Posted: June 13th, 2022

Personality applied to the organization

See upload for instructions and assessment results
APA
ATTACHED FILE(S)
BMAL 500
Textbook Project: Personality Applied to the Organization Assignment Instructions
Overview
Personality Applied to the Organization Assignment requires that you use the McGraw-Hill Connect site for Steps 1 and 2 (see below). You will find your access code within your Organizational Behavior textbook. If you purchased a used textbook, please review the syllabus on purchasing an access code to complete the assignment.
Note: If you did not purchase a new textbook, you may not be able to use the access code.
Instructions
Step 1
1. Under the “Learn” list in Canvas, there will be links which are required in its entirety for the assignment. All of the links amount to an overall assessment to deepen your personality applied to organizations. Please note that faculty can track your progress in the assessment. This assessment is much lengthier than the previous one, so be sure to take the time to access and take it, remembering to save as you go along. The assessment does not have to be taken in one sitting; you can save and pick up where you left off, but do not process the submit button until completely finished.
2. Note, that the assessment titles will not match the bullet points listed below for the required parts of your paper. The assessment has many embedded questions and it is up to you to critically analyze where the results are indicative for your paper. The results are evident from the Connect assessment to the bullet points listed, however it is not as narrowed down for you in Connect. Be sure to analyze the embedded questions for your results so you accurately place where you feel the scores should be in regards to the provided bullet points for the paper.
3. Because the assessment is synced with the course through Connect, the score will automatically show in the course gradebook. This will show a 0/0 score but the assessment points are included in the project paper grade. You should complete the assessment by Wednesday in order to complete the paper on time. A paper cannot be accepted for grading unless the assessment has been completed.
4. Part I must discuss each of these points below from data gathered on the assessment. Please make the proper, current APA heading and title it: Personality Insights
1. Big Five with Myers-Briggs
1. Attitude and Core Values Insights
1. Motivation Insights
1. Decision Making/Problem Solving Insights
5. Part II must discuss each of these points below from data gathered on the assessment. Please make the proper, current APA heading and title it: Working with Others.
· Communication Competency and Listening Style
· Leadership Readiness and Team Insights
· Conflict Tendencies/Style
6. Part III must discuss each of these points below from data gathered on the assessment. Please make the proper, current APA heading and title it: Life in Organizations
· Organizational Politics
· Organizational Needs-Employee Satisfaction, Job Fit, Core Skills
· Organizational Change and Climate
7.
For each of the aforementioned parts, use the assessment results to write at least 1 full paragraph for each bullet point pertaining to the things you have learned about yourself. There is a lot to cover in each of these sections, so focus on the most significant things you have learned about yourself from each area. Use headings for each section, as in “Part I: Personality Insights,” etc. so that there are subheadings per the bulleted areas for each Part. Provide your statistical/percentage results for a comparison of letters within your discussion. Any adverse personal opinions on the assessment tools must be respectful and scholarly with supportive research.
Step 2
1. Now that you have learned these things about yourself, apply them to your workplace behavior and interactions with others and give specific examples.
2. In a new section in your paper (labeled Step 2), answer the following questions with specific correlation to the assessment. To do so, provide a separate paragraph for each of the following questions:
1. In general, what have you learned from these personality tests about organizational behavior that will help you be a better employee, coworker, and/or manager?
1.
In particular, what have you learned about yourself from this personality test that will help you be a better employee, coworker, and/or manager? Provide specific examples.
Step 3
1. The assessments help us label our strengths and their corresponding weaknesses, which was identified in Project 1. Therefore, it would be easy to simply accept the fact that we have weaknesses. After all, “No one is perfect,” we say. On the other hand, God through the Holy Spirit continues to conform us to the image of Jesus Christ.
For step 3, explain how the Holy Spirit has worked in your life to transform your weaknesses into strengths. See II Corinthians 12:7–10 as a scriptural example of this paradoxical truth. Be specific with your example(s) and faith integration.
NOTE: It is understood that not all of our students are Christians.
Formatting
1. Use proper, current APA format for every element of the paper. Be sure to include the APA-formatted cover page, abstract, and reference page. Refer to your APA manual for help.
2. First person is allowed due to the personal nature of the assignment.
3. To facilitate the Instructor’s grading of these assignments, you must have major headings for Step 1, Step 2, and Step 3. Additionally, under the major heading of Step 1, you must have subheadings for each separate section of the assessment: Personality Insights, Working with Others, and Life in Organizations. That means that you need 3 subheadings for Step 1.
4. The exact number of paragraphs that you include in each section is your decision; your Instructor will not be grading you on how many paragraphs you used per section, but rather the extent to which you specifically addressed each of the areas above.
5. The minimum of 6 required pages does not include the title page, abstract page, or reference page. Those must be counted as additional pages. You will likely find that it will be difficult to address all of these things in only 6 pages, but that constraint is part of the exercise itself. Learning to write succinctly and efficiently will improve your communication skills, regardless of the setting. Because you only have 6 pages to discuss all these components, be concise.
6. Be sure to double-space, using Times New Roman 12-point font only and 1-inch margins; avoid bold font (except for headlines, per current APA format), underlining, and contractions.
7. The reference page must include a minimum of the 5 following references in current APA format (all sources must be evident within the paper and less than 5 years old):
· Type Talk at Work
· Organizational Behavior,
· The McGraw-Hill Connect assessment,
· 2 scholarly sources from a peer-reviewed journal,
Note: For further questions regarding current APA format, visit Liberty University’s Online Writing Center.
Submit this assignment by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the assigned Module: Week.
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Survey Complete

1. When I get up in the morning, I feel like going to class.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
2. When I’m doing my work as a student, I feel bursting with energy.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
3. I can continue studying for very long periods of time.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
Engagement, whether at work or at school, is a concept that measures
the extent to which you have a positive and fulfilling state of mind in
relation to your work or educational responsibilities. The following
survey was designed to assess the extent to which you are engaged in
your studies.

Source: Items derived from W. B. Schaufeli, M. Salanova, V.
González-Romá, and A. Baker, “The Measurement of Engagement
and Burnout: A Two Sample Confirmatory Factor Analytic Approach,”
Journal of Happiness Studies 3, March 2002, pp. 88–89.
Read each statement in the survey and select the rating that reflects
the extent to which you agree or disagree with the scenario in the
statement. There are no right or wrong answers. After completing the
self-assessment, read the feedback that explains how to understand
your score and interpret your results.

You must respond to all statements in order to receive full credit for
this self-assessment activity.
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4. My study inspires me.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
5. I am enthusiastic about my studies.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
6. I am proud of my studies.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
7. Time �ies when I am studying.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
8. I am immersed in my studies.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
9. I feel happy when I am studying intensely.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
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Score
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Score
0 45
35
35/45
Range
34 to
45
Your engagement level may be
high.
Research shows that students and employees who are more engaged
are more productive and satisfied. Engagement appears to grow out of
personal characteristics (such as being conscientious) and
organizational characteristics (such as regularly recognizing high
performance). The text has a more complete description of the
personal and organizational factors that lead to engagement.

Engaged students and employees share three characteristics.

● Vigor – Has a high level of energy at work, invests a great deal
of effort, and is willing to work through barriers and difficulties.
● Dedication – Displays high amounts of loyalty to, and
enthusiasm about, the organization and their work
responsibilities.
● Absorption – Is so attached to the work that time spent at work
seems to pass quickly; willing to invest extra time to ensure
successful completion of responsibilities.

If your score is in the low and moderate ranges, this may indicate that
you do not find much excitement in your school work. You probably are
less likely to look forward to returning to school after breaks, and you
are likely to look for shortcuts to completing your work.

If your score is in the high range, this may indicate you are engaged in
your schooling, you look forward to learning, and you are more tolerant
of assignments that are either not inherently exciting to you or that
appear to have little application to your life or career preparation.
As described earlier, engagement arises from a combination of
personal and organizational characteristics. Obviously, you have more
control over your personal characteristics. You can decide to become
more positive about your school assignments and required courses.
Clearly, if you go into a class with a pessimistic attitude, it will be that
much harder for the instructor to engage you in the material. Instead, if
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you enter with an optimistic attitude, more than likely you will enjoy the
assignments and find aspects of the course material that are helpful
and relevant to your life.

You have less control over organizational characteristics. For example,
you are not in a position to alter your school’s curricular requirements.
However, this does not make you powerless. If you find the curricular
requirements do not suit you, you can investigate changing your major
or even transferring to a different institution. Seek out the advice of
faculty, student life staff, the career office, or other available resources
to help you make these decisions. Take care not to think a change of
major or school is going to automatically change your level of
engagement. As the saying goes, the grass may appear greener on
the other side of the fence, but it often is not.

If you are deeply engaged in your studies, research indicates that you
will more likely be engaged in your work responsibilities after
graduation. Since engaged employees are happier and more
productive, they are also more likely to be successful. So, the efforts
you invest in your education now to raise your level of engagement are
likely to pay off later in the form of a more satisfying life and career.
Remember, engagement is partially your choice. You can choose to be
more or less engaged. The more that you practice being engaged
while a student, the more likely you will be engaged as an employee.
Remember that while the score you achieve on this self-assessment is
useful for self-understanding at this point in your life, it should not be
over-interpreted. First, every person is complex and it is impossible to
capture fully your uniqueness in a short self-assessment. Second,
your values may change over time, or you may only come to
understand what your true values later in life. Third, the engagement
concept is only one factor associated with success, whether at school
or at work. So while this self-assessment is short and limited, you can
view it as the beginning of your journey of self-understanding.
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Survey Complete

1. I talk to many different people at parties.
Not at all like
me
A little bit like
me
Somewhat like
me Like Me
Very much like
me
2. I don’t mind being the center of attention.
Not at all like
me
A little bit like
me
Somewhat like
me Like Me
Very much like
me
Personality measurement can be fun and informative—but it can also
be challenging if the results are not as you might expect. There has
been a great deal of research and thought given to how best to
categorize persons in personality terms. Much of this research and
writing has coalesced around the view that the most helpful
categorization scheme involves five dimensions of personality. These
have come to be known as “The Big Five.”

Source: L R Goldberg, J A Johnson, H W Eber, R Hogan,M C Ashton,
C R Cloninger, & H C Gough “The International Personality Item Pool
and the Future of Public-domain Personality Measures,” Journal of
Research in Personality 40 (2006), pp. 84–96.
Read each statement in the survey and select the rating that reflects
the extent to which you agree or disagree with the scenario in the
statement. There are no right or wrong answers. After completing the
self-assessment, read the feedback that explains how to understand
your score and interpret your results.

You must respond to all statements in order to receive full credit for
this self-assessment activity.
Extraversion
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3. I sympathize with other people’s feelings.
Not at all like
me
A little bit like
me
Somewhat like
me Like Me
Very much like
me
4. I take time out for others.
Not at all like
me
A little bit like
me
Somewhat like
me Like Me
Very much like
me
5. I am always prepared.
Not at all like
me
A little bit like
me
Somewhat like
me Like Me
Very much like
me
6. I pay attention to details.
Not at all like
me
A little bit like
me
Somewhat like
me Like Me
Very much like
me
7. I am relaxed most of the time.
Agreeableness
    
    
Conscientiousness
    
    
Emotional Stability
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Not at all like
me
A little bit like
me
Somewhat like
me Like Me
Very much like
me
8. I am not easily bothered by things.
Not at all like
me
A little bit like
me
Somewhat like
me Like Me
Very much like
me
9. I enjoy hearing new ideas.
Not at all like
me
A little bit like
me
Somewhat like
me Like Me
Very much like
me
10. I enjoy thinking about things.
Not at all like
me
A little bit like
me
Somewhat like
me Like Me
Very much like
me
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Openness to Experience
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Achievement
Extraversion
0 10
3
3/10
Range
2 to 4 You are low in extraversion.
Agreeableness
Agreeableness
0 10
8
8/10
Range
8 to 10 You are high in agreeableness.
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Conscientiousness
Conscientiousness
0 10
6
6/10
Range
5 to 7
You are moderate in
conscientiousness.
Emotional stability
Emotional
stability
0 10
6
6/10
Range
5 to 7
You are moderate in emotional
stability.
Openness to experience
Openness
to
experience 0 10
10
10/10
Range
8 to 10
You are high in openness to
experience.
Personality measurement can be fun and informative—but it can also
be challenging if the results are not as you might expect. There has
been a great deal of research and thought given to how best to
categorize persons in personality terms. Much of this research and
writing has coalesced around the view that the most helpful
categorization scheme involves five dimensions of personality. These
have come to be known as “The Big Five.”

● Extraversion – Persons who score high on this dimension tend
to be outgoing, talkative, sociable, and assertive. Research has
shown that people in sales (think of a coach who recruits
college athletes or a car sales person) tend to be more
successful if they are on the high end of the extraversion scale.
Likewise, managers tend to be more successful if they behave
in extroverted ways. In contrast, persons who score low on
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extraversion (introverts) tend to like more solitary activities such
as doing office support, research and development work,
working with data, and so on.
● Agreeableness – Persons who score high on this dimension
tend to be trusting, good-natured, cooperative, and soft-
hearted. Surprisingly, while all of us would like to have work
colleagues who are agreeable, research shows agreeableness
is less connected to general work success than are
extroversion and conscientiousness. Of course, this does not
mean you should not work at being as agreeable as you can
be!
● Conscientiousness – Persons who score high on this
dimension tend to be dependable, responsible, achievement-
oriented, and persistent. Research shows people who score
high in conscientiousness tend to be more successful in all
types of employment settings than their less conscientious co-
workers. It is easy to see why. What employer would want to
hire someone who sees themselves not always prepared (item
5) or someone who does not pay attention to details (item 6)? If
your score on this dimension is not as high as you would like,
you can expect a high payoff from working on becoming
stronger in this area.
● Emotional stability – Persons who score high on emotional
stability tend to be relaxed, secure, and unworried. In contrast,
persons who score low tend to experience more highs and lows
in terms of their emotional life. Research shows this dimension
has less to do with success at work than extraversion and
emotional stability.
● Openness to experience – Persons who score high on this
dimension tend to be intellectual, imaginative, curious, and
broadminded. Research shows there is not a strong relationship
between scores on this dimension and success at work.
However, certain types of jobs are certainly better fits for people
who are strong in this area. For example, people who have to
work across cultures are likely to be more successful if they are
more open to experience because it is easier for them to
imagine that people are different from them without having to
draw conclusions about whether these differences are good or
bad.

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There are many, many resources you can use to follow up on these
results. Informally, you can talk with your friends and family members
to see if your self-assessment is consistent with their assessment of
you. There are many on-line resources including longer versions of the
Big Five assessment as well as a great deal of information on other
types of personality assessments (such as the popular Myers-Briggs
Type Indicator). More formally, your campus probably has a career
development office. Typically, professionals in those offices are familiar
with the connections between personality and the kinds of jobs you
might find to be most suitable. Finally, if you find you are struggling to
cope with either short-term or long-term emotional issues, we strongly
encourage you to seek support from a campus counseling office, a
religious professional, or a close confidant who can help you work
through the issues you face.

Remember, the personality dimension which has the strongest
relationship with job performance is conscientiousness. Employers like
employees who are dependable, responsible, achievement-oriented,
and persistent. This is something you can work on improving in
yourself. For example, if you notice you have a tendency to
procrastinate in completion of certain kinds of tasks, you can work on
fighting that tendency by working on those tasks first so they are no
longer hanging over you. Then, you are in a position to derive greater
enjoyment from doing tasks you more naturally want to do. Setting
goals and action plans to achieve those goals are proven ways to
improve your chances of success in any endeavor. College is a great
setting in which to begin to develop strong and positive lifetime habits.
Don’t miss the opportunity!

If you introverted (that is, low is extroversion) you have a particular
challenge when it comes to management and leadership. Successful
managers and leaders are often seen to be outgoing and talkative.
This is not a natural tendency for introverts. However, there are plenty
of introverts who are quite successful in management and leadership
positions. Typically, these folks learn to act energetically even when
they may not feel that way, particularly in important business and work
meetings. So, if you are introverted, do not write off the possibility of
being in management and leadership. You will just need to work at
some aspects of the work more than others. However, you may well
have analytic and vision casting abilities that will more than
compensate for this particular characteristic.
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Remember your score on this self-assessment, while useful for self-
understanding, should not be over-interpreted. First, every person is
complex and it is impossible to fully capture your uniqueness in a short
self-assessment. Second, you may well find your personality may
change over time, or you may come to understand what your
personality actually is only later in life. Third, this self-assessment is
useful to the extent it helps you to understand both your own
personality as well as the fact that other people will get different
patterns of results. Good managers understand people are different,
unique and complex, and therefore try to get to know their employees
as well as possible.
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Survey Complete

1. Employees are praised for good work.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
2. Supervisors do not yell at employees.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
Research shows that perceptions of fair treatment are important in
understanding the satisfaction, morale, and performance of
employees. These perceptions can be about your own personal
situation (“My boss did not rate my performance high enough”) or they
might be about the organization more generally (“The way my
organization determines who gets bonuses favors the marketing
department”). This self-assessment is about the organization in
general, although if you think you have been treated unfairly it is more
likely you will think that the organization treats others employees
unfairly as well.

Source: Adapted in part from M A Donovan, F Drasgow, and L J
Munson, “The Perceptions of Fair Interpersonal Treatment Scale
Development and Validation of a Measure of Interpersonal Treatment
in the Workplace,” Journal of Applied Psychology, October 1998, pp.
683–92.
Read each statement in the survey and select the rating that reflects
the extent to which you agree or disagree with the scenario in the
statement. There are no right or wrong answers. After completing the
self-assessment, read the feedback that explains how to understand
your score and interpret your results.

You must respond to all statements in order to receive full credit for
this self-assessment activity.
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3. Employees are trusted.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
4. Employees’ complaints are dealt with effectively.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
5. Employees are treated with respect.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
6. Employees’ questions and problems are responded to quickly.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
7. Employees are treated fairly.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
8. Employees’ hard work is appreciated.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
9. Employees’ suggestions are used.
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Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
10. Employees are told the truth.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree

    
Score
Score
0 50
50
50/50
Range
38 to
50
You might have a high view of the
fairness of your organization.
● If your score is in the low range, you do not think your
organization treats employees fairly as a general rule.
● If your score is in the moderate range, you are generally neutral
about whether the organization treats employees fairly or not.
● If your score is in the high range, you think the organization
treats employees fairly as a rule.

Equity theory states that persons who think they have been, or are
being, treated unfairly will adjust their behavior as a result. Research
shows that employees who think their organization is fair have higher
levels of job satisfaction. In contrast, employees who think their
organization is unfair tend to be more likely to leave the organization
and to reduce the level of their commitment to their work. Employees
who rate their organization as unfair are also more likely to report that
they have experienced sexual harassment.
If you think you are being treated unfairly, there are several steps you
might take. First, you might talk to your supervisor and make it clear
that you do not agree with a decision that has been made. Your
supervisor cannot take any action to correct an injustice if she doesn’t
know you are unhappy. Second, you can take advantage of dispute
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resolution processes that are available in your organization. Typically,
these processes are overseen by the human resources department.
Third, you can seek alternative employment. For example, if you don’t
think you are being paid fairly, the best way to demonstrate this is to
find a similar job in a different organization that pays better. Fourth,
you can think about re-framing your perceptions. If you focus on
different aspects of your work, you may find that things that you see as
inequities are balanced out by other things that you really like and
value.

There is one thing you should not do in reaction to perceptions of
unfairness. You should not let bitterness and other negative feelings
control you. Plenty of research shows that negative attitudes such as
these can do both physical and psychological damage to you. You
should control what you can while avoiding the tendency to dwell on
things outside your control. Negative emotions and thinking won’t
change the situation for the better.

Finally, a particular word about sexual harassment or other forms of
illegal discrimination. If you think you are the victim of this type of
treatment, then you should take your concern to the human resource
department. You are protected by law from anyone in the organization
taking action against you because you have made a harassment or
discrimination complaint. Organizations are required to take such
complaints seriously and to have a thorough investigation. In addition,
you may decide to seek the advice of a lawyer who is familiar with
Equal Opportunity Law, particularly if you do not think the organization
is treating you fairly.
Remember that your score on this assessment, while it is helpful for
understanding, should not be over-interpreted. You are not necessarily
in the best position to respond to these items. Certainly, your
perspective is legitimate and valuable, but you should also recognize
that other people, some of who have more experience and knowledge
of the organization, may have different views. Surveys such as this are
almost always best when they represent the compilation of the
assessment of many people, all of whom have their own views of the
organization. You might want to check your perceptions of the
organization with other people. The discussions that result may be
very helpful to you in understanding how your organization works.
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Survey Complete

1. I have a strong desire to have positive relationships with my superiors.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
2. I have a strong desire to engage in competition with peers involving
games or sport.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
3. I have a strong desire to engage in competition with peers involving
occupational or work-related activities.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
In order to become a successful manager, you need to have certain
kinds of abilities (such as the ability to communicate well and to make
good decisions) and you also need to have a strong motivation to
manage. This self-assessment focuses on the motivational aspect.

Source: Adapted from K. Y. Chan and F. Drasgow, “Toward a Theory
of Individual Differences and Leadership: Understanding the
Motivation to Lead”, Journal of Applied Psychology, June 2001, pp.
481−498.
Read each statement in the survey and select the rating that reflects
the extent to which you agree or disagree with the scenario in the
statement. There are no right or wrong answers. After completing the
self-assessment, read the feedback that explains how to understand
your score and interpret your results.

You must respond to all statements in order to receive full credit for
this self-assessment activity.
    
    
    
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4. I have a strong desire to behave in an active and assertive manner.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
5. I have a strong desire to tell others what to do and to utilize sanctions in
in�uencing others.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
6. I have a strong desire to assume a distinctive position of a unique and
highly visible nature.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
7. I have a strong desire to engage in managerial work that involves day-to-
day administrative duties.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree

    
    
    
    
Score
Score
0 35
20
20/35
Range
16 to
26
You might have moderate
motivation to manage.
Research indicates there are seven types of motivation that seem to
predict overall motivation to manage.

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● Authority – People who are motivated to have positive
relationships with their supervisors and managers are more
likely to have the motivation to manage.
● Competitive games – People who like to play competitive
games are more likely to have the motivation to manage.
● Competitive situations – people who are competitive in work
situations are more likely to become managers. For example, if
you tried to cut more grass than other workers at your summer
landscaping job, this might be an indication you are more likely
to have the motivation to become a manager.
● Assertive roles – If you like to act in an assertive manner, you
are more likely to become a manager.
● Imposing wishes – If you like to influence what other people
do and to direct the behavior of others, you are more likely to
have the motivation to manage.
● Standing out from the group – If you like to be unique and
have others watching you, you are more likely to have the
motivation to manage.
● Routine administrative functions – If you like the details
associated with administrative work, you are more likely to have
the motivation to manage.
If your scores are in the high range, you might have the motivation to
become a manager. However, there are certainly no guarantees. If you
do aspire to become a manager and leader, you should nurture and
develop these tendencies.

If your scores are in the low or moderate ranges, it means that you
presently do not have the motivation to manage. This may be just fine
if this is what you want in your career. It also suggests that you may
want to look for work where you will not be asked to manage other
people. There are many, many occupations that fit this description.
Just to give one example, most faculty members never become
managers. It is certainly not necessary to become a manager to have
a fulfilling and enriched life.

On the other hand, if your score is in the low or moderate range and
you do aspire to management, you should not be discouraged. Rather,
you should take the three lowest rated items and develop an action
plan to improve yourself in those areas. This course will provide
guidance to you. You can also put yourself in positions where you can
develop the characteristics associated with management. For
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example, if you do not naturally like to be in front of others, look for
opportunities to be speaking to other people. You can start small, and
work your way into more and more visible positions.
Remember your score on this self-assessment, while useful for self-
understanding, should not be over-interpreted. First, every person is
complex and it is impossible to fully capture your uniqueness in a short
self-assessment. Second, you may well find your motivation to
manage may change over time, or you may come to understand what
your motivation actually is only later in life.
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Survey Complete

1. I make my attitudes clear to the group.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
2. I schedule the work to be done.
There are many different types of leaders even within the same
industry or sector. One way to classify different leaders is the extent to
which they exhibit behavior on two dimensions. The first dimension,
called initiating structure, captures the extent to which the leader is
focused on getting employees to accomplish tasks. The second
dimension is called consideration. This captures the extent to which
the leader is concerned about the employees’ needs and desires, and
is focused on creating a positive work environment for every member
of the work group.

The following survey was designed to evaluate your own leadership
behavior.

Source: Based on C. Schriesheim and S. Kerr, “Psychometric
Properties of the Ohio State Leadership Scales,” Psychological
Bulletin, November 1974, pp. 756–765.
Think about your typical behavior in student assignment/project
meetings or group meetings at work. Then, read each statement in the
survey and select the rating that best reflects the extent to which you
agree or disagree with the statement. There are no right or wrong
answers. After completing the self-assessment, read the feedback that
explains how to understand your score and interpret your results.

You must respond to all statements in order to receive full credit for
this self-assessment activity.
Initiating Structure
    
    
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Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
3. I maintain de�nite standards of performance.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
4. I emphasize the meeting of deadlines.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
5. I encourage the use of uniform procedures.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
6. I let group members know what is expected of them.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
7. I fully explain my actions.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
8. I consult the group before acting.
    
    
    
    
Consideration
    
    
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Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
9. I treat all group members as equals.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
10. I am friendly and approachable.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
11. I make group members feel at ease when talking with them.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
12. I put suggestions made by the group into operation.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree
Neither Agree
nor Disagree Agree
Strongly Agree
    
    
    
    
Initiating Structure
Initiating
Structure
0 30
24
24/30
Range
23 to
30
You may exhibit high initiating
structure leader behavior.
Consideration
Consideration
26
26/30
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0 30
Range
23 to
30
You may exhibit high consideration
leader behavior.
The first six items of the scale (1 to 6) measure the dimension of
leadership known as initiating structure. You can see they are intended
to assess how much you tend to focus on getting others to accomplish
the task at hand. The second six items of the scale (7 to 12) measure
the second dimension, known as consideration.

It is important to note that an individual can be low, moderate, or high
on each scale. That is, being high in initiating structure does not mean
you are going to score low on consideration. Instead, a person can be
high on both, low on both, or any other combination of scores.

Most leadership experts think the best leaders are high on both the
initiating structure and consideration dimensions.
If you aspire to leadership positions, you should take time to reflect on
the results of this self-assessment. If you scored high on both
dimensions, this may indicate you tend to exhibit behaviors which are
associated with effective leadership in many different contexts. You
should continue to look for opportunities to practice your leadership
skills.

If you scored high on one dimension, but low or moderate on the other
dimension, you should reflect on why this might be. Since the most
effective leaders are strong on both dimensions, you should look at the
items of the dimension where you scored in the low or moderate
range, and make a plan for working on improving those specific
behaviors. You are more likely to advance in leadership positions to
the extent you are able to be strong in both areas.

Most importantly, you can practice your leadership skills while you are
a student. College students have many opportunities to become
leaders including working with a student organization, volunteering
with a local non-profit such as Big Brother or Big Sister, taking a
leadership role on your varsity or intramural athletic team, taking a
student leadership role on campus, and on and on. The best way to
prepare yourself for leadership is to be a leader, to self-consciously
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think about your strengths and weaknesses, and to learn from your
mistakes.
Remember your score on this self-assessment, while useful for self-
understanding, should not be over-interpreted. First, every person is
complex and it is impossible to fully capture your uniqueness in a short
self-assessment. Second, you may well find your leadership behaviors
may change over time, or you may come to understand what your
leadership behaviors actually are only later in life. Third, it is often
helpful to seek out the advice of someone who knows you well to see
if their perception of you is consistent with your perception of yourself.
Use this self-assessment as a starting point for your understanding of
yourself, not the finish line.
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Survey Complete

1. I do my best work when my job assignments are fairly di�cult.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
2. I try very hard to improve on my past performance at work.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
The Acquired Needs Theory holds that people are motivated by three
needs developed over our lives:

● Achievement
● Affiliation
● Power

The following survey was designed to assess your acquired needs
within your current organization.

Source: Adapted from R. S. Blackburn, “An Evaluation of the
Reliability, Stability and Factor Structure of the Manifest Needs
Questionnaire,” Journal of Management, Fall 1981, pp. 55–62.
Read each statement in the survey and select the rating that reflects
the extent to which you agree or disagree with the scenario in the
statement. There are no right or wrong answers. After completing the
self-assessment, read the feedback that explains how to understand
your score and interpret your results.

You must respond to all statements in order to receive full credit for
this self-assessment activity.
Achievement
    
    
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3. I take moderate risks and stick my neck out to get ahead at work.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
4. I do not avoid any added responsibilities on my job.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
5. I try to perform better than my co-workers.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
6. When I have a choice I try to work in a group instead of by myself.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
7. I pay a good deal of attention to the feelings of others at work.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
8. I prefer to work with others rather than alone.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
    
    
    
Affiliation
    
    
    
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9. I do not express my disagreements with others openly.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
10. I �nd myself talking to those around me about non-business related
matters.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
11. I seek an active role in the leadership of a group.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
12. I try to in�uence those around me to see things my way.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
13. I �nd myself organizing and directing the activities of others.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
14. I strive to gain more control over the events around me at work.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
    
    
Power
    
    
    
    
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15. I strive to be “in command” when I am working in a group.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree

    
Achievement
Achievement
0 25
17
17/25
Range
12 to
18
You may have moderate need for
achievement.
A�liation
A�liation
0 25
15
15/25
Range
12 to
18
You may have moderate need for
a�liation.
Power
Power
0 25
19
19/25
Range
19 to
25
You may have high need for power.
The Acquired Needs Theory holds that people are motivated by the
following three needs, which we develop over the course of our lives:

● Achievement – If your score is low, this indicates you may not
feel the need to strive for high performance in your work or
schooling. In contrast, if your score is high, you might have that
need. Persons who have high need for achievement tend to like
jobs where pay and performance are linked and where
advancement is possible. In addition to the results of this self-
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assessment, you can judge your level of need for achievement
by the need you feel to earn consistently high grades in your
coursework.
● Affiliation – If your score is low, this indicates you are not very
concerned by what others think about you, and you do not
spend a lot of time developing close relationships with other
people. If your score is high, you may have a strong desire for
warm and deep relationships with other people. Persons high in
need for affiliation tend to prefer work requiring social
relationships such as sales. Persons high in need for affiliation
may struggle with making hard decisions about subordinates
that managers are expected to make. In addition to the results
of this self-assessment, you can judge your level of need for
affiliation by the extent to which you are likely to prefer getting
to know other people as opposed to being sure the task
assigned to you is completed on time.
● Power – If your score is low, you may not have a need to be in
a position to influence other people. If your score is high, you
may find that you strongly desire to be in managerial and
leadership positions in which you can exert influence over how
things are done and decisions that are made. Persons high in
need for power tend to gravitate towards supervisory and
managerial positions. In addition to the results of this self-
assessment, you can judge your level of need for power by
reflecting on your desire to take control in group situations.

In addition to looking at the scores for each of the three needs, you
can also profit from looking at the pattern of results. If the three scores
are similar to each other, you might be described as a balanced
person. If one score is significantly higher than the others, this might
indicate you are particularly motivated by that particular need.
The primary value of reflecting on your needs is to help you have a
fuller understanding of yourself and the kind of jobs for which you are
best suited. For example, persons high in need for achievement tend
to fit in jobs which require creativity and reliance on individual skills.
Persons high in affiliation tend to fit in jobs which require collaboration
with other people and the building of personal relationships. People
high in need for power fit in jobs which are visible and have
considerable responsibility. In addition, these needs will also influence
the goals that you have in life. Understanding yourself will help you to
understand why you have certain goals and motivations, and it will
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help you to understand why other people have different goals and
motivations.

In addition to this self-reflection, your school may well have a career
office where you can find people skilled in helping you to assess your
needs and aspirations, along with other factors such as skill and
abilities. This information can be very helpful in suggesting types of
work in which you would excel and from which you would draw deep
satisfaction. In addition to the career office, faculty members, coaches,
parents and other acquaintances are good sources of advice and
guidance on these matters.
Remember your score on this self-assessment, while useful for self-
understanding, should not be over-interpreted. First, every person is
complex and it is impossible to fully capture your uniqueness in a short
self-assessment. Second, you may well find your motivations and
needs may change over time, or you may come to understand what
your perspective actually is only later in life. Third, while the advice
given above is research based and helpful, these results only describe
tendencies. There are many people who might score low on need for
achievement who will, in time, prove themselves to be high achievers.
So, this self-assessment is useful to the extent it helps you to
understand both yourself and others, but you should let it limit your
dreams and aspirations.
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Survey Complete

1. Managers assign tasks to people based on skills and abilities and not
because of race, sex, religion, or age.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
2. Managers have a track record of hiring and promoting people objectively
regardless of their race, sex, religion, or age.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
The diversity climate of an organization is comprised of three
conceptually distinct factors:

● Organizational fairness
● Organizational inclusion
● Diversity promises

The following survey was designed to assess the diversity climate
within your current organization.

Source: Adapted from E. H. Buttner, K. B. Lowe, and L. Billings-
Harris, “An Empirical Test of Diversity Climate Dimensionality and
Relative Effects on Employee of Color Outcomes,” Journal of Business
Ethics, October, 2012, pp. 247–258.
Read each statement in the survey and select the rating that reflects
the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement. There
are no right or wrong answers. After completing the self-assessment,
read the feedback that explains how to understand your score and
interpret your results.

You must respond to all statements in order to receive full credit for
this self-assessment activity.
    
    
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3. Managers give feedback and evaluate people fairly, regardless of such
factors as the person’s race, sex, age, or social background.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
4. Managers make promotion decisions fairly, regardless of such factors as
the person’s race, sex, age, or social background.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
5. Managers encourage the formation of employee support groups.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
6. There is a mentoring program in use that identi�es and prepares all
employees for promotion.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
7. The “Old Boys Network” does not exist.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
8. The organization spends enough money and time on diversity awareness
and related training.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
    
    
    
    
    
    
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9. The performance evaluation system at this organization is fair.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
10. I am satis�ed with the way performance evaluations are done at this
organization.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
11. Racial bias and prejudice is eliminated in this company.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
12. Support/understanding of unique issues is provided for employees of
minority groups.
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree

    
    
    
    
Score
Score
0 60
48
48/60
Range
45 to
60
Your organization has a good
diversity climate.
The three conceptually distinct factors of an organization’s diversity
climate comprise the following:

● Organizational Fairness – This measures the extent to which
employees perceive there is equal treatment in policies and
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practices for persons regardless of gender, ethnicity, religion
and age.
● Organizational Inclusion – This measures the extent to which
the organization supports activities such as diversity networks,
mentoring, and diversity training programs.
● Diversity Promises – This measures the extent to which the
organization is perceived to have followed through on
commitments with respect to the elimination of bias and being
receptive to hearing concerns raised by employees who are
members of minority groups.

If your score is in the low or moderate range, this indicates you do not
perceive the organization is committed to having a good diversity
climate. If your score is in the high range, it is likely you think your
organization is strong in this respect. Research suggests that you are
more likely to be unhappy, dissatisfied, and less likely to give the
organization your best effort if you work in a low diversity climate.
Sometimes, you may need to look for other job opportunities if the
climate is inconsistent with your values and needs.
Since this assessment measures your perception of an important part
of organizational life, there are limits to what you as an individual can
do to alter the organization. However, there are several things you can
do to improve the diversity climate of your individual workgroup.

In particular, if you are a minority, you should take advantage of
programs that many organizations offer to help improve the standing
of underrepresented groups. If the organization offers a mentoring
program, you should enroll and participate. Some organizations
sponsor networks to enable members of underrepresented groups to
more easily connect with each other. And, of course, if you think you
are being treated unfairly, you should speak with someone in the
human resources department about steps you can take to address the
problem.

All employees should be concerned about fit. Generally speaking, you
should try to find an organization whose values and perspectives
match your own. If you find yourself severely out of step with your
colleagues and leadership, perhaps you should look for another
organization. On the other hand, there are certainly times when the
right thing to do is to take a stand if you see or experience injustice.
6/11/22, 12:26 PM Smart Form
https://newconnect.mheducation.com 5/5

Wisdom is required to know when to stay and when to move on. There
are no firm guidelines or rules.

In addition to these specific actions, the textbook contains a number of
ideas all employees can consider. In particular, employees who are not
minorities should be sensitive to diversity issues and work to create
psychologically safe environments for persons to raise concerns and
to have honest discussions.
Remember your score on this assessment, while helpful for
understanding, should not be over-interpreted. You are not necessarily
in the best position to respond to these items. Certainly, your
perspective is legitimate and valuable, but you should also recognize
that other people, some of whom have more experience and
knowledge of the organization, may have different views. Surveys
such as this are almost always best when they represent the
compilation of the assessment of many people, all of whom have their
own views of the organization. You might want to check your
perceptions of the organization with other people. The discussions that
result may be very helpful to you in understanding how your
organization works.

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