Posted: September 20th, 2022

Need help studying

I have an assignment I’m struggling on and need a tutor

PART B LAB

Part B: The Scientific Method

The scientific method!

 

I’m sure you’ve had some version of this in every science class since… kindergarten? Hopefully this isn’t new, but let’s review anyways by watching this video:

 HERE IS THE LINK :

Practicing with the scientific method

 

Part 1:

In 1887 a strange nerve disease attacked the people in the Dutch East Indies. The disease was beriberi. Symptoms of the disease included weakness and loss of appetite; victims often died of heart failure. Scientists thought the disease might be caused by bacteria. They injected chickens with bacteria from the blood of patients with beriberi. The injected chickens became sick. However, so did a group of chickens that were not injected with bacteria. One of the scientists, Dr. Eijkman, noticed something. Before the experiment, all the chickens had eaten whole-grain rice, but during the experiment, the chickens were fed polished rice. Dr. Eijkman researched this interesting case and found that polished rice lacked thiamine, a vitamin necessary for good health.

 

    1.State the Problem

 

   2.What was the hypothesis?

 

3. How was the hypothesis tested?

 

4. Do the results indicate that the hypothesis should be rejected?

 

5. What should the new hypothesis be and how would you test it?

 

Part 2

 

Bart believes that mice exposed to radio waves will become extra strong (maybe he’s been reading too much Radioactive Man). He decides to perform this experiment by placing 10 mice near a radio for 5 hours. He compared these 10 mice to another 10 mice that had been exposed. His test consisted of a heavy block of wood that blocked the mouse food. He found that 8 out of 10 of the exposed mice were able to push the block away, while 7 out of 10 of the other mice were able to do the same. 

· Identify the:

· Control group

· Independent variable           

· Dependent variable

· What should Bart’s conclusion be?

 

· How can the experiment the experiment be improved?

 
 

 (Adapted from http://www.biologycorner.com/)

 

Scientists are Skeptics

While the scientific method is a powerful to help us collect information about the known world, it is important that scientists (including you!) remain skeptical. But what does this mean? Let’s watch this video to take a look at what skepticism is:

HERE IS THE VIDEO LINK https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W9IoN8Tb1wg

Let’s think about it

Answer these questions in your notebook:

1. Why is skepticism considered a valuable trait for scientists?

2. Can science ever prove something completely true? Explain. 

 

Reproducibility and Repeatability

Repeatability means being able to obtain the same results, with the same experimental set up, time after time. Being able to reproduce the results of an experiments enables researchers to claim that their results are valid, and not just a chance event (like a freak accident).

The reproducibility means that researchers in other labs can obtain the same results, using the same methods as published in a paper. This shows that the published results are not just artifacts of the unique setup in one research lab. Reproducibility is desirable, because it verifies and protects against rare cases of fraud or human error, in the production of significant results.

For this section, we’ll watch this video and answer some questions:

HERE IS THE VIDEO LINK https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FpCrY7x5nEE

Answer these questions in word document

1. What unexpected event did CERN researchers ultimately track down due to an experimental error?

2. What does the phrase “Publish or Perish” refer to?

3. What is “Peer Review”?

4. What are some potential remedies for the lack of irreproducibility?

5. What steps does a scientist take in order to share her results with scientific community?

6. List one pressure that each of the following parties might feel that could discourage them from looking more closely at preventing irreproducible results. a) Researchers b) Universities c) Scientific Journals

image1

Part D: Identifying Steps in the Scientific Method

Let’s use a real-life scenario to dissect the scientific method. 

Below, you’ll find the Radiolab episode “Patient Zero.” You can also 

access this podcast episode here (Links to an external site.)

.  https://radiolab.org/episodes/169879-patient-zero

Here’s what you need to do:

· In the powerpoint I upload this this what you do

 about the episode

· In the comments for each slide you will find time stamps that correspond to specific locations in the episode

· The slides come into play around the 15:00 mark

· Include the Round 1, Round 2, Round 3, and Discussion questions into your lab notebook.

· Don’t freak out–although the timer shows 1 hour and 13 minutes, our material will end at 33 minutes, although there is some pertinent information (to this lab) until 42 minutes.

image1

PART C

Part C: The Metric Syste

m

Metric System Part 1: Why the metric system?

In science, we use a standard unit of measurement called the International System of Units (or SI system). You probably know this system by its more common name, the metric system. Unlike the En

g

lish system of 12 inches to 1 foot, 3 feet in a yard, etc… The SI system function on units based on 10.

 

To start out, let’s watch this video on the history of the SI system and why it matters:

HERE IS THE VIDEO

L

INK https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7bUVjJWA6Vw&t=2s

Why does the metric system matter?

Answer the following questions in your lab notebook  from the video about the metric system:

1.

Who was the earliest advocate for a uniform measuring system?

2.

What historical event was pivotal in the adoption of a unified measurement system?

3.

What defines our current ‘standard’ for one

meter

?

4.

The word meter derives from a Greek word that means:

5.

What might common French citizens have liked about the metric system when it was adopted? What might they have disliked? Why?

6. What circumstances during the French Revolution permitted the metric system to gain a foothold?

 

Metric System part 2: SI Base Units and

Conversion

s

The metric or SI system has a set of base units of measure from which we can convert or derive other units. Below is a table that shows the base units for each of the important measurements that are used in biology.

Quantity

Name of Unit

Symbol

English System Equivalent

length

meter m

3.28 feet

mass

gram

g

2.2 pounds

volume

liter

L

33.8 ounces

temperature

Celsius

°C

room temperature = ~68°F = ~ 20°C

These units are just a starting point. Using our base of 10, we can convert to smaller or larger units. For example, if we need to measure something smaller and 1 meter, we can use centimeters (cm). The prefix centi means 1/100, so there are 100 centimeters in one meter. 

Here’s a table showing the common prefixes and their conversions to get to larger or smaller units in the metric system. It’s easiest to start with the base unit, then convert up to a larger unit, or down to a smaller unit, depending on what you’re measuring. 

Prefix

Conversion

Kilo (k)

103  or 1,000 times larger than base unit

Hecto (h)

102 or 100 times larger than base unit

Deka (D)

101 or 10 times larger than base unit

deci (d)

10-1 or 1/10th of the base unit (0.1)

centi (c)

10-2 or 1/100th of the base unit (0.01)

milli (m)

10-3 or 1/1000th of the base unit (0.001)

micro (μ) 

10-6 or 1/100,000th of the base unit (0.000001)

 

Let’s give this a try: let’s watch this video as a tutorial on converting between units in the metric system.

HERE IS THE VIDEO LINK https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uHaKyNplino

Scientists typically do not go back and forth between metric and English systems.  They work in metric.

 

Metric System Part 3: Measuring using the metric system

For this component of the lab, you’ll be practicing taking measurements using virtual tools and video tutorials. 

Measuring mass with a triple beam balance

Watch this video for a tutorial on using the triple beam balance to measure mass

HERE IS THE VIDEO LINK https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BAf6HoVK6JI

Then, go to 

this website to practice using a triple beam balanceLinks to an external site.

. Save a copy of the certificate once you’ve successfully determined the mass of the 10 objects.  

Measuring volume with a graduated cylinder

HERE IS THE VIDEO LINK https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ewRaV5baik

We use graduated cylinders to accurately measure the volume of a liquid. Watch the video below for a tutorial on using a graduated cylinder.

Next, go to 

this website to practice measuring volume using a graduated cylinderLinks to an external site.

. Once you’ve completed the practice, save a copy of your certificate to your computer. 

LINK http://www.thephysicsaviary.com/Physics/Programs/Games/GraduatedCylinder/index.html

 

Measuring temperature in Celsius (centigrade)

Watch this video for an introduction to temperature and measuring temperature using a thermometer:

HERE IS THE VIDEO LINK https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aRgQY8jRDKU&feature=emb_imp_woyt

Go to 

this website to practice measuring temperature.Links to an external site.

 Save the certificate to your computer once you’re finished. 

Measuring length in cm

For this section, you’ll need some supplies:

1. A ruler or tape measure with centimeters (or a 

ruler app like this oneLinks to an external site.

) https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=net.kosev.rulering&hl=en_US

2. Five objects from your home

Use the ruler/tapemeasure/app to measure the 5 objects. Record the length of the objects in centimeters (cm). Then, you’ll convert the length of the object in millimeters (mm). Copy this table into your lab notebook. 

Object

Length in cm

Length in mm

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Take a picture of yourself measuring the five objects. You’ll upload these as part of your lab later. 

Part C: The Metric System
Metric System Part 1: Why the metric system?

In science, we use a standard unit of measurement called the International System of Units (or SI system). You probably know this system by its more common name, the metric system. Unlike the English system of 12 inches to 1 foot, 3 feet in a yard, etc… The SI system function on units based on 10. 

To start out, let’s watch this video on the history of the SI system and why it matters:

Why does the metric system matter?

Answer the following questions in your lab notebook  from the video about the metric system:
1. Who was the earliest advocate for a uniform measuring system?
2. What historical event was pivotal in the adoption of a unified measurement system?
3. What defines our current ‘standard’ for one meter?
4. The word meter derives from a Greek word that means:
5. What might common French citizens have liked about the metric system when it was adopted? What might they have disliked? Why?
6. What circumstances during the French Revolution permitted the metric system to gain a foothold?
 
Metric System part 2: SI Base Units and Conversions
The metric or SI system has a set of base units of measure from which we can convert or derive other units. Below is a table that shows the base units for each of the important measurements that are used in biology.

Quantity

Name of Unit

Symbol

English System Equivalent

length

meter

m

3.28 feet

mass

gram

g

2.2 pounds

volume

liter

L

33.8 ounces

temperature

Celsius

°C

room temperature = ~68°F = ~ 20°C

These units are just a starting point. Using our base of 10, we can convert to smaller or larger units. For example, if we need to measure something smaller and 1 meter, we can use centimeters (cm). The prefix centi means 1/100, so there are 100 centimeters in one meter. 
Here’s a table showing the common prefixes and their conversions to get to larger or smaller units in the metric system. It’s easiest to start with the base unit, then convert up to a larger unit, or down to a smaller unit, depending on what you’re measuring. 

Prefix

Conversion

Kilo (k)

103  or 1,000 times larger than base unit

Hecto (h)

102 or 100 times larger than base unit

Deka (D)

101 or 10 times larger than base unit

deci (d)

10-1 or 1/10th of the base unit (0.1)

centi (c)

10-2 or 1/100th of the base unit (0.01)

milli (m)

10-3 or 1/1000th of the base unit (0.001)

micro (μ) 

10-6 or 1/100,000th of the base unit (0.000001)

 
Let’s give this a try: let’s watch this video as a tutorial on converting between units in the metric system.
Scientists typically do not go back and forth between metric and English systems.  They work in metric.
 
Metric System Part 3: Measuring using the metric system
For this component of the lab, you’ll be practicing taking measurements using virtual tools and video tutorials. 

Measuring mass with a triple beam balance

Watch this video for a tutorial on using the triple beam balance to measure mass
Then, go to 

this website to practice using a triple beam balanceLinks to an external site.
. Save a copy of the certificate once you’ve successfully determined the mass of the 10 objects.  

Measuring volume with a graduated cylinder

We use graduated cylinders to accurately measure the volume of a liquid. Watch the video below for a tutorial on using a graduated cylinder.

Next, go to 

this website to practice measuring volume using a graduated cylinderLinks to an external site.
. Once you’ve completed the practice, save a copy of your certificate to your computer. 

 

Measuring temperature in Celsius (centigrade)

Watch this video for an introduction to temperature and measuring temperature using a thermometer:
Go to 

this website to practice measuring temperature.Links to an external site.
 Save the certificate to your computer once you’re finished. 

Measuring length in cm

For this section, you’ll need some supplies:

1. A ruler or tape measure with centimeters (or a 

ruler app like this oneLinks to an external site.
)

2. Five objects from your home
Use the ruler/tapemeasure/app to measure the 5 objects. Record the length of the objects in centimeters (cm). Then, you’ll convert the length of the object in millimeters (mm). Copy this table into your lab notebook. 

Object

Length in cm

Length in mm

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Take a picture of yourself measuring the five objects. You’ll upload these as part of your lab later. 

image1

A RadioLab Investigation

Who is Patient Zero?

It’s probably best to download the audio file, rather than try to play it off the site: http://www.radiolab.org/story/

1

69879-patient-zero/

You will start at 15:00 (on slide #3) of the audio and be changing slides as the audio plays.

Slides from Imelda Nava-Landeros, Erica Seubert and Diane Livio

1

Who is Patient Zero?

As you listen, take notes to identify/construct the following:

Hypothesis:

Evidence:

Ask the students to have a couple sheets of paper out to keep notes on. They’ll be tracking the progress of their thoughts in the radiolab investigation on the paper.
You could collect these notes at the end to give them some participation points, if you want.

You could point them to this article regarding myths about HIV and AIDS: http://www.thehealthsite.com/diseases-conditions/ten-hivaids-myths-busted/

2

HIV ATTACKS YOUR T CELLS

Start at 15:00
T-cells are a type of white blood cell that circulate around our bodies, scanning for cellular abnormalities and infections.

At 16:53 click to the next slide

Image (and a nice extra reference source to point the students to later): http://www.thehealthsite.com/diseases-conditions/ten-hivaids-myths-busted/

3

At 17:36 click to the next slide

4

At 19:01 click to the next slide

5

What is “Patient Zero”?

STOP here at 20:22

Image: http://haicontroversies.blogspot.com/2011/12/patient-zero-typhoid-mary-through-hiv.html

6

Round 1
Who is Patient Zero?
Hypothesis:
Patient zero is ………… because……………

Evidence for reasoning (and questions you might have):

Remind the students to write down on their paper their answers
Ask a couple of students to share their answers
Restart audio after checking students have written down their own responses to part 1. Click to the next slide

7

At 21:12 click to the next slide

Images:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kaposi%27s_Sarcoma – Kaposi’s sarcoma
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_HIV/AIDS#mediaviewer/File:PCPxray – Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_HIV/AIDS#mediaviewer/File:HIV-budding-Color – “Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 budding (in green) from cultured lymphocyte. Multiple round bumps on cell surface represent sites of assembly and budding of virions.”
8

At 22:40 click to the next slide
9

At 22:53 click to the next slide

Image: http://www.pnas.org/content/104/47/18566/F1.medium.gif
10

At 23:00 click to the next slide.
11

STOP here at 25:43

Maximum clade credibility topology inferred using BEAST v1.4.7 under a Bayesian skyline plot tree prior.
Branch lengths are depicted in unit time (years) and represent the median of those nodes that were present in at least 50% of the sampled trees. DRC60 (red), ZR59 (black) and the three control sequences from paraffin-embedded specimens from known AIDS patients (grey) are depicted in bold. The 95% HPD of the TMRCA is indicated at the root of the tree. Nodes (sub-subtype and deeper) with posterior probability of 1.0 are marked with grey circles. Unclassifiable strains are labelled ‘U’. Sequences sampled in the DRC are highlighted with a bullet at the tip. DRC60 and the two control sequences from the DRC each form monophyletic clades with previously published sequences from the DRC, whereas the Canadian control sequence clusters, as expected, with subtype B sequences. The dashed circle and shaded area show the extensive HIV-1 diversity in Kinshasa in the 1950s.

Worobey et al. 2008 Direct evidence of extensive diversity of HIV01 in Kinshasa by 1960. Nature 455(2): 661-665
12

Round 2
Who is Patient Zero?
Hypothesis:
Patient zero is ………… because……………

Evidence for reasoning (and questions you might have):

Remind the students to write down on their paper their answers
Ask a couple of students to share their answers
Restart audio after checking students have written down their own responses to part 2.

13

At 26:30 click to the next slide

doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a006841
http://perspectivesinmedicine.org/content/1/1/a006841.full +html
14

At 27:50 click to the next slide

doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a006841
http://perspectivesinmedicine.org/content/1/1/a006841.full +html
15

At 28:37 click to the next slide
16

STOP here at 29:50

Photos: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bushmeat_-_Buschfleisch_Ghana.JPG
http://science.psu.edu/news-and-events/2010-news/SchusterMiller2-2010
17

Round 3
Who is Patient Zero?
Hypothesis:
Patient zero is ………… because……………

Evidence for reasoning (and questions you might have):

Remind the students to write down on their paper their answers
Ask a couple of students to share their answers
Restart audio after checking students have written down their own responses to part 3. At 31:40, click to advance

18

At 30:23 click to advance

Photo: http://fivepointfive.org/renaud-fulconis-awely/

19

Leopoldville c.1885

At 30:55 click to advance

Photo: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Leopoldville_1885
20

At 31:54 click to advance
21

If short on time, can end audio at 32:55 and jump to the last slide]

At 33:22 click to advance

Spatial dynamics of HIV-1 group M spread.
Circles represent sampled locations and are colored according to the estimated time of introduction of HIV-1 group M from Kinshasa. Strongly supported rates of virus spatial movement are projected along the transportation network for the DRC (railways and waterways), which was fully operational until 1960. Gradient colors depict the time scale of spatial movements (bottom left).

From Faria et al. 2014 The early spread and epidemic ignition of HIV-1 in human populations. Science 346 (6205): 56-61
22

Discussion – Individual and then small groups
How and why did your reasoning evolve over time?

How did we begin to develop an understanding?

Do we know who patient zero is?
Why or why not?

image2

image3

image4

image5

image6

image7

image8

image9

image10

image11

image12

image13

image14

image15

image16.gif

image17.gif

image18

image19

image20

image21

image22

image23

image24

image25

image26

image27

image28

image29

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
$0.00