Posted: September 19th, 2022

Paper

 

Week 10 Assignment – Project Proposal: Execution, Control, and Closure

Overview

Note: This is the third of three  assignments that, as a whole, cover all aspects of the project life  cycle relevant to your selected project. Now, it is time for you to discuss your  project’s challenges (e.g., risks), performance management plan (e.g.,  earned value management), and proposed plan for closing the project when  it is done. 

Instructions

Write a 4–6 page paper in which you  define the execution, control, and closure aspects of your chosen  project. In your paper you must: 

  1. Create a plan for project oversight that includes identifying the  project’s greatest challenges and mitigation recommendations. The plan  should also include rationale for why the selected challenges are the  greatest challenges and why the chosen mitigation recommendations  were made.
  2. Provide specific and detailed information on how you will measure  project performance. Define how the project will be measured and include  at least three key EVM metrics that will be used to determine progress  and performance success. This should also include rationale on why those  specific metrics were chosen.  
  3. Create a plan for closing the project properly that includes  details on how that closure will be coordinated with any necessary  stakeholders.
  4. Create a performance evaluation to measure project effectiveness that includes scope, cost, time, and quality.
  5. Use at least three sources to support your writing. Choose sources  that are credible, relevant, and appropriate. Cite each source listed  on your source page at least one time within your assignment. For help  with research, writing, and citation, access the library or review library guides. 

This course requires the use of Strayer  Writing Standards. For assistance and information, please refer to the  Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course.  Check with your professor for any additional instructions. The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is:  

  • Develop a process for measuring the progress of a project,  providing oversight, coordinating project closure, and determining  project effectiveness.

Chapter Sixteen

International Projects

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Learning Objectives
16-1 Describe environmental factors that affect project management in different countries.
16-2 Identify factors that typically are considered in selecting a foreign location for a project.
16-3 Understand cross-cultural issues that impact working on international projects.
16-4 Describe culture shock and strategies for coping with it.
16-5 Understand how organizations select and prepare people to work on international projects.

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Chapter Outline
16.1 Environmental Factors
16.2 Project Site Selection
16.3 Cross-Cultural Considerations: A Closer Look
16.4 Selection and Training for International Projects

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Four Major Issues of Managing International Projects
Major environmental factors impacting project selection and implementation
Global expansion considerations
Challenges of working in a strange and foreign culture
Selection and training professionals for international projects

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Pros and Cons of International Assignments
Positives
Increased income
Increased responsibilities
Career opportunities
Foreign travel
New lifetime friends
Negatives
Absence from home, friends, and family
Personal risks
Missed career opportunities
Difficulties with foreign language, culture, and laws
Adverse conditions

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16.1 Environmental Factors

FIGURE 16.1

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Environmental Factors 1
Legal/Political
Political stability
Federal, state, and local bureaucracies
Government interference or support
National and local laws and regulations
Government corruption
Security
International terrorism
Local crime and kidnapping
National and local security
Risk management

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Environmental Factors 2
Geography
Climate and seasonal differences
Natural geographical obstacles
Economics
Gross domestic product (GDP)
Protectionist strategies and policies
Balance of payments
Local labor force: skills, educational levels and supply
Currency convertibility and exchange rates
Inflation rates

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Environmental Factors 3
Infrastructure
Telecommunication networks
Transportation systems
Power distribution grids
Local technologies
Educational systems
Culture
Customs
Values and philosophies
Social standards
Language
Religion
Multicultural environments

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16.2 Project Site Selection

FIGURE 16.2

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16.3 Evaluation Matrix Breakdown for Infrastructure

FIGURE 16.3

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16.3 Cross-Cultural Considerations: A Closer Look
Culture
Is a concept created for descriptive purposes and depends on the group that is the focus of attention.
Is defined as a system of shared norms, beliefs, values and customs that bind people together, creating shared meaning and a unique identity.
Refers to certain regions, to specific nations, or to certain ethnic or religious groups.

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Cross-Cultural Considerations 2
Ethnocentric Perspective
Is a tendency to believe that one’s cultural values and ways of doing things are superior to all others.
Wanting to conduct business only on your terms and stereotyping other countries as lazy, corrupt, or inefficient.
Underestimating the importance that relationship building plays in conducting business in other countries.
Adjustments for Americans
Relativity of time and punctuality
Culture-related ethical dilemmas
Personal and professional relationships
Attitudes toward work and life

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Cross-Cultural Orientations
Cultural Issues
Relation to nature. This issue reflects how people relate to the natural world around them and to the supernatural.
Time orientation. The culture focus on the past, present, or future.
Activity orientation. This issue refers to a desirable focus of behavior.
Basic nature of people. A culture views people as good, evil, or some mix of these two.
Relationships among people. This issue concerns the responsibility one has for others.

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Kluckhohn-Strodtbeck’s Cross-Cultural Framework

Note: The line indicates where the United States tends to fall along these issues.
FIGURE 16.4

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The Hofstede Framework
Different dimensions for examining cultures
Individualism versus collectivism—identifies whether a culture holds individuals or the group responsible for each member’s welfare.
Power distance—describes the degree to which a culture accepts status and power differences among its members.
Uncertainty avoidance—identifies a culture’s willingness to accept uncertainty and ambiguity about the future.
Masculinity-femininity—describes the degree to which the culture emphasizes competitive and achievement-oriented behavior or displays concerns for relationships.

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Sample Country Clusters on Hofstede’s Dimensions of Individualism-Collectivism and Power Distance

Collectivism

Colombia, Peru, Thailand, Singapore, Mexico, Turkey, Indonesia

Individualism
Israel, Finland, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand,
Canada, Great Britain,
United States
Spain, South Africa,
France, Italy,
Belgium

Low power distance
High power distance

FIGURE 16.5

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Working in Mexico 1
Personal relationships dominate all aspects of Mexican business.
Mexicans are obligated to give preference to relatives and friends when hiring, contracting, procuring, and sharing business opportunities.
Mexicans tend to perceive Americans as being “cold.” One thing Americans can do to prevent being seen as a typical Gringo is to take the time and effort in the beginning of a working relationship to really get to know Mexican counterparts.
Mexicans have a different concept of time than Americans do. Mexicans prefer open-ended schedules.
Mexicans do not share Americans’ confidence that they control their own destiny.

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Working in Mexico 2
Guidelines for working with Mexicans on projects
Mexicans can be very passionate and emotional when arguing.
Mexicans tend to see meetings as the place where persons with authority ratify what has been decided during informal private discussions.
While Mexicans can be emotional, they tend to shy away from any sort of direct confrontation or criticism.
Speech in Mexico is often indirect.
Titles are extremely important in Mexico and are always used when a person is introducing himself, or being introduced.

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Working in France 1
In France, one’s social class is very important. Social interactions are constrained by class standing. A successful French person might, at least, climb one or two rungs up the social ladder.
The French tend to admire or be fascinated with people who disagree with them.
The French often determine a person’s trustworthiness based on their first-hand, personal evaluation of the individual’s character.
The French are often accused of lacking an intense work ethic.
The French enjoy a reputation for productive work, a result of the French tradition of craftsmanship.
Most French organizations tend to be highly centralized with rigid structures.
While the French admire American industriousness, they believe that quality of life is what really matters.

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Working in France 2
Cautions to remember with the French
The French value punctuality.
Great importance is placed on neatness and taste.
The French can be very difficult to negotiate with. Often, they ignore facts, no matter how convincing they may be.
French managers tend to see their work as an intellectual exercise.
The French generally consider managers to be experts.

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Working in Saudi Arabia 1
In Saudi Arabia, a favorite expression is “Bukra insha Allah” which means “Tomorrow if God wills,” an expression that reflects the Saudis’ approach to time.
An associated cultural belief is that destiny depends more on the will of a supreme being than on the behavior of individuals.
Saudis often react on the basis of emotion, not logic.
Saudis use elaborate and ritualized forms of greeting and leave-taking.
Initial meetings are typically used to get to know the other party. Business-related discussions may not occur until the third or fourth meeting.
Saudis attach a great deal of importance to status and rank.

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Working in Saudi Arabia 2
Guidelines for working in an Arab culture:
It is important never to display feelings of superiority because this makes the other party feel inferior.
A lot of what gets done is a result of going through administrative channels in the country.
Connections are extremely important in conducting business.
Patience is critical to the success of business negotiations.
Important decisions are usually made in person, not by correspondence or telephone.

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Working in China 1
In China, face is more than simply reputation. Loss of face brings shame not only to individuals but also to family members.
In China, “whom you know is more important than what you know.” The term guanxi refers to personal connections with appropriate authorities or individuals. Many believe that the quickest way to build guanxi relationships is through tendering favors. Another common method for outsiders to acquire guanxi is by hiring local intermediaries, who use their connections to create contacts with Chinese officials and businesspeople.
Chinese are a collective society in which people pride themselves on being a member of a group.
Chinese people do not appreciate boisterous behavior, and when speaking to each other they maintain a greater physical distance than is typical in America.

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Working in China 2
Cautions with the Chinese:
Once the Chinese decide who and what is best, they tend to stick to their decisions.
Reciprocity is important in negotiations.
The Chinese tend to be less animated than Americans.
The Chinese place less value on the significance of time and often get Americans to concede concessions by stalling.
In Confucian societies those in position of power and authority are obligated to assist the disadvantaged.

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Working in the United States 1
Immigration has made the United States a melting pot of diverse culture.
Mainstream Americans are motivated by achievement and accomplishment.
Americans tend to idolize the self-made person who rises from poverty and adversity to become rich and successful.
Although Americans like to set precise objectives, they view planning as a means and not an end.
Americans fought a revolution and subsequent wars to preserve their concept of democracy, so they resent too much control or interferences, especially by governments.
“Getting things done,” is an American characteristic.
Americans in play or business generally are quite competitive, reflecting their desire to achieve and succeed.

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Working in the United States 2
Guidelines and cautions for working with Americans on projects:
More than half of the U.S. women work outside the home; females have considerable opportunity for personal and professional growth, guaranteed by law.
In the United States, gifts are rarely brought by visitors in a business situation.
Americans tend to be quite friendly and open when first meeting someone.
Americans tend to be informal in greeting and dress.
American decision making is results oriented.

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Summary Comments about Working in Different Cultures
Common practice to rely on local intermediaries to bridge the gap between cultures. These intermediaries
Act as translators.
Use their social connections to expedite transactions and protect the project against undue interference.
Serve as cultural guides, helping outsiders understand and interpret the foreign culture.
Culture shock
Is a natural psychological disorientation that most people suffer when they move into a culture different from their own.
Results from a breakdown in your selective perception and effective interpretation systems.

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Culture Shock Cycle

FIGURE 16.6

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Coping with Culture Shock
Engage in regular physical exercise programs
Practice meditation and relaxation exercises
Keep a journal
Create “stability zones”
Modify expectations and behavior
Redefine priorities and develop more realistic expectations
Focus on the most important tasks and relish small accomplishments
Use project work as a bridge until adjusted to the new environment
Help spouses and families manage the transition

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16.4 Selection and Training for International Projects
Selection Factors
Work experience with cultures other than one’s own
Previous overseas travel
Good physical and emotional health
Knowledge of a host nation’s language
Recent immigration background or heritage
Ability to adapt and function in the new culture

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Areas for Training
Religious
Dress codes
Education systems
Holidays—national and religious
Daily eating patterns
Family life
Business protocols
Social etiquette
Equal opportunity

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Learning Approaches to Cultural Fluency
The “information-giving” approach—the learning of information or skills from a lecture-type orientation.
The “affective” approach—the learning of information/skills that raise the affective responses on the part of the trainee and result in cultural insights.
The “experiential” approach—a variant of the affective approach technique that provides the trainee with realistic simulations or scenarios.

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Relationship between Length and Rigor of Training and Cultural Fluency Required

FIGURE 16.7

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Key Terms
Culture
Culture shock
Infrastructure

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End of Main Content
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16.1 Environmental Factors – Text Alternative

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The factors are shown around the image of a globe all pointing in at the globe. The factors are: economic, legal/political, security, infrastructure, culture, and geography.

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16.2 Project Site Selection – Text Alternative

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Political stability
Worker skill, supply
Culture compatibility
Infrastructure
Government support
Product-to-market advantage

Singapore
5
4
4
4
4
3

India
3
4
3
3
3
3

Ireland
5
4
5
5
5
5

Score legend:
5 = excellent
3 = acceptable
1 = poor

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16.3 Evaluation Matrix Breakdown for Infrastructure – Text Alternative

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Transportation
Educated workforce
Utilities
Telecommunications
Vendor suppliers

Singapore
5
4
5
5
4

India
3
4
4
4
2

Ireland
5
4
5
5
5

Score legend:
5 = excellent
3 = acceptable
1 = poor

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Kluckhohn-Strodtbeck’s Cross-Cultural Framework – Text Alternative

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Cultural issue
Variation

Relationship to nature
Domination
Harmony
Subjugation

Time orientation
Past
Present
Future

Activity orientation
Being
Doing
Controlling

Nature of people
Good
Evil
Mixed

Relationships among people
Individualist
Group
Hierarchical

Data points in the table cells indicate where the United States tends to fall along these issues: High in Domination, High in Present, High in Doing, Low in Mixed, and High in Individualist. A line is shown connecting the data points.

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Culture Shock Cycle – Text Alternative

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A graph plots months in foreign culture to mood to illustrate the four stages of the culture shock cycle. At the beginning of an assignment to a foreign culture, mood is very high; this is the Honeymoon stage. As time passes, mood lowers and one enters the Irritability and hostility stage. As one’s mood bottoms out and begins to rise a bit, and as more time passes, one enters the General adjustment stage. Finally, mood rises and levels out at a moderate range; this is the Adaptation stage.

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Relationship between Length and Rigor of Training and Cultural Fluency Required – Text Alternative

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If a high degree of cultural fluency is required, the experiential cross-cultural training approach is suggested. This involves an assessment center, field experiences, simulations, and extensive language training. Length of training is 1-2 months or more, the level of training rigor is high, and the length of stay is 1-3 years.
If a moderate degree of cultural fluency is required, the affective cross-cultural training approach is suggested. This involves culture assimilator training, role-playing, cases, culture shock: stress reduction training, and moderate language training. Length of training is 1-4 weeks, the level of training rigor is moderate, and the length of stay is 2-12 months.
If a low degree of cultural fluency is required, the information-giving cross-cultural training approach is suggested. This involves area briefings, cultural briefings, films/books, use of interpreters, and “survival-level” language training. Length of training is less than a week, the level of training rigor is low, and the length of stay is 1 month or less.

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Chapter Fifteen

Agile Project Management

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Learning Objectives
15-1 Recognize the conditions in which traditional project management versus Agile Project Management should be used.
15-2 Understand the value of iterative, incremental development for creating new products.
15-3 Identify core Agile principles.
15-4 Understand the basic methodology used in Scrum.
15-5 Understand the basic methodology used by Extreme programming.
15-6 Know how to create and use a Kanban board.
15-7 Recognize the limitations of Agile Project Management.

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Chapter Outline
15.1 Traditional versus Agile Methods
15.2 Agile PM
15.3 Agile PM in Action: Scrum
15.4 Extreme Programming and Kanban
15.5 Applying Agile PM to Large Projects
15.6 Limitations and Concerns
15.7 Hybrid Models

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15.1 Traditional versus Agile Methods
Traditional Project Management Approach
Concentrates on thorough, up front planning of the entire project.
Requires a high degree of predictability to be effective.
Agile Project Management (Agile PM)
Relies on iterative, incremental development (IID).
Is ideal for exploratory projects in which requirements need to be discovered and new technology tested.
Focuses on active collaboration between the project team and customers representatives, breaking projects into small, functional pieces and adapting to changing requirements.

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The Waterfall Approach to Software Development

FIGURE 15.1

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A Set of 12 Guiding Principles for Agile PM
Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.
Welcome changing requirements, even late in development.
Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale.
Businesspeople and developers must work together daily throughout the project.
Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need and trust them to get the job done.
The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.
Working software is the primary measure of progress.
Agile processes promote sustainable development.
Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.
Simplicity—the art of maximizing the amount of work not done—is essential.
The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then turns and adjusts its behavior accordingly.

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Project Uncertainty

FIGURE 15.2

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Traditional Project Management versus Agile Project Management

Traditional
Agile

Design up front
Continuous design

Fixed scope
Flexible scope

Deliverables
Features/requirements

Freeze design as early as possible
Freeze design as late as possible

Low uncertainty
High uncertainty

Avoid change
Embrace change

Low customer interaction
High customer interaction

Conventional project teams
Self-organized project teams

TABLE 15.1

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15.2 Agile PM
Utilizes a rolling wave planning and scheduling project methodology.
Is continuously developed through a series of incremental iterations over time.
Iterations are short time frames (“time boxes”).
The goal of each iteration is to develop a workable product that satisfies one or more desired product features to demonstrate to the customer and other key stakeholders.
At the end of each iteration, stakeholders and customers review progress and re-evaluate priorities to ensure alignment with customer needs and company goals.
Each new iteration subsumes the work of the previous iterations and adds new capabilities to the evolving product.

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Iterative, Incremental Product Development

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Advantages of Iterative Development Process
Continuous integration, verification, and validation of the evolving product.
Frequent demonstration of progress to increase the likelihood that the end product will satisfy customer needs.
Early detection of defects and problems.

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Other Methodologies Responding to the Challenges of Unpredictable Projects
Scrum
Extreme Programming (XP)
Agile Modeling Lean Development
RUP (Rational Unified Process)
Crystal Clear
Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)
Rapid Product Development (RPD)

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Agile Principles
Focus on customer value
Iterative and incremental delivery
Experimentation and adaptation
Self-organization
Servant leadership
Continuous improvement

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15.3 Agile PM in Action: Scrum
Scrum
Is a holistic approach to developing new products, where the whole team “tries to go the distance as a unit, passing the ball back and forth.”
Begins with a high-level scope definition and ballpark time and cost estimates for the project.
Use product features as deliverables.
A feature is defined as a piece of a product that delivers some useful functionality to a customer.
The project team tackles the highest-priority feasible feature first.
Priorities are re-evaluated after each iteration.
Iterations are called sprints and should last no longer than four weeks.
The goal of each sprint is to produce fully functional features.
Specific features are created according to four distinct phases: analysis, design, build, and test.

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Scrum Development Process

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Key Roles and Responsibilities in the Scrum Process
Product Owner
Acts on behalf of customers/end users to represent their interests.
Works with the development team to refine features through stories and end users cases.
Ensures that the development team focuses their efforts on developing a product that will fulfill the business objective of the project.
Development Team
Is responsible for delivering the product.
Is typically made up of five to nine people with cross-functional skill sets.
Scrum Master (Project Manager)
Facilitates the scrum process and resolves impediments at the team and organization levels.
Acts as buffer between the team and outside interference but not the leader of team (the team leads itself!)
Helps the product owner with planning and try to keep the team energized.

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Scrum Meetings

FIGURE 15.5

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Partial Product Backlog

FIGURE 15.6

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Partial Sprint Backlog

FIGURE 15.7

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Sprint Burndown Chart

FIGURE 15.8

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Release Burndown Chart after Six Sprints

FIGURE 15.9

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15.4 Extreme Programming and Kanban
Extreme Programming (XP)
Is a more aggressive form of Scrum that organizes people to produce higher-quality software more efficiently.
Considers change a natural, even desirable aspect of software development projects and should be planned for, instead of eliminated.
Are test-driven development and paired programming.
Is founded on five values: communication, simplicity, feedback, courage and respect.
Kanban
Is a lean management methodology that has been adapted by Agile practitioners to help manage project work flow.
Consists of a whiteboard divided into three columns: Planned, Work in Progress, and Done.
Is based on the idea of a pull system—signaling when the team is ready for more work.
Helps the team visualize the work flow on the project and focus their attention on the most critical work.

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15.5 Applying Agile PM to Large Projects
Scaling
Involves several teams working on different features at the same time.
Needs to make sure that the different features being created work in harmony with each other—integration.
Staging
Requires significant up-front planning to manage the interdependences of different features that will be developed.
Involves developing protocols and defining roles for coordinating efforts and assuring compatibility.

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Hub Project Management Structure

FIGURE 15.10

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15.6 Limitations and Concerns
Agile PM is not a simple methodology. Adoption tends to evolve over time.
Many of the Agile principles, including self-organizing teams and intense collaboration, are incompatible with corporate cultures.
Agile PM does not satisfy top management’s need for control.
Agile skeptics warn that evolving requirements contribute to scope creep.
Agile PM requires active customer involvement.

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15.7 Hybrid Models
Agile PM is used up front to resolve key scope questions and define requirements. Then traditional PM is applied to complete the project.
Incremental, experimentation is used to resolve technical issues, allowing for a formal implementation plan.
Many companies use hybrid models on large projects that combine waterfall and Agile methods.
Teams use Agile techniques on plan-driven projects. Teams use shorter iterations and retrospectives to get critical customer feedback.
Kanban methods are used by traditional teams to visualize work and identify bottlenecks in the project schedule.

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Key Terms
Agile Project Management
Extreme Programming
Feature
Hybrid model
Iterative, incremental development (IID)
Kanban
Product backlog
Product owner
Release burndown chart
Scaling
Scrum master
Self-organizing team
Sprint backlog
Sprint burndown chart
Waterfall method

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The Waterfall Approach to Software Development – Text Alternative

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The waterfall approach to software development is shown as a series of downward-sloping steps, beginning with the Concept phase then proceeding through the Requirements phase, Design phase, Construct phase, Test phase, and Deploy phase.

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Project Uncertainty – Text Alternative

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A graph plots Technology (How) to Project scope (What). When both Technology and the Project scope are known and stable, the project has a fairly high degree of predictability. The more either Technology or Project Scope become unknown, the more unpredictable the project becomes.

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Iterative, Incremental Product Development – Text Alternative

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This diagram begins with project initiation. Then there are a series of 5 arrows all pointing to the right, but with a second arrow that branches off and cycles back to the beginning of that iteration. At the end of the 5 iterations is the closeout. Below this is a small burst, which becomes a bigger burst, which becomes a primative wheel, which becomes an old-fashioned wheel, which becomes a modern day tire on a rim. This is the path from a new product to customer acceptance.

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Scrum Development Process – Text Alternative

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The four phases of the scrum development process are analysis, design, build, and test. These phases flow from the daily scrum meetings and result in a new iteration of the feature. At the end of each sprint, the functional features are demonstrated.
Within this sprint framework of 3 to 4 weeks, scrum relies on specific roles, meetings, and documents/logs to manage the project.

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© McGraw Hill
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Scrum Meetings – Text Alternative

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Scrum Meetings
Release Planning leads to the Sprint planning meeting, which leads to the Daily scrum meetings (these occur every 24 hours). At the end of each sprint, a Sprint review meeting occurs, which is followed by a Sprint retrospective meeting.
Then the process begins again with a Sprint planning meeting.

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© McGraw Hill
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Partial Product Backlog – Text Alternative

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A
B
C
D
E
F
G

1
 
Phone-In Prescription Software Project

 
 
 
 

2
 
Product Backlog

 
 
 
 

3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

4
ID
Product
Priority
Status
Estimate
Actual
 

5
 
 
 
 
Hours
Hours
 

6
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

7
1
Customer Information
2
Complete
100
90
 

8
2
Insurance Information
1
Complete
160
180
 

9
3
Drug Information
3
Started
80
 
 

10
4
Doctor Information
5
Not Started
40
 
 

11
5
Inventory Status
4
Started
120
 
 

12
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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© McGraw Hill
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Partial Sprint Backlog – Text Alternative

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A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I

1
 
Phone-In Prescription Software Project

 
 
 
 

2
 
Sprint Backing

 
 
 
 

3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

4
Spring Description
Responsible
Actual
Remaining
Defined
In
Tested
Accepted
 

5
 
 
Hours
Hours
 
Progress
 
 
 

6
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

7
Drug categories
RT
16
0
X
X
X
[check]
 

8
Generics
CG
32
0
X
X
X
[check]
 

9
Branded
AL
24
8
X
X
X
 
 

10
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

11
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

12
Design drug inventory system
EL
40
0
X
X
X
[check]
 

13
Code inventory availability
CE
 
32
 
 
 
 
 

14
Code manufacture order
MC
 
32
 
 
 
 
 

15
Integrate all inventory systems
LE
4
16
X
 
 
 
 

16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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© McGraw Hill
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Sprint Burndown Chart – Text Alternative

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A graph plots Sprint Timeline (days) to Remaining Effort (days). One line, Ideal Remaining Effort, begins at data points (0,28) and slopes down at a 45-degree angle to end at data points (20,0). Another line, Actual Remaining Effort, begins at data points (0,28) and slopes below the Ideal Remaining Effort line for a time before intersecting it at data points (10,15). From that point, the Actual Remaining Effort line is above the Ideal Remaining Effort line, ending at data points (20,14).
The area to the left/below the Ideal Remaining Effort line represents “Ahead of Schedule” and the area to the right/above the line represents “Behind Schedule.”
Note: Data points are approximations.

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© McGraw Hill
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Release Burndown Chart after Six Sprints – Text Alternative

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A graph plots Sprint to Days of Work Remaining. Data point 8 on the horizontal axis (Sprint) is labeled “Original Completion Date”; data point 10 is labeled “Revised Completion Date.”
A line is shown connecting the following data points: (0,100), (1,83), (2,75), (3,65), (4,55), (5,48), (6,40), (7,35), (8,20), (9,10), (10,0). A vertical line is shown extending from the horizontal axis up to data point (6,40).
Note: Data points are approximate.

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© McGraw Hill
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Hub Project Management Structure – Text Alternative

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In the hub project management structure, there are several feature development teams (Teams A-Z), each with team leads. There is also a separate integration and build team, consisting of part-time members of each feature team. To coordinate the multi-team structure, a central project management team is created with a project manager and product manager and leads from the feature development teams. The project management team provides coordination and facilitation between and among the other teams.

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© McGraw Hill
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