Posted: August 3rd, 2022

Please answer the questions with information you learned from the chapter. Make sure you elaborate on your answer, illustration that you have understanding of the chapter. You should have a paragraph for each question. 1. Define the terms topic , rhetoric

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Please answer the questions with information you learned from the chapter. Make sure you elaborate on your answer, illustration that you have understanding of the chapter. You should have a paragraph for each question.

1. Define the terms topic , rhetorical purpose and thesis and give examples of each.

2. Explain the three major speech sections (introduction, body and conclusion). Justify why the speech should be written” out of order” (body, introduction and conclusion).

3. Apply the of canons Cicero to what we know about Martin Luther King Jr’s “I have a Dream ” speech. How did he demonstrate each key step in Cicero’s approach to preparation (The book refers to MLK speech )?

DEVELOPING YOUR FIRST SPEECH

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Why Prepare?
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The Classical Approach to Speech Preparation (1 of 6)

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The Classical Approach to Speech Preparation (2 of 6)

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The Classical Approach to Speech Preparation
Invention: generation of ideas for use in speech
Generate many ideas
Ideas serve a purpose
Ideas are adapted to audience
Ideas based on topic, purpose, supporting evidence

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The Classical Approach to Speech Preparation
Arrangement: structuring of ideas to convey them effectively
Most speeches have three parts:
Introduction, body, conclusion
Arrange ideas to be clear and memorable
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The Classical Approach to Speech Preparation

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EXPLAIN WHAT HAS CHANGED ABOUT HOW WE NOW USE THE FIVE CLASSICAL CANONS—INVENTION, ARRANGEMENT, STYLE, MEMORY, AND DELIVERY. PRESENT AN ASPECT OF EACH CANON THAT WE STILL RETAIN TODAY.

Analyze your audience
Audience analysis: learning interests, backgrounds to create specialized speech

What is important about audience analysis?
Why should it be one of your first considerations when inventing your speech?
What questions would you ask your classmates if you were allowed to survey them before delivering your first speech?
How would you use this information?

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Select your topic
Topic: subject you will address in speech
Choose topic
that interests you
Avoid overused
topics

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Determine your speech’s rhetorical purpose
Rhetorical purpose: speech’s main goal
Speeches typically have one of three objectives to focus content:
Informing, persuading, marking special occasion

Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech

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Brainstorming: quickly listing every idea that comes to mind, without evaluating merits
Develops substantial list of ideas.
Make final topic decision later
Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech
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Create a thesis statement
Thesis statement: states message, narrowed topic, rhetorical purpose
Determine your main points
Main point: major ideas to emphasize
Each point must support thesis
Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech

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Develop supporting materials
Supporting materials: bolster, flesh out claims made in main points
Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech

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Organize, outline body of speech
Outline: Text of speech in complete sentences or briefer phrases
The three major parts of an outline are the
Introduction, body (core of your speech), conclusion
Create two to five main points, numbered with roman numeral
Develop subpoints for each main point
Subpoints explain, prove, expand on main points
Follow rules of subordination
Main points relate to specific purpose
Subpoints relate to their main points
Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech (8 of 19)

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Generic sample of subordination:
Main Point 1
Subpoint
Subpoint
Sub-subpoint
Sub-subpoint
Main Point 2
Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech

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Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech

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This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
Conclusion: summarizes what you said
-Leaves audience with memorable impression
Two main parts:
Summary of main points
Clincher (vivid closing)

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Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech
Consider your word choice
Word choice (diction) makes speech more memorable, engaging

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Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech (15 of 19)
Consider presentation aids
Presentation aid: anything that audience members can see, hear
Helps them understand, remember message

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Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech
Traditional presentation aids include
Actual objects or models
Video, audio recordings, drawings, photographs
Charts, maps, graphs, PowerPoint
Presentation aids must support your developing point

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Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech (17 of 19)
Practice your speech
Extemporaneous delivery: Using only notes, rather than reading speech word-for-word

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Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech (18 of 19)
Mediated presentation
Transmitted through mechanical or electronic medium
Practice with technology and camera operation you will use
Play speech back to see needed adjustments

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Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech
Deliver your speech
Project your voice
Maintain even rate of speaking
Convey interest in topic
Maintain eye contact

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Overcoming Speech Anxiety
Speech anxiety (stage fright)
Worry or fear before giving speech
A little nervousness can help

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Overcoming Speech Anxiety
You can learn to manage speech anxiety

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Overcoming Speech Anxiety
Prepare early and follow a plan
Resist urge to procrastinate
Reduce anxiety by being prepared
Incorporate feedback

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Overcoming Speech Anxiety
Practice your speech
With group of classmates
With friends, family
Through imagined interactions
Mentally practice delivering speech to audience, picture positive interactions

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Overcoming Speech Anxiety
Take care of yourself
Get enough sleep
Avoid too much sugar, caffeine
Manage other commitments before speech

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Overcoming Speech Anxiety (6 of 8)
Visualize success
Visualization: imagine yourself a resounding success
Make visualization as specific as possible
Visualize success

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Overcoming Speech Anxiety
Use relaxation techniques
Relaxation strategies: help reduce muscle tension, negative thoughts
Basic muscle, breathing exercises help reduce anxiety
Plan time for enjoyable activity

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Overcoming Speech Anxiety
Volunteer to speak first
Never defeat yourself.
Do not give up

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