Posted: September 4th, 2022

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 MUST BE COMPLETED BY TOMORROW Wednesday 12/22/2021 by 10 pm U.S.A Eastern Standard Time!!!  


Small or Whole Group Instruction

Marquetta Gibson

Grand Canyon University: SEC-540

December 15, 2021

Ms. Dawn is a pre-kindergarten at Children of America. During the last interview, Ms. Dawn picked four students who she believed would best reflect the small group that would be required for the continuation of the practicum experience in the future. In terms of reading ability, one kid has an IEP that is on grade level, while the other three have IEPs that are either above, on, or below grade level. They shall be referred to as C, A, L, and T in this document. Ms. Dawn confers with her pupils one-on-one rather than in larger groups, as is customary. She either sits with the students at their desks or invites them to join her at hers for a discussion. The children listen while Ms. Dawn reads to them out loud. When they have completed reading, they discuss what they have learned. She works with them to improve their reading fluency, as well as their understanding. The four children were very engaged in the read aloud, but their levels of understanding differed greatly. The children with IEPs need prompting to keep attentive, as well as leading questions to build on reading topics, among other things. Perhaps a reading tracker or listening to an electronic rendition of a narrative might be beneficial to them. Other ideas are utilizing visual images such as videos and colorful pictures. The children seem to benefit from technology in that it helps them stay grounded and focused. The other students were quite attentive and enjoyed the lesson, which was encouraging.

“Fall Forward, Spring Back”, is the title of the book I chose. It is a multi-leveled reader that will satisfy the diverse reading demands of the kids. Several of the students will be working at a lower level, which will have fewer words in journals to copy and learn during small group sessions. The higher level has more words in their journals to copy and will be required to draw an image of what they comprehended from the story. Both levels feature the same concentrated vocabulary words, as well as the same primary theme and supporting elements. The book may be read electronically, with the option to listen to it while reading along with the author’s narration. All exercises may be performed either online or on paper, depending on the teacher’s preference. Allowing students to simply draw what they learned from the story is also available for students who are having problems with the writing task. As part of this next chapter of this literacy journey, I’ve already started working on the pre-assessment and studying the learning target for the students. I’m looking forward to continuing my work with Ms. Dawn and the students in our small literacy group in the coming months.

Instructional Strategies for Literacy Integration Matrix

Marquetta Gibson

Grand Canyon University: SEC-540

December 15, 2021

Instructional Strategies for Literacy Integration Matrix

Grade: 11th

Content Area: African American Studies

Part 1: Matrix

Select three state standards for your content area and align each content standard with a different literacy standard. Based on the standards chosen, create a learning objective and select an instructional strategy. Write a rationale for how the strategy for each standard promotes a balanced literacy curriculum.

State Standard by Content Area

Literacy State Standard to Integrate into Another Content Area

Use a different literacy standard for each content standard.

Standards-based Learning Objective

Aligned to content standards

Instructional Strategy to Integrate Literacy


Provide links to websites, PDFs, and any other documents used or referenced for strategy


How the strategy will promote balanced literacy curriculum

State Content Standard 1: “H1: Understands historical chronology (OSPI, 2020)”.

“H1.9-10.3 Design questions generated about individuals & groups that assess how the significance of their actions changes over time (OSPI, 2020)”.

Can ask questions that reflect a person or group & will be able to contribute to the historical debate.

Who, What, Where, and Why worksheet

Black Panther, Malcom X, 4W’s

Assist kids in answering the 4W’s. This will aid them in formulating questions as they write them down. 4W’s serve as a catalyst for the entire the project.

State Content Standard 2: “H2: Understands and analyzes causal factors that have shaped major events in history (OSPI, 2020)”.

“H2.9-10.3 Define and evaluate how technology and ideas have shaped world history (1450-present) (OSPI, 2020)”.

The student fully and thoroughly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of technology, as well as how it has shaped particular regions of the globe.

Using a Venn diagram to compare various technological eras

Video 1

Video 2

Video 3

Supports higher order thinking by allowing students to find connections between and among material rather than merely detecting likenesses and differences; useful at all levels of schooling and throughout the educational program.

State Content Standard 3: “H3: Understands that there are multiple perspectives and interpretations of historical events (OSPI, 2020)”.

“H3.9-10.2 Analyze the multiple causal factors of conflicts in world history (1450-present) to create and support claims and counterclaims (OSPI, 2020)”.

In their letter, the student links theme terms and discusses how the themes may have influenced individuals to migrate to America.

Writing letters to the heads of several organizations concerning their role in the events. A letter to those who have been affected by the events.

Use the textbook for this.

Develops a variety of writing skills, including factual, narrative, and opinion writing. This also aids in the development of reading abilities.

Part 2: Summary and Scholarly Resources

While teaching, one will come into contact with a variety of students from multiple diverse origins and economic statuses. Along with differentiated levels of learning, a range of instructional styles is required to develop a balanced literacy curriculum. We must cater to the individual requirements of each kid in the classroom. “Teachers who use a balanced approach to literacy education mix instruction with actual reading and writing on a regular basis, so that students learn how to apply and utilize the literacy techniques and abilities they are acquiring (Bumgardner, “n.d.”)”. This enables instructors to diversify learning in order to assist students in comprehending at their level and to keep students engaged in the session.

A suitable literacy learning environment requires oral language, phonological awareness, and print understanding. Oral language is a crucial component of early literacy, and the phases children go through while learning to read are similar to those they go through when learning to speak. “Children who participate in developmentally appropriate activities that emphasize both spoken and written language often demonstrate increased proficiency and mastery in both (Determan, 2016)”. The type of children’s earliest interactions has an effect on their language and proficiency development and, therefore, on their long-term outcomes. We foster young children’s developing language by conversing, singing, and interacting with them throughout the day, on daily routines, and during play.

Reading requires phonological awareness “Rhyming, alliteration, blending, and segmenting within a linguistic hierarchy of speech structures such as syllables, onset-rime units, and phonemes are all component abilities (Determan, 2016)”. It pervades every aspect of our existence. “Our comprehension of print is comprised of three components: an awareness of how print works, a grasp of the written symbols that reflect our spoken language, and learning to write (Determan, 2016)”. Children learn how to recognize print, how to value it, and how to utilize it for a variety of reasons. It is critical that the children are motivated from the instruction. Their level of comprehension gives the teacher an idea of the next level of their learning. Through a variety of intuitive print openings, children develop attention and understanding of competence.

To continue promoting this atmosphere, activities such as The Daily 5 assist students improve their reading and writing skills. This strategy includes “the following components: reading aloud to another, writing practice, listening to reading, and word work (Bumgardner, “n.d.”)”. This may be done in small groups or in a classroom setting. Rereading the same book might assist them in becoming comfortable with material. Finally, develop activities that use language so that pupils get accustomed to hearing and seeing it in everyday activities. Allowing children to make errors is one thing to bear in mind while dealing with literacy. The environment should be encouraging in order to acquire new skills. If we have students that are learning a second language, we should work with them to put in more effort and be more eager to assist. Mistakes are a natural part of life; one must just be prepared for them.


Bumgardner, K. R. (n.d.). A Balanced Literacy Classroom: What Does It Look and Sound Like? McGrawHill Education.

Determan, L. (2016, December 16). Three components for literacy development. Early Childhood Education Blog | Northwest Area Education Agency.,phonological%20awareness%20and%20print%20knowledge


OSPI. (2020). Washington State K–12 Learning Standards for Social Studies. Washington Office of Superintendent Public Instruction.

© 2021. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.



Observation and Interview

Marquetta Gibson

Grand Canyon University: SEC-540

December 9, 2021

My mentor is Ms. Dawn, a Pre-K teacher at Children of America. She believes that students need to understand the distinct approaches to literacy and thus a teacher has to ensure that they are integrated in content area. One of the challenges faced by students according to Ms. Dawn, is that they struggle to comprehend the texts used in the classroom. One of the literacy integration strategies she uses is committing to a conceptual framework of learning by doing. Learning by doing enables learners to improve their comprehension and retention of classroom content. In addition, she provides opportunities for learners to use inquiry, academic language, and key habits of practice. Lastly, she uses the literacy approach to instruction in a way that promotes the skills for 21st century literacy. This includes communication, creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration.

Ms. Dawn uses technology in her content instruction to get students more engaged. In the digital contemporary era, children prefer any mode of learning that integrates technology, such as YouTube videos, music, and learning apps. I observed that she uses PowerPoint presentations to present texts to students during morning greetings. They are more engaged with PowerPoint presentations because of the colorful words, background music, and vibrant pictures. Students learn faster because they’re excited, and they’re able to retain information taught.

Ms. Dawn responded that she often collaborates with other Pre-K teachers and departments when integrating literacy standards. Even though she has to abide by Children of American literacy standards, she also implements her own. She strives to be part of the team that develops literacy standards by being the example of excellence. However, Ms. Dawn has often experienced challenges in integrating literacy strategies into content instruction. For instance, some literacy strategies require resources to be effective. A teacher may need to use media such as computers and projectors to reinforce the text. In some situations, the institution might lack these resources.

To assess the effectiveness of the lesson, and to see if the students mastered the learning objectives for the day, the Ms. Dawn engages the students in an assessment at the end of the lesson to assess their mastery for the course content. She assesses their reading proficiency and level comprehension by giving them short texts to identify letters and spell words from the text. This helps to determine whether the students have mastered spelling and pronouncing.

A major challenge for Ms. Dawn in content delivery is that some parents may disapprove text selection. In such a situation, she must be careful to select text that strictly abides by the Children of American policies. If a parent is still not okay with the text, the child is sent to complete another activity during that specific lesson. It is imperative for a teacher to use text that all parents are okay with, and it is easy to develop students’ skill.

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