Posted: August 4th, 2022
Power Point Presentation on Hypothyroidism, Rewite for a zero Turnitin score
United States University
What is Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid doesn’t create and release enough thyroid hormone into your bloodstream, making metabolism slow down because the thyroid gland doesn’t make enough thyroid hormones to meet the body’s needs (Medline Plus, 2021).
What is Thyroid?
The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland in the front of your neck. The thyroid makes the hormone that controls the way the body uses energy. These hormones affect nearly every organ in the body and control many of the body’s most essential functions. It involves breathing, heart rate, weight, digestion, and moods. Without enough thyroid hormones, the body’s many functions slow down (Medline plus, 2021).
Causes and Pathophysiology of Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism develops when the body is not able to make enough thyroid hormone due to these conditions:
. Iodine deficiency
• Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks the thyroid.
• It can be present at birth, also called Congenital hypothyroidism
• If there is the surgical removal of part or all of the thyroid.
• In case of radiation to the thyroid
• Exposure to the external radiation
• Type 1 diabetes (Autoimmune)
• Pituitary disorder or lack of iodine (Jill et al., 2021)
. Certain drugs cause hypothyroidism such as Thionamides, Iodine, and iodine-containing drugs, Amiodarone, Lithium, Minocycline (Rizzo et al., 2017)
Who are at risk
Being a woman
If the age is greater than 60
Previous thyroid problem
Previous thyroid problem
Radiation to the thyroid, neck, or the chest
If there is a family history of thyroid
Genetic disorders for exam turner syndrome
Pernicious anemia because the body can not make can not healthy red blood cells
Chronic autoimmune disease
Rheumatoid arthritis (Jill et al., 2021).
Symptoms of Hypothyroidism
Check T3, T4, TSH
CBC ( to check for anemia)
Ultrasound of the neck and thyroid to check for a nodule (Jill et al., 2021).
Treatment of Hypothyroidism
* The patient should be treated with the same generic or brand because of variation in the potency between different generics
* Levothyroxine ( Synthroid, Levoxyl, Levothroid)
* The dose for adults is 1.6mcg/kg/day as a single dose every morning
* For the pediatric dose depend on the child’s weight and the age
* For the elderly patient with other problems such as CAD, COPD the initial dose should be 25 to 50 mcg/day.
* It should be taken on an empty stomach.
* In pregnancy dose needs to be increased by 30% due to the physiological changes (Rizzo et al., 2017)
Complications of untreated hypothyroidism
If Hypothyroidism is left untreated, it could cause the following complications:
Congenital disability or birth defects
Mental health issues
Myxedema (Dlugasch & Story, 2021).
* Educate the patient regarding the patient who has unactive thyroid needs lifelong treatment of levothyroxine and educate regarding the danger of non-compliance.
* Educate regarding the disease, signs, complications, medications. Teach them regarding compliance with the treatment.
* Educate the patient to report the side effects such as chest pain, tachycardia, palpitation.
Teach about taking medication on an empty stomach 30 or 60 minutes before breakfast.
Patient Education Continues
Teach the patient that after initiating the dose or changes, the TSH needs to be repeated in 6 to 8 weeks to check the desired effect of the treatment or if the dose needs to be readjusted.
Teach the patient to take the dose as prescribed and not stop without consulting.
If the TSH is normal, then follow up every six months for reevaluation
Cash, J. C., Glass, C. A., & Mullen, J. (2021). Family practice guidelines. Springer Publishing Company.
Dlugasch, L., & Story, L. (2021). Applied pathophysiology for the advanced practice nurse (1st ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Medline Plus. (2021). Hypothyroidism. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://medlineplus.gov/hypothyroidism.html
Rizzo, L. F. L., Mana, D. L., & Serra, H. A. (2017). Drug-induced hypothyroidism. Medicina (Buenos Aires), 77, 394-404. http://www.medicinabuenosaires.com/PMID/29044016
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