limited
understanding of
the assignment
concepts

Assignment meets
expectations with
all components
being addressed;
demonstrates the
ability to evaluate
and apply key
assignments

Assignment exceeds
expectations with
exceptional depth;
presents all
requirements of the
assignment;
demonstrates the
ability to evaluate,
apply and synthesize
key assignment
concepts

20/20

Criteria No
Submission:
0 Points

Emerging (F
through D range)
12 points

Satisfactory (C
Range)
14 points

Proficient B Range

16 points

Exemplary (A Range)

20 points

20/20

Research: Appropriate
use of scholarly sources

Student did
not submit
the
assignment

Work does not
meet assignment
expectations;
shows little or no
understanding of
assignment
concepts

Assignment
partially meets
expectations with
minimal depth;
demonstrates a
limited
understanding of
the assignment
concepts

Assignment meets
expectations with
all components
being addressed;
demonstrates the
ability to evaluate
and apply key
assignments

Assignment exceeds
expectations with
exceptional depth;
presents all
requirements of the
assignment;
demonstrates the

ability to evaluate,
apply and synthesize
key

20/20

Criteria No
Submission:
0 Points

Emerging (F
through D range)
6 points

Satisfactory (C
Range)
7 points

Proficient B Range

8 points

Exemplary (A Range)

10 points

10/10

Organization: Writing
demonstrates well-
developed body that
evidences each
element from the
thesis in succinct
paragraphs and each

Student did
not submit
the
assignment

Work does not
meet assignment
expectations;
shows little or no
understanding of
assignment
concepts

Assignment
partially meets
expectations with
minimal depth;
demonstrates a
limited
understanding of

Assignment meets
expectations with
all components
being addressed;
demonstrates the
ability to evaluate

Assignment exceeds
expectations with
exceptional depth;
presents all
requirements of the
assignment;
demonstrates the

10/10

paragraph supports the
thesis.

the assignment
concepts

and apply key
assignments

ability to evaluate,
apply and synthesize
key

Criteria No
Submission
0 Points

Emerging (F
through D range)
6 points

Satisfactory (C
Range)
7 points

Proficient (B Range)

8 points

Exemplary (A Range)

10 points

10/10

Used APA formatted
citations and
references and used
correct structural
formatting

Student did
not submit
the
assignment

No attempt at APA
formatting when
using references

APA is attempted
with numerous
errors

Using APA format
accurately; errors
are noticeable

Using APA format
proficiently, text is
basically error free

Overall Score

Emerging (F-D) Satisfactory
(C Range)

Proficient (B
range)

Exemplary (A
range)

Chapter 12: Structure for Managing Emergency Response

Article Name:

“Florida officials seek tourism boost after Alberto blows through”

Article Review:

The Emergency Operations Center should be the most important building of any community.

This is where all the knowledge and nuts and bolts to keep the safety, economy, and welfare of

all the citizens and dynamics of a city or county, flowing. Every part of our country has its own

hazards, from California and earthquakes, wildfires and tsunami threats, to hurricanes, tornadoes,

and floods in the South and Midwest. Every EOC has its own set of emergency plans based on

the threat assessment.

I bring up economy because you see it every storm season, disasters blow in and everyone flees,

including the tourists which would have spurred the economy but now are gone, and so is the

economy. Disasters not only pull down the economy, and the lack of needed tourism, but then is

the increased cost of preparing, mitigating, and recovery of disasters and emergencies. Hurricane

season started in the south, and now Florida is trying to pull back in tourists in between storms. I

understand that, but I also see a risk involved. According to one source, “As winds and rains let

up from Subtropical Storm Alberto, Florida officials Tuesday were quickly spinning ways to

draw tourists to areas that may have missed out on Memorial Day crowds” (Turner, 2018, para.

1). The Governor of Florida visited an EOC to thank them for a job well done for this first storm

as he was questioned about tourism efforts. He said, “The Legislature gave us $76 million again

this year (for visit Florida), and part of that money is to work on when we have something like

this, to let people know we’re back open for business” (Turner, 2018, para. 5). The EOC is the

hub and is excellent at tracking emergency and disaster situations before they happen, when

possible, and that success is shown by minimal loss of life and property.

When greed steps in, that is when you see tourism take a back seat, but most who have been

through the big storms know those risks, and you see a good attitude with the Governor of

Florida in this article who knows what his State is facing. It shows a good leader also who shows

appreciation to those he knows keeps the public safe.

WC 375

Turner, J. (2018, May 30). Florida officials seek tourism boost after Alberto blows through.

Florida Division of Emergency Management. Retrieved from

http://www.floridadisaster.gov/FloridaofficialsseektourismboostafterAlbertoblows

through

Homeland Security and Terrorism

Second Edition

Chapter 07

Transnational Organized Crime and Terrorism

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Learning Objectives
1. Explain the different kinds or types of crime.
2. Define transnational organized crime.
3. Describe the different models of transnational organized crime.
4. Describe how the various transnational organized crime groups are structured.
5. Discuss the different crimes and activities associated with transnational organized crime

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Defining Transnational Organized Crime
Organized Criminal Groups That Operate Multinationally
Assault On People, Society, Or Government

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Distinguishing Types or Categories of Crime
Street Crime
Organized Crime
White-Collar Crime
Transnational Organized Crime

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Impact of Transnational Organized Crime
TOC Intrusions Into Legitimate Government and Business Activities
TOC Soldiers Organize Into Government Approved Militias
TOC Undermines and Threatens the State Not Only in Terms of Justice and Social Order, But Also in Terms of Economic Viability
TOC and Illicit Criminal Economics Threaten the Security of the State

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Conditions Facilitating Transnational Organized Crime
Globalization of the Economy
Increased Numbers and Heterogeneity of Immigrants
Improved Communications Technology
Proliferation of Transportation Technology
Weak Governments

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Networking: The Etiology of Transnational Organized Crime Groups
Political Models
Economic Models
Social Models

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How Transnational Crime is Organized
Standard Hierarchy
Regional Hierarchy
Clustered Hierarchy
Core Groups
Criminal Network

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Transnational Organized Crime Activities (1 of 2)
Drug Trafficking
Human Trafficking
Smuggling of Technology and WMD Materials
Arms Trafficking
Trafficking in Precious Gems

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Transnational Organized Crime Activities (2 of 2)
Piracy
Non-Drug Contraband Smuggling
Counterfeiting
Theft
Financial Fraud
Environmental Crimes

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Failed States and Transnational Crime and Terrorism
Quasi States
Almost States
Black Spots
Failed States

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Links Between Transnational, Organized Crime and Terrorist Organizations
Both Operate Secretly and Usually From an Underground
Both Use Muscle and Ruthlessness and Produce Mainly Civilian Victims
Intimidation is Characteristic of Both Groups
Both Use Similar Tactics: Kidnappings, Assassinations, and Extortion
Both Exert Control Over Individuals Within the Group
Both Use Front Organizations such as Legitimate Businesses or Charities

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Dissimilarities between Transnational Crime and Terrorism (1 of 2)
Terrorist groups are usually ideologically or politically motivated, whereas organized crime groups are profit oriented.
Terrorist groups often wish to compete with governments for legitimacy; organized crime groups do not.

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Dissimilarities between Transnational Crime and Terrorism (2 of 2)
Terrorist groups relish media attention and oftentimes exert efforts to receive it; organized crime groups attempt to remain in the shadows receiving as little notoriety as possible.
Terrorist victimization and violence are generally less discriminate than those of organized crime groups.

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Copyright

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Homeland Security and Terrorism

Second Edition

Chapter 08

Intelligence and Counterintelligence and Terrorism

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

1

Learning Objectives
1. Discuss the importance of intelligence and problems associated with its collection.
2. Describe the role and functions of the director of national intelligence.
3. Describe the kinds of intelligence that are collected.
4. Distinguish the various methods of intelligence collection.
5. Identify the members of the intelligence community and explain their responsibilities

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Intelligence Failure – What Does It Mean?
Fail to Collect at Multiple Levels
Once Collected, Fail to Recognize Its Importance, Link It With Other Pertinent Information, or Interpret It in a Useable Policy Format
Fail to Share Information, Resulting in Many Incomplete Pieces of the Same Puzzles
Politicians and Policy Makers Cherry Pick Intelligence to Meet their Needs

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The Director of National Intelligence
Head of the Intelligence Community
Advises the President and National Security Council or Intelligence Related to National Security
Submits Budgets for the Intelligence Agencies
Coordinates the Agencies Comprising the Intelligence Community

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Homeland Security Intelligence
Four Dimensions Relative to Intelligence
Foreign Intelligence
Domestic Intelligence
Military Intelligence
Homeland Security Intelligence

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Types of Intelligence Collection Activities
Human Intelligence – HUMINT
Signals Intelligence – SIGINT
Measures and Signatures Intelligence – MASINT
Imagery Intelligence – IMINT
Open Source Intelligence – OSINT

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Agencies Within the American Intelligence Community (1 of 3)
Central Intelligence Agency
Defense Intelligence Agency
Department of Energy
Department of Homeland Security
Department of State

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Agencies Within the American Intelligence Community (2 of 3)
Department of Treasury
Drug Enforcement Administration Office
Federal Bureau of Investigation
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
National Reconnaissance Office

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Agencies Within the American Intelligence Community (3 of 3)
National Security Agency
US Air Force
US Army
US Coast Guard
US Marine
US Navy

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Intersection of Policy Decisions and Intelligence: The Intelligence Cycle
Planning and Direction
Collection
Processing and Exploitation
Analysis and Production
Dissemination

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Counterintelligence
Keep Weapons of Mass Destruction and Other Embargoed Technologies from Getting Into Wrong Hands
Protect the Secrets of the U.S. Intelligence Community
Protect the Secrets of the U.S. Government and Contractors
Protect Our Nation’s Critical National Assets
Focus on Countries that Pose the Greatest Threat to the U.S.

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National Counterterrorism Center
Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2002
Analyze Threats
Information Hub for Known and Suspected Terrorists
Strategic Planning or Counterterrorism

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Globalization of Intelligence
Homogenization and International Standardization of Intelligence
Increased Informational Sharing Across Borders and Governments
Training Intelligence Officers in Other Countries
Countries are providing technical assistance

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Domestic Industrial Espionage (1 of 2)
Targeting U.S. Firms for Technology
Posting Personnel at U.S. Military Bases to Collect Classified Information
Using Commercial Firms in U.S. to Target and Acquire U.S. Technology
Recruitment of Students, Professors, Scientists, and Researchers to Engage in Technology Collections

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Domestic Industrial Espionage (2 of 2)
Forming Ventures in U.S. Firms to Gain Sensitive Technologies or Establishing Foreign Research Facilities and Software Development Companies Outside U.S. to Work on Projects Related to Protected Programs
Offering Technical Services to U.S. Research Facilities or Cleared Defense Contractors in the hope of Gaining Access to Protected Technologies
Exploiting Foreign Visits to the U.S. and Collecting at Conventions and Expositions
Relying on Cyber Tools to Collect Sensitive U.S. Technology and Economic Information

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Copyright

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Homeland Security and Terrorism

Second Edition

Chapter 05

Political and Social Foundations of Terrorism

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Learning Objectives
1. Describe the continuum of social conflict.
2. State the definition of terrorism.
3. Discuss the history of terrorism.
4. Explain the causes of terrorism.
5. Describe the types of terrorism.
6. Discuss the strategies for dealing with terrorism

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Defining Terrorism
Socially Constructed With Various Definitions of the Term
No Consistent Definition Of Terrorism
Important To Develop An Operational Definition

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Definition of Terrorism by Agencies:
Federal Bureau of Investigations
U.S. Department of Defense
U.S. Department of State

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Four Consistent Themes That Define Terrorism:
Terrorism Involves Premeditation
Terrorist Acts Are Motivated by Some Political Agenda
Terrorist Generally Target Noncombatants or Civilians
Terrorist are Generally Sub-national or Clandestine Groups

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Configuration of a Particular Terrorist Group is Dependent On:
Environment
Relationship With the State
Motivation
Goals

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A Brief History of Terrorism
Early Focus of Terrorism
The French Revolution
Late 19th and Early 20th Century Terrorism
Terrorism in Late 20th Century
Terrorism Today

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The Roots and Causes of Terrorism
Civilizations or Culture Clashes
Globalization
Religion
Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
Russian Invasion of Afghanistan
Wahhabism
Authoritarian Governments
Failed States

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Individual Explanations of Terrorism
Frustration – Aggression
Relative Deprivation
Identity Crisis
Narcissistic Rage
Moral Disengagement

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Types of Terrorism
State-Sponsored Terrorism
Dissent Terrorism
Terrorists and the Left and Right
Religious Terrorism
Criminal Terrorism

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Level of Terrorist Activities
Number of Attacks and Their Impacts
Number of Casualties as a Result of Attacks
Attacks in Iraq and Afghanistan

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Strategies for Dealing With Terrorism
Crushing Terrorist Groups Unilaterally
Crushing Terrorist Groups Multilaterally
Containment
Defense
Diversion
Delegitimizing
Transforming Terrorist Breeding Grounds

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Copyright

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Homeland Security and Terrorism

Second Edition

Chapter 06

The Nature and Geography of Terrorist Groups, State Sponsors of Terror, and Safe Havens

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Foreign Terrorist Organizations (1 of 3)
Middle East and North Africa Groups
Hamas
Islamic State-Sinai Province
Islamic State of the Levant
Hezbollah
Muslim Brotherhood
Kurdistan Workers’ Party
Al Qaeda
Al Qaeda in Iraq

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Foreign Terrorist Organizations (2 of 3)
African Groups
Islamic Courts Union
Al-Shabaab
Boko Haram
Al Qaeda
Pakistan
Pakistani Taliban
Lashkar-e-Tayyiba
Tehrik-e-Pakistan
Jaish-e-Mohammed
Asian Groups
Pakistani Taliban
Lashkar-e-Tayyiba
Haqqani Network
Abu Sayyaf Group

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Foreign Terrorist Organizations (3 of 3)
Latin American Groups
National Liberation Army
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia
Shining Path
European Groups
Basque Fatherland and Liberty
Red Brigade in Italy
Red Army Faction in Germany
Communist Combat Cells of Belgium

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Terrorism in America
Domestic Terrorism
Political Extremism
Single-Issue
Lone-Wolf
Radical, Muslim-Inspired Terrorism
Right-Wing Terrorists and Militias
Eco-Terrorism and Animal Rights Groups

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Copyright

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Chapter:
Chapter 1 – Defining Terrorism

Article Title:
“Terrorism”

Chapter 1 of the text goes into much detail about defining terrorism and the types of terrorism.
What exactly constitutes terrorism and why does it seem so complicated to define? This article
from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI, 2021) defines terrorism as a “contested term, with
no set definition for the concept or broad agreement among academic experts on its usage ”
(para. 1). Is it really that difficult to define? It’s a word and as such it should just be in any old
dictionary or textbook glossary and boom there’s the definition. Is it more complicated than that?

To answer my own question, yes, it is very complicated. But at least I’m not alone in the
complicatedness of defining terrorism as it seems like the FBI is having problems too. The article
notes that “the recent spate of extremist attacks in the United States and Europe have highlighted
the difficulty of defining what constitutes ‘terrorism’” (FBI, 2021, para. 2). Here, The FBI
focuses on recent examples extremism to attempt to answer the question, even giving the readers
an account of some of the recent terroristic attacks and how the relate to terrorism and
extremism. By the end of the article the question remains unclear and unanswered, making this
task of defining terrorism that much more confusing.

The pro of this article is that there were some real-world examples. These help show the
complicated nature of defining terrorism.

The article would have been more interesting if there were some frontline details, like the
definition from the FBI’s perspective, especially given it’s the leading legal enforcement
mechanism in the country.

Words: 270

Reference

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2021). What We Investigate: Terrorism. Retrieved from

https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/terrorism

Commented [JW1]: When citing from a webpage, you
must count the paragraphs and include a para. citation.

Commented [JW2]: Note how the quote within a quote
appears:
” ‘ ‘ ”

And note the citation here follows the quote since the
source was not mentioned before the quote.

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