Posted: August 3rd, 2022


Analysis of Cardiovascular Diseases (Haiti)


According to McNairy & Leighton (2019), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the primary cause of death in Haitian adults.

As a result of Haiti’s poverty-related social and environmental variables, hypertension appears to be the country’s most significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) (Lookens et al., 2020).

Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases (Stroke)


Cardiovascular illness can be triggered by various health issues, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and excessive blood cholesterol levels.

They are well-recognized as important contributors to the development of heart disease and stroke (Gudsoorkar & Tobe, 2017).

Pressure in the blood can have an impact on the heart and brain’s ability to function. Cholesterol testing can help determine one’s risk for cardiovascular disease.

Role of Exercise Training in Cardiovascular Disease Management


Cardiovascular disease outcomes can be improved with improved lifestyle adjustments. Despite the low mortality and morbidity rates associated with regular physical activity, the advantages of such programs cannot be overlooked (Stewart et al., 2017).

Another weekly or biweekly exercise to engage in is muscle strengthening (Stewart et al., 2017).

Exercising reduces the risk factors like obesity and blood pressure that might cause stroke.

Addressing Stroke through Education


Haiti has experienced more cases of cardiovascular diseases as compared to HIV disease, and this has been an urgent concern because more people are losing their lives.

Education and awareness is an intervention that is necessary for educating the public about the importance of avoiding fried fast foods, excessive salt, and sugar and considering engaging in physical exercise (Jean‐Charles, 2014).

The population needed to be educated to engage in dietary learning programs and also physical lessons that prepare them to avoid cardiovascular diseases like stroke that are preventable (Hickey et al., 2018).



Bowen, K. J., Sullivan, V. K., Kris-Etherton, P. M., & Petersen, K. S. (2018). Nutrition and cardiovascular disease – An update. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 20(2).

Brinsden, H., & Farrand, C. (2017). Reducing salt; preventing stroke. Nutrition Bulletin, 37(1), 57-63.

Cannie, D. E., Akhtar, M. M., & Elliott, P. (2019). Hidden in heart failure. European Cardiology Review, 14(2), 89-96. Web.

CDC. (2018). Fast Food Consumption among Adults in the United States, 2013–2016. Retrieved 19 July 2022, from

Chauhdry, H. (2021). Understanding the importance of recognising, treating and preventing stroke. Nursing Standard, 37(1), 77-82.

El Mabchour, A., Delisle, H., Vilgrain, C., Larco, P., Sodjinou, R., & Batal, M. (2022). Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti. Retrieved 19 July 2022, from.

Gillespie, C. (2021). Fried Food Increases Risk of Stroke and Heart Disease, Analysis Finds. Verywell Fit. Retrieved 19 July 2022, from

Gudsoorkar, P., & Tobe, S. (2017). Changing concepts in hypertension management. Journal of Human Hypertension, 31(12), 763-767.

Hickey, A., Mellon, L., Williams, D., Shelley, E., & Conroy, R. M. (2018). Does stroke health promotion increase awareness of appropriate behavioural response? Impact of the face, arm, speech, and time (FAST) campaign on population knowledge of stroke risk factors, warning signs, and emergency response. European Stroke Journal, 3(2), 117-125. Web.

Jean‐Charles, R. (2014). Challenges in Hypertension: The Haiti Experience. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 16(2), 97-98.

Lanier, J. B., Berry, D. C., & Richardson, S. W. (2016). Diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention. American Family Physician, 93(11), 919-924. Web.
Lookens, J., Tymejczyk, O., Rouzier, V., Smith, C., Preval, F., & Joseph, I. et al. (2020). The Haiti cardiovascular disease cohort: study protocol for a population-based longitudinal cohort. BMC Public Health, 20(1).
Marseille, B., Commodore‐Mensah, Y., Davidson, P., Baker, D., D’Aoust, R., & Baptiste, D. (2021). Improving hypertension knowledge, medication adherence, and blood pressure control: A feasibility study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 30(19-20), 2960-2967.
McNairy, & Leighton, M. (2019). A Longitudinal Cohort Study to Evaluate Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Disease in Haiti. Case Medical Research.
Polsinelli, V., Satchidanand, N., Singh, R., Holmes, D., & Izzo, J. (2016). Hypertension and aging in rural Haiti: results from a preliminary survey. Journal of Human Hypertension, 31(2), 138-144.
Qin, P., Zhang, M., Han, M., Liu, D., Luo, X., & Xu, L. et al. (2021). Fried-food consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Heart, 107(19), 1567-1575.
Ruan, Y., Guo, Y., Zheng, Y., Huang, Z., Sun, S., Kowal, P., Shi, Y., & Wu, F. (2018). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors among older adults in six low-and middle-income countries: Results from SAGE Wave 1. BMC Public Health, 18(1). Web.
Stewart, J., Manmathan, G., & Wilkinson, P. (2017). Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: A review of contemporary guidance and literature. JRSM Cardiovascular Disease, 6. Web.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Know your risk for heart disease. CDC. Web.

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-Purpose: to spread awareness and prevention


– Results- through education, awareness, Haitian will know better and take better care of themselves

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