Posted: August 3rd, 2022

Program Intervention with SMART Objectives

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NEEDS ASSESSMENT

Needs Assessment: Designing A Public Health Program (Childhood Obesity)

Jessica Tidd

Capella University

MPH5990: Public Health Capstone

July 2022

Needs Assessment: Designing A Public Health Program (Childhood Obesity)

Obesity rates among children and teens have climbed significantly during the past several years. As of this year, 18.5% of young American children and teenagers are obese, according to a recent report. This demonstrates the need of lowering and mitigating childhood obesity, not only in the near term but also in the long term, in order to reduce the risk of chronic diseases as a result of obesity. It is important to measure, analyze, and come up with cost-effective strategies for reducing obesity in order to ensure that “national, city, and county initiatives are focused on eliminating this concern and the necessary stakeholders have the accurate information intended to improve children’s well-being.”

Identify the Problem, Issue, or Situation

To begin, the high levels of cholesterol and blood pressure that are associated with childhood obesity contribute to the development of a number of health problems, including an impaired glucose tolerance and an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Obesity in children is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (Verduci et al., 2022). It is possible for it to bring on joint pain, in addition to breathing issues such as asthma and sleep apnea.

Utilize epidemiological statistics to profile for the targeted population

Patterns of growth over the course of time. The crisis that is being caused by the epidemic of childhood obesity is one that is not only taking place on a national scale but also on a global scale, and the primary focus of this crisis is on public health. The imbalances between the number of calories children consume and the number of calories they burn off are the root of the problem that is leading to an increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity (Verduci et al., 2022). In addition, there is a manuscript that not only identifies and discusses the numerous factors that contribute to the development of childhood obesity but also demonstrates how nations can address the epidemic and the difficulties that it presents.

According to more recent research (2011–2015), age groups rather than grade levels are used to group the prevalence of overweight and obesity nationwide. According to this study, there are the following national prevalence rates for overweight children: 14.4% of kids between the ages of 2 and 5, 16.5% of kids between the ages of 6 and 11, and 14% of kids between the ages of 12 and 19. 1 Children aged 2 to 5 make up 8.9% of the obese population, followed by children aged 6 to 11 at 17.5 percent, and children aged 12 to 19 at 20.5 percent (Ogden et al 2014).

The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children nationwide was previously assessed in kindergarten, sixth grade, and ninth grade.

Graph Reference: (Consortium to Lower Obesity in Chicago Children, 2022)

Identify community leadership stakeholders who would be involved with implementing public health-related programs for this specific problem or issue.

It is of the utmost importance that those in positions of authority place a high priority on primary prevention and make investments in the treatment of childhood obesity; doing so will contribute to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity in children. One of the many approaches that can be taken to combat the epidemic of childhood obesity is to limit the amount of time that children spend in front of the television (Han et al., 2019). This is just one of many potential solutions. It is possible to lessen the prevalence of obesity by decreasing the number of beverages and foods that are sold despite meeting the minimum requirements for nutrition.

Over and above the intervention mentioned, legislators and other stakeholders are better informed on the causes, impacts, and ways to avoid children’s obesity and their families’ different requirements through the use of child well-being monitoring systems. Monitoring and analyzing data can help us identify the most pressing issues in the fight against obesity, as well as prospects for further testing. Improved trends in childhood obesity were detected and effective public policy remedies were established using reliable surveillance systems (Lakshman et al., 2021). As an example, strong information collection and monitoring programs helped to identify obesity as a major public health concern by recognizing its trends and likely causes.

Evaluate the available resources and the missing resources to address the public health problem.

The state of one’s health can be influenced by a variety of different things. Some of the factors that can have an effect on the status and the norms of the community include an individual’s behavior, the level of health care that they receive, the genetic inheritance that they receive, and the general environment (Verduci et al., 2022).

The study of diseases, as well as the reasons for looking at different populations of people, is called epidemiology, and it is the method by which epidemiologists study diseases. Therefore, the targeted population profile can be utilized through the use of the data descriptive, which provide the data grasp through the utilization of diagrams, tables, graphs, and maps (Han et al., 2019). The organizations will always divulge the patterns that illustrate the essential qualities of the data that is being displayed and the manner in which it is being displayed.

There are two distinct types of information that pertain to the population: primary data, which relates to the population from which the data are being collected, and complementary source information, which includes social and demographic information pertaining to the survey, administration records, and the census (Lakshman et al., 2021). Both of these types of data pertain to the population from which the data are being collected. Primary data include the following:

It is a well-known fact that many children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and this condition has significant negative effects on both their mental and physical health. It is possible for obese and overweight children to develop additional diseases as adults. Some examples of these diseases are cardiovascular and diabetes conditions (Verduci et al., 2022). Obesity in children can have a negative impact on their social and psychological well-being, as well as their physical and, most importantly, their level of awareness.

Apply epidemiological methods to the breadth of settings and situations in public health practice.

The epidemiology technique, which is used to determine what is considered to be acceptable health outcomes in a sick population, looks at their patients collectively. The communities, which include families and individuals, are the primary focus of local efforts to manage obesity in children and adolescents (Han et al., 2019). These efforts extend beyond the community level. People live in the area, and their perspectives on matters of culture, ethnicity, and religion are identical to those of the people. Other states have developed more effective methods of combating obesity in children and adolescents, which they have implemented.

The characteristics of a group’s shared biology are used to classify that population according to its racial identity. The cultural aspects, such as language, culture, genealogy, history, and culinary preferences, are used to classify the ethnicity into its respective categories (Lakshman et al., 2021). The frequency of overweight and obese children is increasing across racial and ethnic lines, as well as among non-white individuals in general.

There are a number of risk factors that contribute significantly to the risk of obesity within the population, including the following:

Living in areas with a low average income

Food is difficult to obtain in terms of its availability.

The number of yards between homes and playgrounds has increased.

On the other hand, efforts to combat childhood overweight and obesity Advertising junk food to youngsters contributes to the obesity epidemic’s escalation as a public health issue. Television, movies, food packaging and even iconic personalities are used to sell food. “According to one research, children who were exposed to food advertising on television ingested 45 percent more food than those who were exposed to non-food advertising on television” (Verduci et al., 2022). Adverts for junk food are saturating prime-time TV time slots for youngsters in the UK, according to new research. Researchers analyzed more than 750 prime-time television advertising and discovered that more than a fifth of them were for food products. Furthermore, 13 food commercials for harmful goods are shown to children under the age of 12 every day on television. All foods can have a place in a diet if consumed in moderation and in balance, according to food and advertising industry experts.

That culture’s eating habits and dietary choices contribute to the epidemic of obesity.

Because of variety, possibilities have arisen to discuss the notion of competence in the context of health care (Lakshman et al., 2021). Competence refers to the ability of health care professionals to provide services that meet the cultural, social, and other requirements of patients.

Over the next ten years, it is anticipated that the prevalence of childhood obesity will increase due to changing lifestyles and the rising popularity of junk food. It is anticipated to be especially common in developing nations where traditional diets are undergoing a westernization and where consumption rates of starch, sugar, oil, and fat are rising. According to the Atlas of Childhood Obesity published by the World Obesity Federation, 250 million children and adolescents will be obese by 2030 (McCarthy, 2019).

Compared to the 158 million children and adolescents who are currently considered obese, that is unquestionably a significant increase. The three countries with the highest projected absolute numbers of obese children worldwide by 2030 are China (62 million), India (27 million), and the United States (17 million), though smaller nations will be more at risk (McCarthy, 2019). The island nations of the Cook Islands, Kiribati, and the Federated States of Micronesia were identified in the report as being most at risk.

In those nations, childhood obesity is already a problem, and the Cook Islands is expected to have 46% of all children aged 5 to 9 who are obese by 2030. However, these alarming figures are not only present in small nations; by that time, 32 percent of children aged 5 to 9 in China are expected to be obese. With a 42 percent obesity rate among adolescents aged 10 to 19, the Cook Islands are predicted to once again lead the world in 2030 (McCarthy, 2019). In contrast, less than a quarter of teenagers in the United States will also be obese by that time.

Graph reference: (McCarthy, 2019)

Apply epidemiological methods to the breadth of settings and situations in public health practice.

In order to improve the overall health of the population, there needs to be a higher emphasis placed on clinical intervention (Han et al., 2019). As a consequence of this, there are three realities that are founded on exciting new development tactics. First, a dichotomy of illnesses focuses on the health state and the approach to health in the specific group that is being impacted by obesity. This population is known to have a higher risk of developing obesity-related diseases. It is well known that a significant portion of this population suffers from obesity.

The results of the study have been analyzed and interpreted in a variety of different ways, and the variables that have been identified as having contributed to the growth in the prevalence of childhood obesity have also been recognized (Han et al., 2019). These people include primarily of those who are employed in the fields of education, healthcare, and child care.

It has been discovered that people’s beliefs about the incidence of obesity in children can have an effect on the outcomes that are connected to weight (Lakshman et al., 2021). The views have been brought to the notice of the stakeholders, and the stakeholders are also currently considering the perspectives.

It is a fundamental human right, and it plays an even more important function in the health care system, to have access to primary medical care (Lakshman et al., 2021). people living with impairments in addition to the challenges that are experienced by the general population

One of the challenges that persons with disabilities must overcome is the widespread misconception that they are the most vulnerable and defenseless members of society (Han et al., 2019). They need to consider them to be on par with other members of the society who have already been given worth.

References

Browne, N. T., Snethen, J. A., Greenberg, C. S., Frenn, M., Kilanowski, J. F., Gance-Cleveland, B., … & Lewandowski, L. (2021). When pandemics collide: the impact of COVID-19 on childhood obesity. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 56, 90.

Han, J. C., Lawlor, D. A., & Kimm, S. Y. (2019). Childhood obesity. The lancet, 375(9727), 1737-1748.

Health, T. L. P. (2021). Childhood obesity beyond COVID-19. The Lancet. Public Health, 6(8), e534.

Karnik, S., & Kanekar, A. (2012). Childhood obesity: a global public health crisis. Int J Prev Med, 3(1), 1-7.

Lakshman, R., Elks, C. E., & Ong, K. K. (2021). Childhood obesity. Circulation, 126(14), 1770-1779.

McCarthy, N., 2019. Infographic: Over 250 Million Kids Will Be Obese By 2030. [online] Statista Infographics. Available at: [Accessed 25 July 2022].

Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2014). Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA, 311(8), 806–814. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.732

Verduci, E., Di Profio, E., Fiore, G., & Zuccotti, G. (2022). Integrated approaches to combatting childhood obesity. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 1-12.

Program Intervention with SMART Objectives Scoring Guide

Due Date: End of Unit 4
Percentage of Course Grade: 15%.

CRITERIA NON-PERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED

Incorporate the
changes to
address the
feedback
received.
12%

Does not incorporate
the changes to
address the
feedback received.

Incorporates few
changes to the paper,
but does not address
all the feedback
received.

Incorporates the
changes to
address the
feedback received.

Incorporates the changes
to address the feedback
received, greatly
improving the paper.

Describe the
intervention to be
implemented.
11%

Does not describe
the intervention to be
implemented.

Describes portion of
the intervention to be
implemented, but the
description is not
complete.

Describes the
intervention to be
implemented.

Describes the intervention
to be implemented,
incorporating some of the
possible changes the
intervention will bring.

Analyze how this
intervention will
be used to
address the
problem.
11%

Does not analyze
how this intervention
will be used to
address the problem.

Analyzes some
aspects this
intervention will be
used to address the
problem.

Analyzes how this
intervention will be
used to address
the problem.

Analyzes how this
intervention will be used to
address the problem,
providing examples that
support and strengthen
the analysis.

Analyze how
SMART objectives
will be used to
meet the program
goals.
11%

Does not analyze
how SMART
objectives will be
used to meet the
program goals.

Analyzes how SMART
objectives will be used
to meet the program
goals, but the analysis
is incomplete and
does not cover all
program goals.

Analyzes how
SMART objectives
will be used to
meet the program
goals.

Analyzes how SMART
objectives will be used to
meet the program goals,
and enriches the analysis
with meaningful examples.

Design a
population-based
policy, program,
project, or
intervention
based on best
practices.
11%

Does not design a
population-based
policy, program,
project, or
intervention based
on best practices.

Designs a population-
based policy,
program, project, or
intervention, but does
not refer or relate to
best practices.

Designs a
population-based
policy, program,
project, or
intervention based
on best practices.

Designs a population-
based policy, program,
project, or intervention
based on best practices,
and supports the proposal
with recent literature
resources.

Describe mode of
delivery that will
be used to
introduce the
intervention to
the targeted
population.
11%

Does not describe
mode of delivery that
will be used to
introduce the
intervention to the
targeted population.

Describes mode of
delivery will be used
to introduce the
intervention to the
targeted population,
but the description is
not complete or clear.

Describes mode of
delivery that will be
used to introduce
the intervention to
the targeted
population.

Describes mode of
delivery that will be used
to introduce the
intervention to the targeted
population, justifying why
the chosen mode is
effective.

Discuss how the
intervention will

Does not discuss
how the intervention
will be adopted to fit

Discusses how the
intervention will be
adopted to fit some of

Discusses how the
intervention will be
adopted to fit the

Discusses how the
intervention will be
adopted to fit the needs of

Program Intervention with SMART Objectives Scoring Guide https://courserooma.capella.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/MPH/MPH599…

1 of 2 8/2/2022, 7:12 PM

CRITERIA NON-PERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED

be adopted to fit

the

needs of the
community or
population.

11%

the needs of the
community or
population.

the needs of the
community or
population, but the
discussion is
incomplete.

needs of the
community or
population.

the community or
population, detailing the
expected changes that the
intervention will provoke.

Write clearly and
logically, with
correct use of
spelling,
grammar,
punctuation, and
mechanics.
11%

Writes with many
errors, making text
difficult to follow;
errors involve
spelling, grammar,
punctuation, and
mechanics.

Writes with few errors
that can makes text
difficult to follow at
times; errors involve
spelling, grammar,
punctuation, and
mechanics.

Writes clearly and
logically, with
correct use of
spelling, grammar,
punctuation, and
mechanics.

Writes clearly and
logically, using evidence to
support a central idea,
with correct use of
spelling, grammar,
punctuation, and
mechanics; the paper
contains supporting
examples for the main
points.

Write following
APA style for in-
text citation,
quotes, and
references.
11%

Writes without
following APA style.

Writes mostly
following APA style for
in-text citation,
quotes, and
references, but there
are lapses in style
use.

Writes following
APA style for in-
text citation,
quotes, and
references.

Writes following APA style
for in-text citation, quotes,
and references without
errors, and uses current
reference sources.

Program Intervention with SMART Objectives Scoring Guide https://courserooma.capella.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/MPH/MPH599…

2 of 2 8/2/2022, 7:12 PM

After identifying the public health issue or need, often an

 

intervention is designed as part of the program to begin addressing and  delivering resources to the population.

1. Incorporate the changes to address the feedback received.  

2. Use the feedback from your instructor to address  pertinent sections for errors or insufficiencies. Implementing this  feedback will help you draft this assignment and your course project.

3. Describe the intervention to be implemented.      

4. Include community resources to be used for the intervention.

5. Explain the components of the intervention and why that intervention will be used.

6. Analyze how this intervention will be used to address the problem.      

7. Identify the elements of the intervention, based on theoretical foundation and past studies, that will help to change behavior.

8. Based on the literature, why is this intervention the best for the selected health problem or issue?

9. Assess population needs, assets, and capacities that affect communities’ health.

10. Analyze how SMART objectives will be used to meet the program goals.      

11. Identify the desired outcome, which could include  intended behavior, increased knowledge, or skill changes for the overall  program intervention.

12. Explain how progress will be measured or evaluated for the program duration.

13. Determine what will be considered a success for this health intervention.

14. Explain the time frame for success for the health intervention.

15. Design a population-based policy, program, project or intervention based on best practices.      

16. Demonstrate how the selected intervention includes experts from a variety of backgrounds to gain many different perspectives.

17. Explain how the intervention involves patients  throughout out the development and implementation process to include  feedback from potential intervention participants.

18. Describe what mode of delivery will be used to introduce the intervention to the targeted population.      

19. Describe what methods will be employed to reach  the targeted audience, including in-person meetings, social media  platforms, and peer-to-peer interactions.

20. Describe the importance of cultural competence when communicating public health content.

21. Discuss how the intervention will be adopted to fit the needs of the community or population.      

22. Identify how the intervention will be tailored to fit the cultural, ethnic, or community needs of the population.

23. Explain why the intervention will be tailored for cultural purposes.

 

· Paper length: A minimum of 10–12 double-spaced pages, not including title and reference pages.

· Font: Arial, 12 point.

· References: Cite at least eight references from peer-reviewed journals, in addition to your text.

· Format: Use current APA style and formatting.

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