Posted: June 13th, 2022

project management

Project Management Assignment, Communication and dissemination plan for mental health awareness programme. ill attach who are our partners. and also on e sample paper .
project
ATTACHED FILE(S)
PROPOSAL PART B
Building an IoT OPen innovation Ecosystem for connected smart objects

Partner N°

Short Name

Participant organisation name

Country

1 Coordinator

AALTO*

AALTO:CS – Computer Science department

Finland

AALTO:CKIR – Center for Knowledge and Innovation Research

2

EPFL

École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Switzerland

3

Uni.lu

University of Luxembourg

Luxembourg

4

Fraunhofer

Fraunhofer Institute for Intelligent Analysis and Information Systems (IAIS)

Germany

5

BIBA

BIBA – Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik GmbH

Germany

6

CSIRO

Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation

Australia

7

TOG

The Open Group (X/Open Company)

UK

8

BMW

BMW

Germany

9

eccenca

eccenca GmbH

Germany

10

OpenDataSoft

OpenDataSoft

France

11

Cityzen Data

Cityzen Data

France

12

Holonix

Holonix

Italy

13

itrust

itrust consulting

Luxembourg

14

Enervent

Enervent Oy

Finland

15

CT

ControlThings

Finland

16

ISP

IS-Practice

Belgium

17

FVH

Forum Virium Helsinki

Finland

18

Greater Lyon

Grand Lyon Métropole

France

19

Brussels-Capital Region

IRISNET

Belgium

20

CIRB

Belgium

21

Brussels Mobility

Belgium
* In the present document “AALTO:CS” and “AALTO:CKIR” are (sometimes) used when it is important to make a distinction, otherwise “AALTO” only is used
Content
1 Excellence 4
1.1 Objectives 4
1.1.1 Issues and challenges 4
1.1.2 bIoTope objectives 6
1.2 Relation to the work programme 10
1.3 Concept and approach 14
1.3.1 Overall approach and methodology 14
1.3.2 Concept underpinning bIoTope 15
1.3.3 Application scenarios and proof-of-concept 17
1.3.4 Positioning of the project 21
1.3.5 Related international and national activities 21
1.4 Ambition 23
1.4.1 Progress beyond state-of-the-art in IaaS (O2.1) 23
1.4.2 Progress beyond state-of-the-art in Knowledge-as-a-Service (O2.2) – KaaS 24
1.4.3 Progress beyond state-of-the-art in Context-as-a-Service (O2.4) – CaaS 25
1.4.4 Progress beyond state-of-the-art in Security-as-a-Service (O2.3) – SaaS 26
1.4.5 Progress beyond state-of-the-art in User Interaction-as-a-Service (O2.5) – UIaaS 27
1.4.6 Progress beyond state-of-the-art in Ecosystem-based Business Model (O4) 27
1.4.7 Innovation potential of bIoTope products and services 28
2 Impact 29
2.1 Expected impacts 29
2.1.1 Contribution to the expected and strategic impacts 29
2.1.2 Expected impact for beneficiaries 31
2.1.3 External factors that may determine whether bIoTope impacts will be achieved 31
2.2 Measures to maximise impact 33
2.2.1 Innovation strategy and exploitation activities 33
2.2.2 Standardization activities 35
2.2.3 bIoTope business model 35
2.2.4 Open call usage and methodology 37
2.2.5 Project dissemination and communication activities 37
2.2.6 Data management activity plan 40
2.2.7 IPR management 41
3 Implementation 42
3.1 Work plan (work packages, deliverables and milestones) 42
3.2 Management structure and procedures 59
3.2.1 List of Milestones 59
3.2.2 Organisational and decision making structure 59
3.2.3 Effective innovation management 61
3.2.4 Change management 61
3.2.5 Quality control 62
3.2.6 Critical risk management 63
3.3 Consortium as a whole 66
3.4 Resources to be committed 67
4 Reference list 69
Figures
Fig. 1: Vertical silo model issue that hinders technical innovation & investments in today’s IoT 4
Fig. 2: Overview of bIoTope objectives that ensure the maturity and growth of the bIoTope SoS ecosystem 6
Fig. 3: Semi-open ecosystem approach used in bIoTope SoS Platform for IoT 15
Fig. 4: bIoTope SoS Platform value chain according to the principle Everything-as-a-service (XaaS) 16
Fig. 5: Positioning of bIoTope from ‘Idea to Application’ and ‘Lab to Market’ 21
Fig. 6: bIoTope SoS Canvas business model 36
Fig. 7: Work Packages and their interdependencies 43
Fig. 8: GANTT chart for the bIoTope project 45
Fig. 9: Project management approach implemented in bIoTope 60
Fig. 10: bIoTope change management procedure 62
Tables
Table 1: bIoTope relevance to the call ICT-30-2015 13
Table 2: Skill matrix demonstrating the complementary of the bIoTope participants 16
Table 3: Innovation potential with regard to SMEs, considering existing products and services 28
Table 4: Contribution of bIoTope to the ICT-30 objectives (expected impacts) 30
Table 5: bIoTope standardization activities (notably contributions to existing standards) 35
Table 6:Key dissemination channels used and tailored to various stakeholder categories 37
Table 7: List of KPIs for auditing/monitoring the bIoTope dissemination activities 38
Table 8: Dissemination activities by each bIoTope partner and contribution to the identified impacts (i.e., expected and strategic impacts) 39
Table 9: Work Package list 44
Table 10: Deliverable list 44
Table 11: Milestone List 59
Table 12: Competence mapping 67
Table 13: Summary of staff effort 68
Excellence

The overall objective of bIoTope is to create Systems of Systems[footnoteRef:1] (SoS) where information from cross-domain platforms, devices and other information sources can be accessed when, and as needed using Standardised Open APIs. bIoTope Systems are smart in the sense that they learn from experience to make, or propose the most appropriate actions depending on the current user’s or object’s context/situation. Standardised Open APIs make it possible to compose new SoS from new or existing components and platforms, even without programming. This contributes to speed up the creation of new Internet of Things (IoT) applications and services in open innovation SoS ecosystems. [1:http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/system-systems]
Objectives
Issues and challenges
Over the past decade, a flourishing number of concepts and architectural shifts appeared such as the IoT, Big Data and Cloud Computing. These concepts lay the foundations of the ‘Web 3.0′ also known as the Semantic Web, and the ‘Web 4.0′ also known as the Meta Web. This evolution brings societal and economic opportunities for reducing costs for societies, increasing the service for the citizens in a number of areas, and fostering a sustainable economic growth. Although these convergent forces offer the potential to create new business models and system designs, they also pose architectural and structural issues that must be addressed for businesses to benefit. One of the most critical obstacles is the ‘vertical silos model’ that shapes today’s IoT, which is a serious impediment for co-creation of products and services in open innovation ecosystems. Indeed, vertical silos hamper developers to produce new added value across multiple platforms due to the lack of interoperability and openness as illustrated in Fig. 1 by the black/solid arrows, indicating that data is “siloed” in a unique system, cloud, domain, and stays there.
Fig. 1: Vertical silo model issue that hinders technical innovation & investments in today’s IoT
bIoTope aims to develop an open, interoperable, secure and highly context-sensitive Systems-of-Systems (SoS) platform for IoT that will enable developers to ‘publish’, ‘consume’ and ‘compose’ services without any programming. Today, IoT integrator companies estimate that support for every new service API requires a few hours to a few days of software development effort [1], not forgetting the maintenance of all those API implementations. This challenge will be taken up in the bIoTope project on all levels of the IoT landscape, which will enable new forms of collaboration and co-creation of IoT services ranging from simple data collection, processing, to context-driven, intelligent and self-adaptive support of consumers’ everyday work and life. The bIoTope SoS platform will not be realised as a single product, such as a unique middleware or operating system, but by a number of software components and platforms working in combination in an open and standardised way. These components can be supplied by different enterprises including commercial companies, non-profit organizations, open source projects, or governments. Furthermore, bIoTope develops key methodologies that can be used by integrators and SMEs to provide IoT turnkey solutions in a variety of application fields. This will promote strongly the growth of the bIoTope SoS ecosystem.

The overall aim for bIoTope is to lay the foundation, both technologically and business-wise, of open innovation ecosystems for the IoT and Platforms for Connected Smart Objects. To this end, bIoTope will develop a standard-based SoS platform around Open API standards that enables new forms of collaboration and co-creation of services across multiple domains.
Given the above introduction, bIoTope claims (like other recent EU reports [2]) that three major issues (detailed below) are actually facing today’s IoT, which are major impediments to the wide adoption of current IoT solutions and markets.
Vertical silos hamper organisations’ efforts to act globally
Ideally, the IoT should provide means to create ad hoc and loosely coupled information flows between any kinds of objects, devices, users and information systems in general, when and as needed. However, while new Smart and Connected Objects hit the market every day, they mostly feed ‘vertical silos’ (e.g., vertical apps, siloed apps…) that are closed to the rest of the IoT. While there may be occasions where silos are necessary (e.g., health-related data that must be protected for privacy reasons), silos that are primarily intended to thwart competition delay or prevent market growth by generating isolated and protected islands of information. As the call states:
“On the way towards ‘Platforms for Connected Smart Objects’ the biggest challenge will be to overcome the fragmentation of vertically-oriented closed systems and architectures and application areas towards open systems and integrated environments and platforms (…)”

The 1st bIoTope challenge is to address this issue by reusing or developing adapted interoperability standards for the IoT (official or de facto) to allow the horizontal operability between vertical silos.
People and organizations may be reluctant to step into the IoT arena
Despite the fact that the business decisions that have been taken by major ICT players (Google, Apple, and other major device manufacturers) have contributed to the global and rapid growth of “Cloud-based IoT”, they nonetheless foster a model that prevents end-users from having a full end-to-end control over their data and privacy. It is essential today to increase user acceptance and public confidence in the IoT by making solutions more open and intuitive, including more advanced privacy-friendly capabilities that allow users to i) choose to share or not to share information with peer systems, ii) deciding for which purpose personal information will be used, and iii) being informed whenever information is used and by whom.

The 2nd bIoTope challenge is to establish a clear framework for Security, Privacy and Trust that facilitates the responsible access, use, and ownership of data, even when data is stored in vertical applications/silos.
Lack of a ‘striving’ IoT ecosystem in Europe
Ecosystems comprise a wide range of interacting and cooperating actors such as users, solution providers, financial institutions, software developers. In the US, “ecosystems” are created around big, multinational players such as Apple or Google. EU’s strength is rather in smaller and agile companies but the challenge is to create a striving IoT ecosystem[footnoteRef:2] of complementary players that complement each other rather than competing about small domestic or EU markets. Despite EU efforts to bring into life IoT ecosystems through initiatives such as the IERC and FI-PPP clusters, it is a great challenge to turn those ecosystems into economically viable entities. Appropriate horizontal interoperability between vertical silos, applications and domains (e.g. health, energy, food, logistics…) becomes a necessity to make EU more competitive by enabling novel cross-domain and cross-platform ecosystems (as depicted in Fig.1 via green/dashed arrows).. [2:As quoted by Thibaut Kleiner (Head of DG Connect Unit, EC) in his interview: Meet IoT-A Newsletter#1 (12-22-2014)]

The 3rd bIoTope challenge is to develop pilots for providing proofs-of-concept of the commercial replicability of developed solutions. Ecosystems of European solution providers need to show their technical and commercial viability in Large-Scale Real-Life Pilot installations.
bIoTope objectives
The challenges introduced above have been formulated into objectives whose primary goal is to provide a solid foundation for open innovation ecosystems for smart connected objects. These objectives (O1 to O4) are depicted in Fig. 2, where the role of each objective is emphasised in the operation of the ecosystem, from its creation to its sustainability. The four objectives are detailed in the below Tables. A set of key performance indicators (KPIs) and the project results required to achieve them are associated to each objective so that the consortium will be able to verify/audit that progress is made in the key performance areas. Further KPIs will be developed at regular intervals of the project (regular deliverables: D8.2).
Fig. 2: Overview of bIoTope objectives that ensure the maturity and growth of the bIoTope SoS ecosystem

Objective 1 (denoted O1 in the rest of the document):
To Foster Innovation based on Concrete Citizen’s, Public and Private Institution’s Requirements

bIoTope aims to improve economic, ecological and societal sustainability by supporting innovation and co-creation of services in the IoT. This will be performed in WP2 by eliciting and analysing requirements and expectations from various categories of representative IoT ecosystem stakeholders. As shown in Fig. 2, these requirements will be used as input of Objective O2 in order to define and carry out strategic RTD (Research Technology Development) actions. bIoTope expects to achieve a requirement analysis on:
· 7 distinct categories of IoT stakeholders in light of the bIoTope consortium and large-scale pilots, including: i) city managers and ii) citizens (e.g., from the involved cities, regions, or still EUROCITIES[footnoteRef:3]), iii) IT SMEs and start-ups, iv) manufacturing firms form the pilots, v) platform providers vi) standardization bodies (TOG) vii) key ICT consulting firms and industries (e.g., via the Open Platform 3.0 advisory board); [3:EUROCITIES (http://www.eurocities.eu) as well as Open Platform 3.0 are official advisory boards (see support letter in §5 annex).]
· 80% of approval among bIoTope consortium members after merging and handling requirement conflicts, whether regarding Open Source Software (OSS) aspects, city pilot definitive choice…

Sub-objective O1.1:
Define large-scale pilots that ensure innovation/exploitation impact, and the growth and sustainability of the ecosystem

Relevant project result: 3 domain-specific city pilots (D6.1 to D6.3) + 3 cross-domain smart city pilots (D6.4 to D6.6).

The aim of this sub-objective (developed in task[footnoteRef:4] T2.A) is to define high-impact pilots in smart city environments, whose expected impact is twofold: [4:TX.i refers to Task i in the Work Package (WP) X.]
· Ensure innovation, dissemination and exploitation impact through the involved companies in “domain-specific city pilots” (e.g., using their customer networks). bIoTope is expected to achieve:
· 3 domain-specific pilots: i) Smart Mobility ii) Smart Building, and iii) Smart Air Quality;
· Provide realistic “cross-domain smart city pilots”, i.e. key proofs-of-concept of horizontal system interoperability across multiple application domains (e.g., energy, intelligent transport, environmental monitoring…), bIoTope is expected to achieve:
· 3 cross-domain smart city pilots in: i) Helsinki ii) Brussels-Capital Region, iii) Lyon Region;

Sub-objective O1.2:
Transform Ecosystem Stakeholder Requirements into Technical Specifications

Relevant project result: bIoTope SoS reference platform (D2.4) that will guide 3rd parties (e.g., developers external to the project) to re-use/adapt bIoTope components.

The aim of this sub-objective (T2.A to T2.C) is to derive from the requirement analysis carried out in O1.1 the technical specifications of the bIoTope SoS platofrm for IoT and Smart Connected Objects. These specifications will result in a set of structuring principles and interfaces across the different software components developed in the RTD WPs. bIoTope is expected to achieve a software repository that is:
· 100% compliant with OSS requirements, thus completely usable to develop OSS projects;
· >50% of components offered as OSS solutions;
· 70% IoT IM (Information model) and DM (Domain model) compliance (e.g., key IoT-A models);

Objective 2 (denoted O2): Build a Secure, Open & Standardised SoS Platform for IoT

bIoTope uses the “Everything-as-a-Service” (XaaS) paradigm, where 6 key XaaS topics, considered as essential for any SoS Platforms for Connected Smart Objects, will form sub-objectives of O2 (cf Fig. 2). Each XaaS will result in one or more standards-based software components – the whole forming the bIoTope XaaS Suite – that will enable platforms such as FI-WARE, OpenIoT, DIALOG, etc., to easily publish, discover and consume information and services in a unified, open and standardised way across each other. The set of XaaS software component development will be carried out in WP3, WP4 and WP5. bIoTope expects to achieve:
· 75% time-reduction in software development for API integrators and maintainers;
· 50% cost-reduction in software development for API integrators and maintainers.

Sub-objective O2.1:
Develop Information-as-a-Service (IaaS) and Billing-as-a-Service (BaaS)

Relevant project results: IaaS and BaaS components in the XaaS Suite, through which developers will be able to easily and reliably integrate their platform in the bIoTope SoS ecosystem (WP3).

bIoTope aims (in T3.A to T3.C) to integrate a standards-based framework, around Open API standards, for the publication of information provided and consumable by heterogeneous Smart Objects. This framework will benefit from recent IoT standards published by TOG (partner), namely the O-MI (Open-Messaging Interface) and O-DF (Open-Data Format) standards[footnoteRef:5]. Suitable billing mechanisms for IoT will be developed to support micro-transactions (e.g., to sell sensor data) for facilitating IoT market creation. bIoTope expects to achieve: [5:(O-DF) https://www2.opengroup.org/ogsys/catalog/C14A; (O-MI) https://www2.opengroup.org/ogsys/catalog/C14B]
· 2 IaaS components: i) Information source publication and consumption service (D3.1); ii) Identity creation, management and authentication service in IoT (D3.2);
· 1 BaaS component: Safe Micro-Billing Framework for IoT (D3.3).

Sub-objective O2.2: Develop Knowledge-as-a-Service (KaaS)

Relevant project result: KaaS components in the
bIoTope XaaS Suite through which end-users can create new knowledge and make money out of it (WP4).

Access to information from many sources makes it possible to create new Knowledge, in new ways. Knowledge sharing between distinct systems increases its usability and commercial value. bIoTope will take full advantage of semantic web, data analytics and machine learning tools to create value from data, turning it into information, further to knowledge, and ultimately into money using bIoTope BaaS software components. This objective will be achieved in tasks T4.B, T4.C and T4.D, and expects to achieve:
· >15 KaaS components in three respects, for: i) Edge data storage and filtering services (D4.2); ii) Knowledge representation (D4.3), iii) Knowledge extraction (D4.4) services.

Sub-objective O2.3: Develop Context-as-a-Service (CaaS)

Relevant project results: CaaS components in the
XaaS Suite, enabling more effective cognitive/self-adaptive systems (WP4).

Once knowledge is generated and ‘valued’, it can be applied towards more intelligent interactions, products and services. bIoTope will leverage (in T4.E) system cognition and self-adaptation capabilities by pushing forward current practices in Context-Awareness, and particularly by developing Context-as-a-Service (also called “Context Broker” by Gartner [3]) that opens up huge opportunities to better support context-aware business decisions, as well as consumers in their everyday work and life. bIoTope expects to achieve:
· >15 CaaS components for: i) Context-Broker toolkit; ii) Self-adaptive/Cognitive services (D4.5).

Sub-objective O2.4: Develop Security-as-a-Service (SaaS)

Relevant project results: Highly context-sensitive security and privacy services, including novel partial opt-out techniques (WP3)

bIoTope will develop (in T3.D) new systems that are “context-sensitive”, i.e. able to self-adapt protection and privacy policies based on one or more “Context dimensions” – delivered by CaaS components – related to a human being or physical object (e.g., location, situation, environment, role…). bIoTope expects to achieve:
· >90% (full) end-to-end data and privacy control solution for end-users;
· 2 SaaS components for: Context-sensitive security & privacy with novel opt-out techniques (D3.4).

Sub-objective O2.5:
User Interaction-as-a-Service (UIaaS)

Relevant project results: Highly context-sensitive user interactions, including a service composition toolkit to enable end-users to graphically combine cross-domain data sources, knowledge, contexts and other processing services (WP5).

The ‘ease-of-use’ is key to fostering acceptance of any technological innovation. To gain widespread credence, novel products or services must be intuitive so that users can use them without particular skills. bIoTope increases the acceptance of IoT-applications by designing (in T5.B, T5.C) context-sensitive end-user interactions including, among other things, city dashboards able to self-adapt to user’s and object’s situation, but also to street’s context such as traffic jams, accidents… (i.e., context-dimensions provided by CaaS). bIoTope expects to achieve:
· >15 UIaaS components: i) Service composition toolkit (D5.2), ii) 2D and 3D UI widgets library for city dashboards (D5.3), iii) Context-sensitive end-user dashboards (D5.4)

Objective 3 (denoted O3): Deploy, Test and Validate the bIoTope XaaS Suite in Large-Scale City Pilots (Proofs-of-Concept)

Objective O3 aims to deploy, test and validate the whole bIoTope XaaS Suite under real-life conditions. In other words, and as depicted in Fig. 2, the XaaS software components developed in WP3 (IaaS, BaaS, SaaS), WP4 (KaaS, CaaS) and WP5 (UIaaS) will be deployed and tested in WP6 (based on the large-scale pilot specifications defined in Objective O.1.1), while using Open Calls in WP7. Different combinations, usages, tests of those components will be carried out in each pilot. bIoTope expects to achieve:
· 30% increased length of battery operation of electric car on a daily basis – Smart Mobility pilot
· 20% increased electric car battery life time – Smart Mobility pilot
· 20% energy-reduction in smart building pilot – Smart Building
· 25% enhanced predicted failure rate regarding HVAC equipment – Smart Building pilot
· 50% enhanced early pollution detection – Smart Air Quality pilot
· 80% time reduction for creating new services based on available information sources coming from different application domains – Cross-Domain Smart City Pilots
· ≥50% acceptance of services by citizens (collecting user feedback with a specific UIaaS widget)

Sub-objective 3.1: Bring key local city actors in the involved cities to guarantee the pilot and SoS ecosystem growth & sustainability

Relevant project result: Concrete Proofs for city communities that local SMEs and start-ups have successfully entered into and benefit from the bIoTope SoS platform and associated ecosystem, thus acting as incentive schemes for other local SMEs/start-ups/municipalities.

bIoTope aims (in T7.A and T7.B) to organise open calls during the use case piloting in two respects: i) providing competences and technologies needed for the successful completion of the projects; ii) engaging local developer communities and expanding the scope and scale of the pilots. bIoTope expects to achieve:
· 1 documented approach to ecosystem orchestration to ensure the maturity and growth of bIoTope SoS ecosystems, create transformative capabilities for partners for the future, and enhance the sustainability of the collaboration and created services during, and after the project (D8.1);
· ≥6 new applications/services developed by the Open Call enhanced ecosystem. Distinct calls (1/city + 1 for the Smart Air Quality pilot) will be published at M17 and closed after evaluation and negotiation at M21 (see D7.2), with a budget of 750 000€ dedicated to the open calls. We expect to receive applications from more than 25 organisations.

Sub-objective 3.2: Evaluation and Validation of the Pilot Proofs-of-Concept

Relevant project result: 6 Proofs of concept Pilot evaluation reports generated in WP2.

Tasks T2.D will perform ex-ante and ex-post evaluation of the use case validations. Periodic evaluation will enable agile adjustment of the validation arrangements where needed, peer learning and knowledge transfer, as well as best practice sharing across the use cases. This will generate valuable input to improve the technical solutions and lessons learnt guiding the exploitation and wider adoption of the results.

Objective 4 (denoted O4): To Maintain, Grow and Sustain the Overall bIoTope SoS Ecosystem for IoT

Objective O4 aims to establish an end-to-end governance roadmap for ecosystem orchestration, which will ensure the quality and effectiveness of collaboration. A suitable engineering approach will be defined in WP8 and used to guide the RTD activities in the motto XaaS, as depicted in Fig. 2 (see O4). This approach will contribute significantly to i) creating and maintaining the professional approach to ecosystem orchestration (mentioned in O3.1); ii) arranging the experimentation cycles based on an action research oriented approach; iii) resolving key issues in establishing the ecosystem (identity, reputation, motivation, orchestration…); iv) handling impact-, community- and ecosystem-building activities. bIoTope expects to achieve:
· 2 cross-cutting dimension’s involvement in the research approach underlying the bIoTope ecosystem, namely SSH (Social Sciences and Humanities) and RRI (Responsible Research and Innovation) dimensions that are stressed in the LEIT ICT WP2014-15 of H2020[footnoteRef:6]; [6:https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/sites/digital-agenda/files/H2020 LEIT-ICT WP 2014-15 – 31 10 2013.pdf]
· >100 contributors (i.e., developers, SMEs, government) – at the end of the project – of the bIoTope Open Source project(s). We expect more than 1 000 contributors 3 years after the project completion;
· >200 000 end-users/citizens to benefit from bIoTope pilot proofs-of-concept.

Sub-objective O4.1:
Provide Techno-Economic Evaluation of bIoTope Pilots

Relevant project result: Methodologies and tools (D8.7) that any SME, industrial, or single end-user can use to perform techno-economic evaluation of his/her services when using bIoTope solutions.

This objective aims to evaluate (in T8.B) the project’s results from a technical, techno-economic, financial and end-user’s perspective. The evaluation will cover the viewpoints and business targets of all stakeholders. bIoTope expects to achieve:
· a TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) outweigh by at least 20% (although it is use case-dependent);
· 50% improved end-user acceptance of IoT solutions.

Sub-objective O4.2:
Foster Dissemination, Exploitation, Training and Standardization activities

Relevant project result: bIoTope solutions resulting in new or extended standards (D8.5); high impact on various audiences and communities (D8.4) and on the IoT market (D8.7).

This objective aims to define a dissemination plan, for bIoTope as a whole, but also for individual partners, so as to disseminate and communicate the project results as widely as possible. bIoTope expects to achieve:
· 9 dissemination/communication channels tailored to 6 target audiences (cf. §2 for more details[footnoteRef:7]) [7:Symbol “§” refers to “Section”, e.g. §2 indicates Section 2]
· 4 contributions to standardization work (further details are provided in §2);
· >20 external collaborations with national and EU ICT clusters such as FI-PPP, FIRE, IERC, The Open Platform 3.0 Forum, FOF… but also International collaborations with e.g. CSIRO and IMS;
· ≥7 participation to Workshops, including external workshops organised by the bIoTope consortium;
· ≥7 training events, including public, private or academic training sessions;
· >50 scientific articles, including: international conferences, journals, white papers, and e-newsletter);
· >500 linked to from other web sites (including tweets and other social networks such as Linkedin…).

Four key objectives (O1-O4) of bIoTope lay the foundation for socio-technically and business-wise sustainable SoS ecosystems for the IoT and Platforms for Connected Smart Objects in Europe.
[Type text] [Type text] [Type text]
34
bIoTope
H2020-ICT-30-2015
Relation to the work programme
Due to the large number of disciplines covered by the call ICT-30-2015, the call challenges have been categorised in three distinct categories in Table 1 (Technological, Societal, Economic), where text in ‘italics’ reports challenges as listed in the call. Table 1 describes how bIoTope contributes to each call challenge, (the last columns denoted by O1 to O4 highlight what specific bIoTope objective answer to the call challenge).

Call challenges

How bIoTope will contribute to the call challenges

O1

O2

O3

O4

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

Technological

(…) to support smart businesses, environments, services, persons, novel applications, with dynamic & adaptive configuration capabilities

O2.1 develops a generic and flexible Service Discovery Mechanism (IaaS) based on O-MI and O-DF standards, as well as BaaS mechanisms for Connected Smart Objects. In addition with the knowledge discovery and processing (KaaS) developed in O2.2, bIoTope enables (in O2.3) context- and self-management (CaaS) on the architectural level to take into account changes in the user’s and object’s environment and behaviour. CaaS, in turn, supports both O2.4 for Context-sensitive Security (SaaS) and O2.5 for Context-sensitive user interaction (UIaaS) with smart objects. On the one hand, the set of software components fulfilling each XaaS topic will then be tested and validated through real pilots in domain-specific sectors (O3). On the other hand, the validation in smart city environments will help identify the true horizontal integration use cases (O1). In this context, the whole activities of impact-, community- and ecosystem-building activities will be driven by the ecosystem orchestration approach designed in O4.

(…) Provisioning of information processing/ reasoning, covering self-organising systems and autonomous behaviour
(…) including characteristics such as cognitive capabilities & decision making

Given the Cognitive IoT (CIoT) framework of [4], bIoTope covers all aspects/layers of “Cognition”:
·
Sensing/Control Layer:with the Universal Service Discovery Mechanism developed in O2.1;
·
Data-Semantic-Knowledge Layer:
with the advances in data storage management, domain ontology definition and semantic model developments targeted in O2.2;
·
Decision-Making Layer:
with new frameworks developed in O2.3 for context fusion, reasoning, validation and prediction that will enable dynamic and adaptive configuration capabilities;
·
Service Evaluation layer:
with new service provisioning (Everything-as-a-Service – XaaS) and performance evaluation (QoS) services developed in O2.3.

(…) To embed effective and efficient security and privacy mechanisms into devices, architectures, service and network platforms

bIoTope develops (in O2.4) scalable and context-sensitive security models to allow users i) to be aware about the data they are sharing, who is using it and for which purposes, ii) to adapt their level of anonymity as they see fit. The bIoTope project puts particular emphasis to the development of SoS that are “context-sensitive” and can adapt security and privacy mechanisms according to the user’s role, preferences, location and intentions.

(…) including partial opt-out capabilities

bIoTope uses standardised and open APIs, which signifies that components can be used across multiple systems, including opt-out possibilities in the sense that system components may be replaced by other components when, if, and as needed. bIoTope will also provide end-users with the possibility to control their own data and privacy thanks to our novel partial opt-in/opt-out techniques. For example, if the level of ‘trust’ of a peer system decreases, the user will be informed and could take proactive actions such as deciding to “anonymise”, to a certain degree, personal data.

O1

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

O3

O4

(…) to overcome the fragmentation of vertically oriented closed systems, architectures and application areas and to move towards open and interoperable platforms that support multiple applications

The primary objective of bIoTope is to leverage interoperability across domains and the vertical silos that shape today’s IoT. In order to IoT-enable these silos, bIoTope will develop a Suite of XaaS software components that rely on Open API Standards such as O-MI/O-DF, which will ultimately boost the “move towards open and interoperable platforms” in the IoT. In addition, standardisation and governance activities are undertaken through O4 to make sure that bIoTope developments are built on top of existing open, interoperable and relevant industry standards.

(…) covering multiple technologies and heterogeneous integration levels

O-MI and O-DF standards define sufficiently generic IoT interfaces to cover a wide range of technologies and applications. O-DF will be extended in O2.2 so as to be more applicable to the specificities of real life use cases. Some examples of extensions include the naming of elements, the way of “meta-data”expression, enabling domain-specific extensions, as well as the integration of other standards and project outcomes, e.g. considering IoT-A model and vocabulary specifications.

(…) Efficient integration of the next generation of smart devices into self-adaptive, robust, safe, intuitive, affordable & interconnected smart service platforms

The bIoTope project is designed in such a way that the Suite of XaaS software components will cover all aspects/layers of a Cognitive IoT: from “Efficient integration” (IaaS) to “self-adaptive, intuitive and robust” service capabilities (KaaS, CaaS, context-sensitive SaaS and UIaaS). bIoTope also improves significantly “IoT affordability and accessibility” since the whole bIoTope SoS platform for IoT relies on open standards.

(…) Methods for flexible, reliable and interoperable APIs supporting the development of use cases and allowing application developers to produce new added value across multiple systems.

The bIoTope SoS platform is built on flexible, reliable and interoperable RESTful APIs, notably though the O-MI standard, which also supports the efficient integration of the next generation of smart devices. Furthermore, bIoTope is domain-agnostic and will provide proofs-of-concept from widely differents variety of application domains. What makes bIoTope components “domain-agnostic” is also the flexibility of O-DF – it plays the same role for the IoT as HTML does for the Web – that can be extended with more specific vocabularies, e.g. using Semantic Web and Ontology technologies.

(…) to promote seamless environments

In order to handle information during the whole life cycle of an Object item, bIoTope uses the concept of “IoT avatar”, which is an agent-based architecture where each Object item has a corresponding “virtual counterpart” (or agent) associated with it. The IoT avatar concept is well mastered by AALTO:CS and BIBA and will be used to ease the combination of various and distinctXaaS components, working together in a seamless and standards-based manner.

O1

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

O3

O4

(…) including Dynamic Spectrum Access and Network Management techniques to solve the connectivity challenges to enable tens of billions on new wireless connections

Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) has become a key issue in the heterogeneous wireless communication ecosystem. A growing interest in Cognitive Radio (CR) has been demonstrated by the EU as well as IEEE (e.g., with the IEEE 1900 standard series). Unlike conventional radios, a CR has the capability to sense their environment and proactively change its mode of operation as needed. bIoTope is not directly aimed at addressing DSA issues but will rather consider, whenever appropriate, the suite of IEEE 1900 standards. Conversely, the cognitive capabilities of bIoTope (developed in O2.1, O2.2, O2.3) could further be used to improve current CR systems.

Societal

(…) Smart homes, workplaces, public spaces, context aware commercial environments and smart cities are targeted, where potential use scenarios include e-health, energy, mobility, intelligent transport, logistics…

bIoTope consortium has been carefully created to take up real-life challenges (O1) in specific IoT sectors, while considering smart city environments to identify and deal with true horizontal integration use cases (e.g., across multiple domains and sectors). In this respect, a limited number of domain specific use cases, such as Smart Homes, is considered by bIoTope (see §1.3.5 for greater detail). The domain-specific use cases are linked to Smart City use cases (O3), or rather to a portfolio of potential use cases that will be adapted in the initial project phases, This will enable us to take into consideration new challenges, needs and technological advancements in the beginning of the project. This adaptation will be made through the Open Calls mechanism, supported by the associated open ecosystem orchestration approach developed in O4.

(…) applicability across multiple application domains

bIoTope places great emphasis on creating, maintaining and sustaining innovative SoS ecosystems for IoT and Platforms for Connected Smart Objects, by enabling novel combination of data sources and services across vertically oriented closed systems, silos and application areas (mainly achieved through the smart city pilots).

(…) including characteristics such as ergonomic, user-friendliness, intuitive and affordable

O2.5 is dedicated to the development of ergonomic IoT user interfaces for the targeted scenarios,including highly customizable UI elements, widgets, charts and pages. Starting from the requirements analysis and specifications of the UI design features (carried out in O1), O2.5 proceeds to develop UIaaS software components,dealing with self-configuration capabilities (e.g., to self-adapt the UI according to the user’s, object’s or city’s context). For this, O2.5 uses CaaS components.

(…) including characteristics such as cost and energy-efficiency

Several bIoTope Pilots, and particularly the Smart Air Quality and Smart Building scenarios address cost- and energy-efficiency both on the user and system–wide level (so called Green Information Systems or Green IS). However, bIoTope does not develop new hardware so that cost and energy-efficiency is not considered on the hardware level (so called Green ICT).

Economic

(…) to capture the benefits from developing consumer-oriented platforms

bIoTope uses a user-centric, downstream development approach, where focus is on the utility, usability and ease of access by consumers. The use cases in various application areas have been selected (O1, O3) originating from local and regional challenges with global relevance for the citizens, which will guarantee a future consumer demand for bIoTope systems, also considering end-user and developer communities (O4 focuses on community building, networking…).

O1

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

O3

O4

(…) Reference implementations including proof-of-concept, large-scale demonstrations and validation driven by innovative use scenarios

bIoTope demonstrates the potential of open IoT-based solutions to transform business logic (as well public service provisioning landscape) through representative real-life pilots, whose requirements are collected and analysed in O1 and pilot deployments achieved in O3. The selected scenarios represent state of the art applications of IoT technologies and thus provide reference implementation cases for the future pilots (see §1.3.5), as well asa proof-of-concept of their ‘replicability’ in distinct cities.

(…) architectures and methodologies that can be used by integrators and SME’s to provide IoT turnkey solutions in a variety of application fields

All bIoTope XaaS components will support interoperability standards such as O-MI and O-DF, which makes it possible to compose turnkey solutions in virtually any application field. The servive composition will be achieved without any programming thanks to developer tools for graphical service composition (O2.5). O4 specifies a multi-methodological framework for IoT ecosystem service design and co-creation, as well as for the adaptation and incentives to use (e.g., incentives schemes developed in the context of Open calls)

(…) provide a methodology for developer’s communities to test and validate in large-scale experiments low cost applications

bIoTope Smart City Pilots provide the necessary platforms for developer communities to test and validate technologies in large-scale pilots. The re-usability of bIoTope (and FI-WARE, OpenIoT, etc.) components for creating turnkey solutions make it possible to efficiently create low-cost applications.

(…)cooperation between the telecom, hardware, software and service industries, to create and master innovative Internet Ecosystems

bIoTope Pilots illustrate the interaction between products from telecom, hardware, software and service industries in operational Internet Ecosystems. Given that, all industries are not included as bIoTope partners, the Open Calls will contribute to the completion of the consortium in particular Pilots in order to establish a technologically and economically viable SoS Ecosystems for IoT.

Table 1: bIoTope relevance to the call ICT-30-2015
Concept and approach
Sections 1.3.1 to 1.3.5 present the 1) overall bIoTope approach; 2) concepts underpinning bIoTope; 3) links with national and international research and innovation and 4) target bIoTope pilots. The project is inherently trans-disciplinary since the bIoTope ecosystem brings together partners coming from different horizons and sectors – ICT players, industrials, academia, and societal players (e.g., cities, governments…) – whose complementarity has been carefully studied (see §3.3). Furthermore, bIoTope crosses the boundaries between vertically-oriented closed systems, architectures and application areas by enabling trans-disciplinary knowledge interoperability, implemented specifically in smart city pilots, as will be discussed in §1.3.5.
Overall approach and methodology
Recent experiences from ecosystem based cross-domain service creation have highlighted the utility of orchestration as a critical enabler of ecosystems. Even though self-organised, organically growing systems will still emerge, many of today’s innovation ecosystems are professionally orchestrated, rigorously measured and documented for future learning. In an orchestrated network, the orchestrator guides participants with different, complementary capabilities and multiple-incentives towards common goals in a dynamic process. The partners establish routines through dialogue and interaction, facilitated by the orchestrator. The selected orchestration model depends on numerous elements, the mutually agreed objectives, commitment and incentives of the parties, the maturity of the ecosystem, and so forth. Thus, the ecosystem becomes the unit of analysis rather than a single firm.
Most common forms of orchestration today take a semi-open approach to ecosystem operations. The ecosystem consists of a core consortium of companies, public agencies and customers who have established some sort of loose contractual agreement and joint vision for the development. The orchestrator maintains a capability map to identify required capabilities, and ensures availability to such resources. The collaborative arrangements involve organising regular meetings, mobilizing the community for events and activities.
In bIoTope, we take a professional approach to ecosystem orchestration, and establish an effective information and social architecture for the project. AALTO University, as the coordinator of the project, will assume the role of the orchestrator and will ensure that the consortium is equipped with the required tools and capabilities for co-creation. In terms of the ever-important social infrastructure, AALTO will establish trust through regular interactions and transparent management procedures. Specific emphasis is given for joint capacity development on the key enabling competences:
i) Generative capabilities
for identifying value creation opportunities; ii) Transformative capabilities
for translating the technology inputs into new services;
iii) Relationship capabilities
for fostering customer relationships, and
iv) Integrative capabilities
for forming new value constellations and co-specialization. Those capabilities will be driven and supported by a four-stage (semi-open) ecosystem approach, as illustrated in Fig. 3:
1.
Connect:
Combine people with right mind sets and different approaches to innovation, while ensuring a mix of seniority and skills;
2.
Set Boundaries & Engage:
Define clear expectations and establish ecosystem network goals for success, while taking into account time commitment and level of responsibility;
3.
Support & Govern:
Determine technology support for required members as well as key knowledge and information inputs;
4.
Manage & Track:
Establish performance management criteria to help assessing and adapting the established ecosystem network (e.g., decide how new members enter and exit the network).
Assuming the semi-open ecosystem approach, bIoTope will arrange Open Calls to increase impact and evidence base for the proof of concept validation. Open Calls target local developers, start-ups, city service providers, etc. (see Fig. 3), who are interested in implementing developed technologies in their own context, thus contributing to the project through their experiments and insights.

bIoTope takes a professional approach to ecosystem orchestration to ensure the maturity and growth of the bIoTope SoS ecosystem, create transformative capabilities for partners for the future, and enhance the sustainability of the collaboration and created services during, and after the project.

Fig. 3: Semi-open ecosystem approach used in bIoTope SoS Platform for IoT
Concept underpinning bIoTope
bIoTope is revolutionary insofar as it lays a solid foundation, both technologically and business-wise, to allow existing communities of developers and users to join an established open IoT ecosystem, and tie new strategic partnerships. In keeping with this visionary action, the core functionalities of the bIoTope SoS platform for IoT according to the principle Everything-as-a-Service (XaaS), is illustrated in Fig.4:
(a) We enable – in a standardised and open manner and without programming – the publication, consumption and composition of heterogeneous information sources and services from across various platforms for Connected Smart Objects (IaaS, BaaS), including FI-WARE, OpenIoT, city dashboards, bIoTope partner platforms, and so on. To this end, bIoTope will take full advantage of Open API standards, notably O-MI and O-DF [5]. O-MI provides a generic Open API for any RESTful IoT information system, even though O-MI can also be implemented on embedded devices. Other standards will be used as needed, such as CoAP for resource-constrained devices that do not implement HTTP or HTTPS. O-DF is a generic content description model for Objects in the IoT, which can be extended with more specific vocabularies (e.g., using or extend domain-specific ontology vocabularies). As such, O-DF is not intended to replace the existing thousands of existing data representation standards, which makes it currently the only standard that has been designed for and that is suitable for generic IoT data representation;
(b) We enable context modelling and inference analysis to support compatibility among distinct ontology models. To this end, the model of “User context and Business context ontologies” presented in [6] will be extended to each pilot relying on domain expert knowledge (KaaS). Furthermore, techniques for knowledge extraction from heterogeneous IoT information sources are developed at this stage, including validation, consolidation, and reasoning; along with mechanisms for searching and querying such knowledge across multiple application domains;
(c) We develop, validate and deploy software components that are able to discover, predict, validate and supply relevant ‘Context(s)’ to applications and/or entities requesting it (CaaS). Such components offer cost-efficient adaptation and optimisation services at run-time through adaptation services, metric computation, environment monitoring and adaptive learning. This will enable applications to focus on their functionality, greatly reducing application development cost and time. For adaptations, the concept of ‘Act-Ahead-Adaptation’ will enable applications to proactively adapt both themselves and their environment to future, predicted contexts by scheduling future adaptation activities before they actually occur;
(d) Relevant and accurate ‘context’ delivered by stage (c) will enable context-aware applications that react to context changes faster and more intuitively than existing systems, which will enable crucial challenges of both:
(d1) Security- and Privacy-awareness in IoT (SaaS) using predicted contexts and adapting privacy and security constraints to it;
(d2) User Interaction-awareness in IoT (UIaaS) using predicted contexts and adapting layout, contents and other properties of the end-user dashboard to the current context;
(e) We selected four domain-specific applications as well as three cross-domain city pilots(presented in the next section) to demonstrate the effectiveness of our bIoTope SoS platform for IoT. We also develop a methodology of applying our techniques, XaaS software components and middleware to any application domain.
The semi-open ecosystem orchestration developed and applied in bIoTope will finally ensure quality and effectiveness for joint capability of collaboration, including collaborative processes for co-creation.
Fig. 4: bIoTope SoS Platform value chain according to the principle Everything-as-a-service (XaaS)

bIoTope develops an open-, standardised-, bIoTope SoS platform, or ‘value chain” considering the interdependencies between the different XaaS topics generated in the platform.

Stages
From
Fig. 4

AALTO:CS

EPFL

Uni.lu

Fraunhofer

BIBA

CSIRO

BMW

eccenca

OpenDataSoft

Cityzen Data

Holonix

itrust

Enervent

CT

FVH

Greater Lyon

IIRISNET

CIRB

Brussels Mob.

(a)

X

X

X

X

(b)

X

X

X

X

(c)

X

X

X

X

(d1)

X

X

X

X

(d2)

X

X

X

X

X

(e)

UC1

UC3

UC1

UC1

SC

UC2

UC2

SC

SC

SC

SC

SC
Table 2: Skill matrix demonstrating the complementary of the bIoTope participants
The skill matrix given in Table 2 shows how the bIoTope consortium has been assembled, aiming at having the required knowledge and expertise to chieve the bIoTope SoS value chain/platform. This matrix illustrates the competence equilibrium, having 4 to 5 partners for each XaaS topic (from a to d2), while including key industrial partners (SMEs, cities…) to ensure quality of exploitation and dissemination in the IoT market based on bIoTope pilots. Further details about the complementarity of the consortium are given in §3.3
Application scenarios and proof-of-concept
The reason for having two categories of pilots (domain-specific and cross-domain) is twofold:
a) Domain-specific pilots will ensure innovation, dissemination and exploitation impact through the involved companies (e.g., using well-established customer and supplier networks…);
b) Cross-domain smart city pilots will provide concrete proofs-of-concept of horizontal interoperability scenarios.
a) Domain-specific city pilots:
Smart Mobility Services (Proof-of-Concept)
Involved partners: MobiVoc partners (BMW, eccenca, Fraunhofer, BIBA), AALTO:CS, EPFL
The Smart Electric Car Proof-of-Concept is designed to make the use of electric cars more convenient based on advanced Cloud and IoT adoption and collaborative innovation. The Smart Electric Car Proof-of-Concept will be piloted by BMW, supported by eccenca, in one or more of the three involved cities. Three demonstrator validation scenarios will potentially be developed in bIoTope:
·
Charging Station Selection Service
: BMW wants to support its customers by searching for charging stations when driving with their electric car. It is not that easy to find available stations in the city that fits to drivers’ needs and contexts. Various context dimensions must be considered and inferred when choosing a station such as the driver’s location, destination, charging station fees, payment options, charging speed, weather, etc. In this case, such information is often spread over distinct systems. BMW expects, from bIoTope SoS platform, to be able to get access to such disparate data sources in a standardised, unified and open manner so that the car’s software and navigation system can self-react and offer relevant alternatives to its customers (e.g., if the driver is in a hurry, a station closer to the destination or that charges the car faster will be selected, even if it is more expensive);
·
Route Planning Service
: Getting access to public data sources about routes, traffic, weather forecast, etc., will offer opportunities to improve the Route Planning Service developed by BMW. For example, based on data recorded by regional administrations, the traffic density could be predicted. If congestions are predicted, the departure time could be scheduled earlier. Furthermore, the driver could be provided with real-time traffic conditions and notifications if changes occur (e.g., the driver can be woken up a few minutes earlier with his mobile to be at work in time);
·
Electric Car Gearing Service
: BMW aims to develop an Electric Car Gearing Service (ECGS) that aims to optimise the use of the available capacity. It will prepare the electric car according to the driver’s needs for the next trip. When using the car for business or personal trips, ECGS could potentially get such information from the driver’s smartphone calendar, however, drivers do not necessary add every trip in their calendar. However, Smart Homes (and equipment) tend to have calendars for present/away states, or the home may deduce such information based on sensor data and actions before leaving home (closing the windows, switching off most of the electrical machine…). This information can be used by the ECGS. Even if the service just knows a few minutes before the car will be used, it is just enough time to heat up the car during winter times by using the electricity provided by the charging station instead of using the energy of the battery, thereby significantly increasing the range of the electric car. By learning about driver habits (e.g. when the car is usually used) and by inferring it with tangible information (e.g. calendar), the ECGS can also schedule the charging process so as to save money by charging during time slots where electricity is ‘cheap’.
Smart Building and Equipment Services (Proof-of-Concept)
Involved partners: Enervent, CT, AALTO
Home automation solutions still tend to be far too expensive for the average citizen, and often are closed, manufacturer-specific and limited to “classical” building automation, i.e. simply rigid control of lights, heating, alarms, etc. In practice, individual devices may be “intelligent” but lack interoperability. As a result, energy is often wasted in building systems (e.g., air-conditioning is cooling, while the heating system is warming the house) because each system is separately controlled. Information dispersed in multiple systems prevents an aggregated view. Two demonstrator validation scenarios will be developed in bIoTope:
· Self-managing buildings and equipment: This proof-of-concept will show that the bIoTope SoS platform can provide buildings and different systems in them with self-management, self-configuration and self-healing properties, giving integrated and adaptive control of HVAC systems for optimal climate, energy efficiency and security based on measured parameters, at the same time learning inhabitant behaviour. Enervent Air Handling Units are the main targeted HVAC system, though integration will also be performed with other systems. Information collected from a significant number of target houses will be analysed for key indicators, e.g. need for maintenance, badly adjusted air flows, conflicts between different systems, etc. This information will also be used for improving the design, manufacturing and maintenance of the units. The work required involves extensive data collection and analysis, design of new control hardware and software with self-management properties, as well as new or upgraded context-sensitive user interfaces.
Smart Air Quality (Proof-of-Concept)
Involved partners: CSIRO and Extended Partners (using Open Call budget)
Air pollution is a significant threat in urban environments since it is known to cause respiratory problems as well as various lung diseases. Therefore, continuous air quality monitoring, visualisation, dissemination to customers is very important, especially in (Smart) Australian state capitals. For example, in Melbourne, the EPA[footnoteRef:8] has a network of air quality monitoring stations where each station covers a few suburbs and the network consists of 11 stations for the whole city of 4 million people. Since the air contamination is usually location-dependent (e.g., transport junctions and industrial areas increase air pollution), the air quality should be monitored in city areas at finer granularity, both in space and time. This is currently not feasible by static measurement stations, but can be achieved by involving citizens in the air quality monitoring process (crowd-sensing or crowd-sourcing) so that they carry wearable sensors measuring various air pollutant gases while moving through the city. The demonstrator target for Smart Air Quality is the following: [8:http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/our-work/monitoring-the-environment/air-quality-bulletins/hourly-air-quality-interactive-map]
· The bIoTope SoS platform will be used for crowd-sensing purposes in Melbourne using the current city infrastructure. Indeed, authorities have just equipped public bikes with high accuracy air quality sensors that can also be powered by pedalling bike riders. Citizens riding public bikes crowd-source air quality measurements will ensure fine granularity and good accuracy air quality maps of the city, which in return will provide a free air quality visualisation service through an ‘app’ that can be installed on iPhones and Android smartphones. For commercial customers, the city authorities will offer air quality subscriptions and alerts for a fee. Enterprises are interested in early detection of pollution levels to avoid breaking city regulations and paying fines for polluting the air.
This city pilot will be managed by CSIRO, where one Open Call is intended to be used to support it. The general rule states that an organization external to EU is not eligible to H2020 funding EXCEPT IF (according to several feedback from H2020 contact centres) its participation is considered as essential (e.g., if there is a need to conduct experiments related to local contexts). Nonetheless, even if this pilot could not be achieved in Melbourne, this would not compromise the project for two reasons: i) we have enough pilots (in addition to that one) to validate the bIoTope XaaS solutions; ii) the open call money we planned to use for supporting this pilot will be re-directed/re-used for defining another pilot (or even this scenario) in another of the involved cities Nonetheless, the bIoTope consortium views this pilot as a golden opportunity to ensure maximum impact of the bIoTope results all around the globe. This is all the more true since the OpenIoT cloud middleware (resulting from a previous EU FP7 project, whose CSIRO was a key contributor) will be re-used and complemented with the bIoTope XaaS Suite in Melbourne, thus ensuring the growth of the bIoTope ecosystem (by enabling the federation of the OpenIoT community).
b) Cross-domain pilots
Three different cities have been selected for implementing cross-domain pilots. Having several pilot cities makes it possible to compare and evaluate differences in requirements and capabilities of the different cities, as well as potential challenges due to legislation or similar differences. Another major reason is that Smart City pilots are expected to provide high-visibility proofs-of-concept for the bIoTope ecosystem, thereby boosting impact, dissemination and exploitation by the ecosystem, as well as companies individually.
Brussels-Capital Region Pilots (Proof-of-Concept)
Involved partners: CIRB, IRISNET, Brussels Mobility, ISP and Extended Partners (using Open Call budget)
Scenario 1: Safe Mobility – Safer Home-School Journeys for Children Travelling in the City
Brussels has a city wide free WiFi network (in development) with access points at bus-stops, metro stations, public places (schools, stations, libraries…). Connecting information makes it possible to map most frequented routes and trigger security actions via other sensors (e.g., intelligent traffic lights, intelligent lightening during wintertime…), thus enabling safer trace home-school route by use of smartphones and City Free WiFi. Possible privacy issues will receive special attention in this case (cf. §2.1.5 or 5.1 for more details). Examples of existing sensor networks that need to be integrated/involved in this scenario are:

· Brussels WiFi network
· Traffic lights network

· Security camera networks
· Public transport information

· Traffic density loops
· Intelligent city lightening
Scenario 2: Smart Mobility for Emergency Services
Some utility vehicles (e.g., garbage trucks, extra-long public busses) can cause traffic problems at certain moments in time, which is very inconvenient for emergency service vehicles (ambulance, police…). All these utility vehicles have positioning on board intelligent GPS systems that will benefit from bIoTope solutions to integrate new information sources and services to avoid or predict “road blockages”. Road blockages for emergency vehicles could also be “road and street works”: those works are in most cases “planned and annotated” and known by public services (police, fire brigade…), but it is still challenging to know the exact moment a road is not accessible anymore and/or closed/open in one or both directions. These connected information systems can also be useful for mass events (e.g., demonstrations) or serious accidents in tunnels. Examples of existing sensor networks that need to be integrated in this scenario are:

· Existing vehicle tracking devices;

· Data streams from distinct camera systems (police, traffic…);
Scenario 3: Smart Parking Guidance
Mash-up of diverse sensor networks used for intelligent parking guidance based on availability of parking places, occurrence of road congestions or traffic accidents or planned events in the city. Examples of existing sensor networks that need to be integrated/involved in this scenario are:

· Parking sensors

· Intelligent cameras (specially in tunnels)
Helsinki City Pilots (Proof-of-Concept)
Involved partners: FVH, AALTO, CT
Scenario 1: Smart Metering and Energy Efficiency
Smart metering systems are already running in few new homes and will be deployed to all the estates to be built in Kalasatama area. Residents can follow energy consumption of all their electric appliances in almost real time and can also remotely control appliances (e.g., via apps). FVH expects, from the bIoTope SoS platform, advanced services for managing all building lifecycle information, e.g. service records, indoor climate measurements, energy consumption, temperatures (and other) certificate compliance checks enabling assessment of the energy efficiency on apartment, house or building levels. Inhabitants will be alerted about abnormal conditions such as unexpected humidity, electrical equipment not turned off, and energy consumption could be compared with similar neighbourhood houses, or analysis of the house’s own historic consumption. The Smart Building and Equipment services developed with CT and Enervent will contribute to this scenario (through CT). Examples of existing sensor networks involved in this scenario are:

· Smart home appliances (e.g. HVAC, user phone, electric car…)
· Appliance service provider or manufacturer systems

· Online weather forecasts
· Helsinki “Data.Gov”
Scenario 2: Shared Electric Vehicles
Residents can book, locate and access available electric cars via their mobile app. They can charge the vehicles in dozens of electric chargers in Kalasatama, and the automatic billing will be based on the usage time. FVH expects from bIoTope SoS platform new possibilities to enhance the Shared Electric Vehicle infrastructure in Kalasatama (Helsinki in general) by allowing context dimension consideration and inference (e.g., using the set of services developed in BMW pilots about charging station selection, electric car gearing or still route planning). Examples of existing sensor networks involved in this scenario are:

· Electric car systems as well as manufacturer information systems
· Helsinki public transport information and WiFi network

· User’s devices (phones…)
· Security camera networks
Scenario 3: Smart Parking
Cars use a radio signal system to find the available free parking slots. The scenario’s goal is similar and linked to the Brussels’ scenario (Smart Parking guidance), i.e. need to consider traffic events as congestion, accidents, etc., for indicating most relevant free parking slots to users. To this end, FVH sees the bIoTope project as a gold opportunity to achieve ‘horizontal’ alignment/integration (through standardised Open APIs) of disparate parking information systems provided by distinct service providers (public or private), such as:

· Helsinki public transport and parking information systems
· Electric cars and manufacturer information systems

· Helsinki WiFi network
· Security camera networks
Greater Lyon pilots (Proof-of-Concept)
Involved partners: Greater Lyon
Scenario 1: Bottle Bank Management
More than 2200 bottle banks are located on the 59 towns forming the Greater Lyon. Sensors will measure the filling rate of each bottle bank. The data collected through the sensors will be analysed in order to trigger the bottle bank emptying when needed.Greater Lyon will take advantage of the bIoTope SoS platform to optimise truck routes (including predictive itineraries) according to bank-filling rates and other relevant information sources such as road congestions, weather forecasts, citizen complaints about truck noise, special events in the town (including predictive capabilities). Benefits will be: i) costs reductions linked to the optimisation of the truck circuits, ii) less pollution, iii) noise reduction for inhabitants; iv) notifications pushed to citizens about bottle bank availabilities (e.g., full or not), etc. Examples of systems involved are:

· Truck navigation systems
· Lyon public transport information

· Lyon Wifi network;
· City website (e.g., to collect citizen complaints)
Scenario 2: Street Lightening Optimisation
Lyon is a pioneer city in the field of city lights, e.g. with “Plan Lumière” and “Fête des Lumières”, where a variety of different artists light up buildings, streets, parks… The smart equipment and sensor networks provide possibilities to develop to control intensity variations (e.g., depending upon the street frequentation, and many other context dimensions). Also, bIoTope will make it possible to integrate all these context dimensions, spread over multiple systems, thus enabling the development of innovative and enhanced energy services (e.g., prediction-based weather forecasts), enhanced citizen security (e.g., by adjusting the quality and safety of the parking lot), and so forth. Examples of existing systems involved in this scenario are:

· Energy management & Smart grid systems
· Lyon public transport information

· Lyon Wifi network;
· Weather forecast systems
Scenario 3: Hyperlocal Weather Data for Snow Cleaning
A sensor network has already been deployed under the street pavement in the Lyon region to collect high precision temperature and humidity previsions, with the national weather forecast agency. This infrastructure aims to be extended through the bIoTope project in order to trigger the snow cleaning operations at the right time for cost reduction, environmental impact, and enhanced security (in streets) purposes. This infrastructure could also be mutualised with other sensors as engineering structure deformation sensors, or sensors dedicated to the evaluation of the state of roads. For example, humidity and temperature information could be used during summertime to be aware of urban heat islands, which would enable Greater Lyon to gain experience when designing new urban projects, or still to carry out preventive actions and alerts toward citizens, green spaces management, and so on. Examples of existing systems involved in this scenario are:

· Truck route management system
· Online weather forecast information

· Citizen information apps or digital services
· Lyon public transport information
Finally, Greater Lyon also aims to improve “Smart Parking Guidance” in the Lyon Region and, in this respect, targets a fourth scenario whose goal is similar to scenario 3 of Brussels-Capital Region and FVH. Note that Greater Lyon is already using the DATEX II standard in the smart mobility sector, as BMW, which could facilitate bIoTope pilot deployment using e.g. BMW solutions for smart electric car, or other services.
The necessary mobile ‘apps’ development in each city, as well as the integration of key private city platforms can be subject of the programmed Open Calls and can attract local technology companies. FVH has an extensive know-how of such an Open Call process, while Innoviris[footnoteRef:9] and Tubā[footnoteRef:10] can help promoting these calls towards companies in the Brussels-Capital Region and Greater Lyon Region respectively. [9:http://www.innoviris.be/en?set_language=en][10:http://www.tuba-lyon.com]
Positioning of the project
The real life pilots, sometimes referred to as “Living Lab pilots, are positioned between basic research and commercial launch of the products and solutions, as shown in Fig. 5. The pilots represent the last stages of innovation process with focus on proofs-of-concept, actor networks, processes, and sustainability concerns. In these experimentation environments, technology is given shape in real life contexts and in which (end-) users are considered ‘co-producers’. bIoTope’s pilot ecosystem constitutes an experiential environment that integrates both user-centred research and open innovation that is based on 4 main activities:
· Co-creation: it brings together technology push and application pull into a diversity of views, constraints and knowledge sharing that sustains the ideation of new scenarios and concepts;
· Exploration: it engages all stakeholders, especially user communities, at the earlier stage of the co-creation process for discovering emerging scenarios, usages and behaviours through live scenarios;
· Experimentation: it implements the proper level of technological artefacts to experience live scenarios with a large number of users, while collecting data that will be analysed in their context;
· Evaluation: it assesses new ideas and innovative concepts in real life situations through dimensions such as socio-ergonomic, socio-cognitive and socio-economic aspects.
Fig. 5: Positioning of bIoTope from ‘Idea to Application’ and ‘Lab to Market’

The project is explorative by nature, and thus the exact pilot requirements cannot be fully defined at this stage. Open calls will be defined based on local needs as requirements evolve.
Related international and national activities
Several EU projects as well as International and National initiatives have been focusing on the research topics that are addressed by bIoTope, i.e. building open, interoperable and service-oriented SoS platforms. A representative set of such projects are summarised and compared to bIoTope in the following table, which details projects in different categories/topics (IERC, FI-PPP, national…), outlines their relevance to bIoTope as well as how the project outcomes feed the bIoTope Objectives (O1-O4).

Projects

Project Goals (in Brief)

Project Outcomes re-used/considered in bIoTope
+ bIoTope main Difference and/or Innovation

bIoTope objectives benefiting from outcomes

O1

O2

O3

O4

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

IERC

IoT-A
(FP7)
2010-2013

Internet of Things Architecture:
http://www.iot-a.eu/
IoT-A provides an architectural reference model for the interoperability of IoT systems.

bIoTope will liaise with IoT-A so as to ensure that it is developed in-line with the IoT-A baseline infrastructure. This baseline will be mainly taken into account in the requirements process (O1) and regarding the technological layer, i.e. all XaaS solutions developed in O2 (e.g., IoT-A look up and discovery services will feed O2.1, etc.)

OpenIoT
(FP7)
2011-2014

Open Source blueprint for large scale self-organizing cloud environments for IoT applications:
http://www.openiot.eu
OpenIoT is an Open source middleware enabling the dynamic formation of self-managing cloud environments.

bIoTope will not produce a single middleware, as OpenIoT, it will rather provide means of interoperability for federating existing platforms (i.e., creating Systems of Systmes). This will enable collaboration between the bIoTope and OpenIoT communities since they will be able to share information and services with each other, thus contributing to grow the bIoTope SoS ecosystem (feed O4). The Smart Air Quality pilot will show the feasibility of such a collaboration.

BUTLER
(FP7)
2011-2014

uBiquitous, secUre internet-of-things with Location and context-awaReness:
http://www.iot-butler.eu/
Enabling the development of secure and smart life assistant applications thanks to a context and location aware system.

BUTLER adopted IoT-A’s work on naming, addressing and discovery. It opted for geo-location service discovery in the IoT, thus contributing to leverage context-awareness. Uni.lu was a key member in this project and largely contributed to Authentication, Confidentiality, Access Control and Privacy. BUTLER outcomes will be re-used, as appropriate, as inputs for SaaS (O2.4), IaaS (O2.1) and CaaS (O2.3).

FI-PPP

FI-WARE
(FP7)

Future Internet Core Platform:
http://www.iot-i.eu/
FI-WARE introduces innovative infrastructures for cost-effective creation and service delivery in Smart cities.

FI-WARE provides generic enablers (set of APIs that ease development of smart applications). AALTO:CKIR has an extensive network in FI-WARE since it has coordinated CONCORD (see next row), which will be solicited, if appropriate, to engage groups of SMEs/developers for adapting bIoTope XaaS software components to be used over FI-WARE.

CONCORD
(FP7)

http://www.fi-ppp.eu/projects/concord/Facilitates development of collaboration model and legal agreement between all the 150+ FI-PPP companies.

The orchestration model developed by CKIR will be reused in O4, which includes developing shared vision, joint contributions to policy development, standardization and business model scenarios, as well as community building with major international and European initiatives.

FITMAN
(FP7)
2014-2015

Future Internet technologies for manufacturing:
http://www.fi-ppp.eu/projects/fitman/
FITMAN facilitates adoption of FI-PPP technologies by EU industries and SMEs

A first data wrapper (referred to as API mediator in this document) based upon the O-MI/O-DF standards have been developed by BIBA and Holonix in Digital Factory applications. This API mediator will be enhanced in O2.1 and used to provide innovative services in smart city environments with new stakeholders (manufacturers, recyclers…) Furthermore, The iLike platform of Holonix has been used to offer customised visualisation of such information, and will be reused and extended in bIoTope, notably the ‘Virtual Obeya’ dashboard in O2.5.

Linked
Design
(FP7)
2012-2015

Linked Knowledge in Manufacturing, Engineering and Design
http://www.linkeddesign.euLinkedDesign enables user-centric lifecycle information management.

The LinkedDesign project again involved the core team of bIoTope (AALTO:CS, EPFL, BIBA, Holonix), where O-MI and O-DF standards (used in O2.1) have been already implemented in various industrial use cases. Upper Ontologies will be used for KaaS basic elements (O2.2), and the end-user dashboard Virtual Obeya as input of O2.5.

FALCON
(H2020)
2015-2017

FALCON support the use of information for the lifecycle of (also intelligent and connected) products, for the improvement of product solutions

The FALCON project involves several core members of bIoTope, namely BIBA, EPFL and Holonix. It is foreseen to use open standards such as O-MI and O-DF (O2.1) to gather data from devices and re-use this data for product service design. The developments will be tested in real-life pilot scenarios.

EIT ICT Labs

EIT ICT Labs:
http://www.eitictlabs.eu
AALTO is a member in the Future Internet and hosting a node of EIT ICT Labs.

AALTO is hosting a node of EIT ICT Labs. A FI-WARE installation and test bed will be created this year in Helsinki, which will be re-used for pilot testing and prototyping. AALTO:CKIR actively collaborates with Marko Turpeinen who is the Director of the EIT ICT Labs Helsinki Node.

The TOG Open Platform 3.0

The TOG Open Platform 3.0™ Forum:
http://www.opengroup.org/subjectareas/platform3.0
Specify application platforms that enable enterprises to gain business benefit from new technologies

The IoT Work Group of The Open Group (TOG) has developed the O-MI and O-DF standards. The IoT Work Group is associated with the Open Platform 3.0 Forum. Four key persons from the Open Platform 3.0 Forum participate in the bIoTope Advisory Board (no conflict of interest in bIoTope because they represent their own organizations such as HP..

Ambition
In the following, we review how bIoTope extends the state of the art according to the principle “Everything-as-a-Service”, and particularly in light of the target topics (IaaS, BaaS, SaaS, KaaS, CaaS, UIaaS), as well as in Ecosystem-based Business Models.
Progress beyond state-of-the-art in IaaS (O2.1)
Information-as-a-Service (IaaS): The goal of service publication and discovery is to provide mechanisms for discovering services, for instance when a user or an object arrives to a new location or into new contexts. When services are provided in some localised context (e.g., arriving to a bus stop), then how do such services publish themselves and how can the users find them? Service consumers need to be able to discover, select and bind to services based on a wide spectrum of context-related parameters that are not generally relevant in traditional service-oriented architectures. The physical location of entities providing services, time, and other context parameters may need to be taken into account. Once services have discovered each other, they need to be able to interoperate. The O-MI and O-DF standards published by the IoT Work Group of TOG specify the basic mechanisms for performing all these functions and thereby provide the minimal interoperability level for all bIoTope components, platforms and systems. The level of interoperability should be sufficient so that different systems can interoperate, and particularly it should be possible to compose new services from standards-compliant building blocks without programming.
However, O-DF specifies a generic model for IoT data. That model can be extended with more domain-specific vocabularies. So-called meta-data about the information sources (what kind of products, what kind of sensor, what units are used…) also needs to be described by taxonomies or (usually) domain-specific ontologies, which may often be standards within that domain. The AC2 report [7] also reveals a tendency towards the adoption of semantic web technologies (e.g., RDF, SPARQL…) for describing information and performing queries on it, which is also included in the plan for future work of the TOG’s IoT Work Group and several bIoTope partners [8].

bIoTope provides domain-independent interoperability that allows horizontal publication, discovery and consumption of IoT Objects and services using standardised, scalable and secure mechanisms.
Billing-as-a-Service (BaaS):
In the IoT not only humans need to buy and pay for services, Objects may also consume and sell services, potentially on the behalf of their owners. Billing mechanisms do exist for Web 2.0 applications (e.g., mashups of different kinds) but such services are hosted on servers with virtually unlimited processing power and network connectivity. The future of the Block Chain technologies (as in Bitcoin) and the use of the IoT in financial markets are among the challenges set out by banks (see e.g. Startupbootcamp hackathon[footnoteRef:11]). When an Object needs to buy a service (possibly from another Object), such mechanisms need to be adapted to the IoT needs, including new micro-transaction models. The main challenge is to adapt or develop appropriate micro-transaction services for IoT distribution platforms [9]. Current cloud services in industry usually use unconditional trust models for billing, while current work in academia focuses on the third-party trust model (see e.g. ALIBI, THEMIS…) [10]. bIoTope will adapt or (develop) an appropriate micro-transaction model – referred to as “bIoTCoin” – whose advantages over existing billing systems are: [11:http://www.finextra.com/news/fullstory.aspx?newsitemid=26930&topic=innovation]
· bIoTCoin introduces a new P2P trust model with regard to mutually verifiable billing in the IoT;
· We make novel use of the Bitcoin-like mechanisms to deal with scalability issues (verification of the transactions becomes an important issue when the number of tenants grows);
Suitable subscription and billing-based pay-as-you-go models will be developed, implemented and validated in real scenarios in order to enable viable market creation and support in the IoT.

bIoTope will provide micro-transaction mechanisms for IoT billing services based on recent developments in Block Chain technologies and networks such as Bitcoin.
Progress beyond state-of-the-art in Knowledge-as-a-Service (O2.2) – KaaS
Enterprise applications collect and store various kinds of data about users, products, processes, and much more. If properly interpreted and analysed, this data could become a firm’s most valuable asset. However, this is not an easy task for two reasons: first, data management systems have pushed the limits of complex data analytics to its extreme also known as “Big Data”; Second, context data is subject to constant changes and can be highly heterogeneous, thus requiring the use of more advanced Data analysis and Knowledge representation technologies.
Big Data is born from the fact that data processing will become the bottleneck of computer science in next decades due to the complexity to process all raw data coming from billions to zillions of sensors and other information sources. Research has been focusing on this challenge since the 90’s, where two trends emerged [11]: i) approaches that enhance traditional databases relying on some degrees of pre-computation (e.g., OLAP); and ii) approaches that focus on storage capability (e.g., NoSQL databases) whose main families are key-value stores (e.g. Facebook RocksDB), object oriented databases (e.g., MongoDB), or graph databases (e.g., Google Cayley). These approaches reply to the need to store massively data and offer different levels of horizontal scalability, however, studies still conclude that it will not be solved based on a unique solution.
The next generation of Big Data architecture will most likely be a smart hybrid assembly of several approaches. Following this trend, the bIoTope project is ideally positioned by introducing a tailored broker between existing approaches that will strongly simplify the connection of analytics, context extraction, IoT collectors and massive storage solutions, thus enabling the emergence of new concepts as ‘Big Data runtime’ [12].

bIoTope will build Big Data runtime solutions combining traditional pre-computation approaches with techniques that support context extraction, IoT collectors and massive storage solutions.
Considerable research is being made into developing ontologies specifically designed for context descriptions. This is usually done by extending existing basic ontology languages, including e.g. CONOM, CoDAMoS and SOUPA [13]. Even though many approaches have already been proposed to better support context modelling, most approaches are applied to pervasive and ubiquitous computing environments, and are meant to capture only the low level physical context.
In this project, we will develop an extensible and evolving context modelling methodology that will be based on bIoTope ontology and semantic concepts. Our starting point will be the ontology model of User context and Business context ontologies presented in [6]. In the context of this project, the basic ontology will be extended and adapted to each use case applications. Appropriate rules and inference processes will be developed so that context models can be combined with other bIoTope XaaS components. bIoTope will therefore guarantee both the creation of relevant context information, as well as the reuse, exploitation and adaptation of these models by other business applications and networks joining the bIoTope SoS ecosystem.

bIoTope will develop universal mechanisms for implementing User and Business context models that are reusable by other bIoTope components, platforms and stakeholders.
Progress beyond state-of-the-art in Context-as-a-Service (O2.4) – CaaS
Context-aware systems are aware of not only the computational environment, but also of the physical environment, of communications infrastructure, networking protocols and resources, of human users, places, locations and things. Such system can respond intelligently to context-related events, and might be ubiquitous (not only on users but situated in the environment which is inherently distributed). Tremendous opportunities and challenges reside in implementing and organizing such context-aware systems on different scales, distribution, and intelligence [14], ranging from context-aware mobile phones that know what to do with incoming calls, context-aware enterprises that respond with agility to business circumstances, context-aware parking areas that tell drivers where to go, to context-aware road intersections that warn drivers about dangerous situations. We can envision a proliferation of such systems in different walks of life altogether making pervasive environments saturated with devices and technologies more helpful and useful for users [14]. Context-awareness research is at least 15 years old, but some fundamental challenges and gaps still remain. For example, there is no powerful theoretical framework that enables domain-agnostic representation of context, reasoning about and validation of context. Very little research has been done on context- and situation-prediction [15]. Computationally efficient context fusion from multiple heterogeneous IoT sources is very much a fundamental challenge.
O2.3 (CaaS) will address these challenges and offer solutions that will push the context-awareness boundary beyond the current state-of-the-art. An essential core of providing efficient and effective context-awareness are context service components that can take raw data and refine it to relevant context information. Typical methods for such processing are Particle and Kalman filters. However, in bIoTope applications Bayesian models and reasoning [16] are probably the most relevant ones because much information comes from Connected Smart Objects and existing IoT platforms that already do much of the data-to-information processing. CaaS is, in that respect, similar to Gartner’s Context Broker[footnoteRef:12] but goes much further in prediction, proactive adaptation and reasoning about context.[12:https://www.gartner.com/doc/2967518/context-brokers-smarter-business-decisions]
The CaaS will therefore provide run-time support for advanced context-awareness through context prediction, proactive adaptation, privacy and UI awareness, and personalisation that will lead to the emergence of intelligent, user and object-driven and user-centric services. As briefly discussed in §1.3.2, the concept of Act-Ahead-Adaptation [17] will be used for adaptation purpose, where inference rules, Markov models and Reinforcement Learning are the main methods for learning and identifying the best context-aware actions to make [18]. Our context service components will be open, O-MI/O-DF compliant, and scalable, while supporting mobile, multi-device, multi-modal, multi-context services for individual users as well as connected user communities and social networks.

bIoTope will provide run-time support for advanced context-awareness through context prediction, proactive Act-Ahead adaptation,privacy and UI awareness and personalisation.
Progress beyond state-of-the-art in Security-as-a-Service (O2.3) – SaaS
Recent research reports have enumerated challenging IoT security concerns [2] in i) Identity Management and Authentication, ii) Context-Sensitive Security Policies and iii) Context-Sensitive Privacy Policies. bIoTope will extend the state of the art in these three domains.
Identity management In the IoT, all “Things” (i.e., the Connected Smart Objects addressed in the call) need to be identifiable as unique entities, meaning that they should preferably have a globally unique identifier [19]. In order to enable tamper-safe identification, as well as secure (encrypted) communication, it is also necessary to generate and manage digital certificates safely. Distributed Hash Tables (DHT) technologies have been shown to scale up to the enormous amount of systems and services connected to the IoT (e.g., it helps managing multiple identifiers per objects, as well as changes to those identifiers), which the current PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) is unlikely to do [20].
bIoTope will leverage existing identity management frameworks by developing such certificate management techniques based on P2P paradigms (e.g., DHT). bIoTope will also develop new techniques for identity-based lookup and authentication, while relying on efficient framework for implementing uniquely identified and authenticated Connected Smart Objects, as the ones developed by AALTO:CS [21].

bIoTope will develop identity and certificate management mechanisms based on P2P paradigms, including new mechanisms for identity-based lookup and authentication.
Context-Sensitive Security Policies: security policies provide keys and locks for opening/locking the access to resources and assets in the IoT. Access control policy management is a well-mastered art relying on standardised and reliable architectures such as the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML). Nonetheless, such architectures are still limited to support scalable contextual permissions in the access control management. Context-sensitive access control enables to take access control decisions based on one or more “Contexts” related to a human being or a physical object (e.g., location, situation, level of trust or reputation of surrounding entities…) [22]. This also applies to trust management that must take into account numerous context dimensions to enable trust self-adaptation, without necessarily the user’s agreement. According to recent surveys and EU reports [2], context-aware computing, and particularly ‘Context-as-a-Service’ (CaaS), is key to the emergence of new forms of context-sensitive security and trust management.
bIoTope aims at fulfilling these gaps by taking full advantage of the CaaS services developed in O2.3, where the “Contexts” pre-processed and delivered by CaaS services will be used as inputs of the bIoTope access control management framework in order to cope with important user and object context dimensions.

bIoTope enables new forms of context-sensitive security and trust management by processing a wide range of context dimensions related to human beings or Objects.
Context-sensitive Privacy: Assuming the availability of context-sensitive security & trust management solutions, a next step consists in providing users with convenient tools to handle their privacy as they see fit, which is key to increasing user acceptance and public confidence in the IoT. Users must have end-to-end control over their data/privacy (to decide for which purpose the data will be used, how, by whom…). It is thus important to develop appropriate opt-in and opt-out privacy control that users can adapt and adjust conveniently (e.g., to decide sharing or not information depending on the requester’s identity and context…). However, most of the current techniques are binary (I share or not) and do not support gradual negotiation (i.e., partial opt-out capabilities) to tune the quality, nature or meaning of the shared information. Such partial opt-out capabilities could be achieved using blurring or anonymisation methods, but those methods are not initially designed for and adapted to the IoT, they are rather used for large-scale datasets (e.g., databases).
bIoTope will adapt traditional blurring techniques to the IoT based on reference frameworks for geographic location information privacy such as Ongoing IETF GeoPriv work or Natural Area Coding System [23]. Again, context dimensions from CaaS will be used as inputs of our solutions to support self-adaptation of the level of blurring and anonymisation.

bIoTope will adapt existing blurring techniques to IoT requirements, where the level of data sharing is computed based on metrics such as trust, reputation, user profile, and other contextual information.
Progress beyond state-of-the-art in User Interaction-as-a-Service (O2.5) – UIaaS
User-interaction with the IoT and Smart Connected Objects tends to be particularly multi-modal because it can happen in various ways, such as modifying light intensity, pressing a button, a car taking an action and just informing the user about it through a light on the dashboard (as is currently done e.g. by electronic stability control system in vehicles). Traditional “screen-based” interfaces are just one means of interaction in bIoTope, even though it is often an essential one. Appropriate context-dependent user interaction is essential for the acceptance of new services and applications. When it comes to user interface development and ease-of-use for the end-user, there are a number of tools and APIs available for various state-of-the-art operating systems or application platforms that allow UI developers to implement accessibility features within their applications. CSS media types and CSS media queries support the adoption of the user interface to the device context. W3C widgets (Packaged Web Apps) [24] are small building blocks on the client-side (simple HTML elements) rendering specific context, whereas inter widget communication approaches enable their combination to feature-rich interfaces by enabling widget choreography and UI mash-ups [25].Portlets, on the contrary, are components, which are executed on the server-side and manage the creation and combination of widgets [26]. The most recent approach to improve user experience is based on the responsive design paradigm that takes into account different device types and screen characteristics. This is realised by combining CSS media queries and HTML 5 based structuring (e.g., canvas) with modern JavaScript libraries such as bootstrap [27]. There are various dashboard-creating tools for such information consumption, such as Dashing (dashing.io), Geckoboard, Ducksboard and idashboard. They allow the presentation and analysis of external data by integrating them through well-defined APIs. However, on-the-fly adaptation of user interfaces to more complex context-of-use (e.g., GUI able to self-adapt according to the user needs, object’s location, security threats…) is not a common approach yet [28].
In order to realise UIaaS highly context-sensitive, bIoTope will apply the responsive design approach to IoT applications by adapting the main idea of media queries [29] and will introduce context queries so as to make UIs able to self-adapt their appearance and/or interaction behaviour to an individual user (e.g., based on user’s profile, behaviour, trust and reputation, or according to the object and context characteristics).

bIoTope will create user interaction patterns and user interfaces that self-adapt to the context.
Progress beyond state-of-the-art in Ecosystem-based Business Model (O4)
Today’s business ecosystems build on a shared boundary object that is typically a standardised interface or a platform, operated by the ecosystem owner or sponsor. The ecosystem based business model thinking builds on the premises that customer solutions consist of physical products, software components that add intelligence to the system, whereby these smart objects are connected and form a system. While physical design is still of high relevance to the customers, the added value and differentiation is increasingly realised in collaboration networks in the connectivity layer. This transforms the traditional business models and makes the traditional value chain analysis obsolete. Corporate networking is not a new phenomenon, and a lot of research has been carried out over the past 20 years [30]. Collaboration networks have over the years evolved from closed networks built around anchor firms towards open ecosystems with complex inter-organisational relationships. These network dynamics have been studied by economic network analysis [30] and proved to be simple enough to be adapted to various contexts and networks. Nonetheless, the critics of the theory claim for too little focus on environments external to the ecosystems, as well as the inter-organizational processes. Technology platform research, as a recent adaptation of industrial network analysis, accounts for these identified weaknesses and focuses on related typologies, launch mechanism and governance [31]. The launch challenges include issues with ecosystem set up, such as creating a shared vision, building trust and expanding the network.
bIoTope focuses on open ecosystem orchestration models and new competences for cross-industry orchestration, service development and indicators for assessing the success and feasibility of business models. bIoTope will benefit from AALTO:CKIR expertise [32] to build on the existing body of research and practice done in the area with a special emphasis on combining Efficiency, Development, Innovation that are key dimensions to creating winning open SoS ecosystem platforms for IoT. With the specific emphasis on open ecosystems, bIoTope will study – through real life pilots – the feasibility of the current dominant business models for open access online platform – e.g. Someone else pays (as AdWords from Google), Gift Economy (as Wikipedia), Freemium (as Dropbox) – that presume leading platform position on a large anchor firm.

bIoTope studies orchestration models and new competences for cross-industry orchestration with the primary goal to build innovative and open IoT ecosystems that any participant can pursue.
Innovation potential of bIoTope products and services
Table 3 provides insight into innovation potential with respect to the existing products and services owned by the different bIoTope partners (industrial and standardization bodies are only listed here).

Industrial/ city partners

Product/Service available

Key Innovations based upon bIoTope outcomes

CT

Asemo platform

Use new modelling and prediction algorithm for building energy efficiency.

Wish protocol

Validate a new scalable P2P trust-based network protocol (currently based on O-MI/O-DF) that will be used as foundation of the ‘bIotCoin’ framework.

OpenDataSoft

SoftaaS platform

Enable new information source discovery through O-MI/O-DF.

City dashboard

Integrate 3D widgets in the SoftaaS dashboards (impossible for now).

Cityzen Data

Continuum module

Enhance current data storage/filtering mechanisms with new techniques developed in bIoTope (e.g., Big Data runtime technology well-mastered by Uni.lu).

Quantum module

Improve the current Visualization module with new features and context-sensitive dashboard capabilities.

BMW

BMW ConnectedDrive Suite

To complete its offer “BMW ConnectedDrive” with new capabilities and services, as the ones detail in the Smart Mobility pilot description.

To increase extensibility of DATEX II standard (European XML-based standard for traffic management data exchange) to support innovative services across domains.

TOG

O-MI/O-DF extensions

Standardise O-DF extensions such as O-LM (Open-Lifecycle Management) for industry domain-specific vocabularies, or DATEX II extensions for mobility.

itrust

TRICK tool

Develop new metrics of risk assessment/treatment in TRICK considering, as input, novel scalable P2P trust-based networks developed in bIoTope.

AVCeaser multi-antivirus scanner

Complete the multi-antivirus scanner with new services/tabs, e.g. to enable users to vizualise/control Trust levels of peer’s systems (impossible for now).

Enervent

eAir product family

Enhance interoperability capabilities of eAir product family to ease the integration of Enervent’s products with other HVAC equipment and IoT information sources.

Holonix

iLike and Virtual Obeya

Enhance the iLike platform for aggregation and search of IoT data from intelligent objects with new services and advanced UIs; Enhance the Virtual Obeya (or Virtual Big Room) with new context-sensitive UI capabilities, 2D and 3D widgets.

eccenca

eESSeLDS,suite OSPVoc

Enhance the current enterprise search and information infrastructure with enhanced service and knowledge discovery mechanisms developed in bIoTope (particularly in O2.1).

Helsinki, Brussels-Capital Region and Lyon

Current city dashboards

Enhance current city dashboards with new functionalities such as service discovery tools and service composition tools to enable city managers to easily compose/combine ‘on the fly’ and in a ‘graphical way’ distinct data sources, processing block (e.g., algorithms), annotation blocks, etc.

New apps

To provide citizens with new services in different domains (e.g., through new apps).
Table 3: Innovation potential with regard to SMEs, considering existing products and services
Impact

bIoTope creates technical and business capabilities for open innovation ecosystems where companies can innovate both by the creation of new software components for SoS ecosystems, as well as create new Platforms for Connected Smart Objects with minimal investment. Such ecosystems enable an unprecedented innovation capacity regarding IoT services that can be used by citizens in everyday settings, thereby taking advantage of the IoT for improving significantly the quality of life and competitiveness of EU cities and companies. Large-scale pilots implemented in smart cities will provide the created SoS ecosystem with proof-of-concepts to deliver bIoTope innovations to the market, including global markets through partners in two continents (EU and Australia)
0.
Expected impacts
Contribution to the expected and strategic impacts
bIoTope targets directly the Expected Impacts, as detailed in Table 4 (Expected Impacts denoted by EI1 to EI4 in the table). Complementary Strategic Impacts, denoted by S1 to S5, are further described and articulated using the simple PESTE framework (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental).

Expected & Strategic Impacts

How bIoTope will contribute to the
Expected Impacts & Strategic Impacts

bIoTope objectives/Impacts

O1

O2

O3

O4

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

EI1

“Emergence of a European offer for integrated IoT systems and platforms with identified players capable of acting as technology and infrastructure integrators across multiple application sectors”

bIoTope will develop Proof-of-concept real life pilots (O3) building on open and distributed IoT platforms (O2.1 to O2.5). bIoTope identifies and takes into account diversified roles of ecosystem actors (incentives, concerns, opportunities and relationships) through O1 and will foster and facilitate co-creation of products and services in open innovation ecosystems including all these stakeholders (O4). The use of open IoT standards will ensure the growth and sustainability of the bIoTope SoS ecosystem, as well as its transformative innovation capabilities.

EI2

“Availability of architectures and methodologies that can be used by integrators and SME’s to provide IoT turnkey solutions in a variety of application fields.”

The bIoTope ecosystem will result in open access technologies and tools for service design and take up for SMEs (O2.1 to O2.5). This will offer opportunities for co-creation and transformative innovations where Open Calls are used (in O3) as instruments to mobilise the community and expand the ecosystem with new actors. The ecosystem orchestration approach underlying O4 will allow for sharing success stories and proofs-of-concepts for inspiration, and learning in various application fields. Furthermore, O2.5 will provide developers with tools that make it possible to compose/co-create services in a graphical manner,

EI3

“Dissemination and availability of results for technology transfer and pre-normative activities e.g. in standardization fora, open source initiatives and/or relevant bodies like the EIT.”

Consortium partners have created standards published by e.g. TOG. Dissemination materials and events for different identified stakeholders on European, local and industry level are covered by O4 (Task 8.E to be exact). bIoTope will work in close collaboration with past and ongoing EU initiatives including FI-PPP, FIRE or still EIT ICT Labs. As mentioned previously, AALTO AALTO:CKIR closely collaborates with the EIT ICT Labs Helsinki Node Director.

EI4

“Facilitation of platforms for co-creation of products and services in open innovation ecosystems including all relevant stakeholders.”

The bIoTope SoS ecosystem will rely on reliable orchestration models and multi-disciplinary research methodologies – developed in O4 – for platform based co-creation and service provisioning. Appropriate frameworks to support ecosystem analysis and SME positioning in the ecosystem will also be integrated. In addition, the breaking up of the vertical silos model, based on appropriate XaaS solutions (O2), will help to create open innovation ecosystems resilient against future disruptive technologies and business models.

Table 4: Contribution of bIoTope to the ICT-30 objectives (expected impacts)
S1 – Political
In a well-functioning, democratic society citizens need to know what their government is doing. Open data (‘Data.gov’) increases public access to high-value, machine-readable datasets generated by the Government. bIoTope will provide secure, regulation-compliant information to citizens and businesses via open standardised APIs, which will offer possibilities for governments and cities to transfer data produced or commissioned by government controlled entities, across multiple country borders.
The bIoTope SoS platform builds on open interfaces and open access technologies that promote democratization of innovation, and thus contribute to the various EC regulations and communications in the IoT area (e.g., Digital Agenda, Digital Single Market Strategy). All developers and companies – regardless of their size or financial situation – can engage in the pilots and apply for bIoTope Open Calls. FVH and AALTO: CKIR have gained experience in previous EU and national projects, e.g. FVH plays a key role in open data ecosystem in Finland, which is coordinating on behalf of the six largest cities of Finland the national open data initiative.
S2 – Economic
bIoTope is fully in-line with undeniable revolutions and commoditizing ICT that change the global economic landscape in ICT and beyond. In particular, the bIoTope ecosystem is aligned to the increased importance of Open Source Software (OSS) for businesses. Given the economic slowdown (in several EU countries), many enterprises are turning to OSS to reduce the TCO of their enterprise software. According to IDC prediction, global revenue growth for OSS will hit $57.37 billion by 2020, from less than $18 billion in 2010. bIoTope is an effort to provide a high-quality OSS solution for service value chain in the IoT, which can have a significant economic impact for businesses, notably SMEs wishing to adopt bIoTope OSS components/ services.
Overall, bIoTope will attempt to extend the benefits of IoT and related sectors comprising Connected Smart Objects. Indeed, real-life demonstrations of the grounded open SoS ecosystem platform based-value creation will be presented, including new business logic and drivers to assess new systems and developer communities. For the end-user, the benefits will stem for the easy of development and deployment of IoT applications (see e.g. KPIs in §1.1.2, where the objective is to achieve a 75% time-reduction and 50% cost-reduction in software development for API integrators and maintainers), as well as cost-effectiveness on the basis of novel “pay-as-you-go” based-pricing models.
S3 – Social
The bIoTope vision is associated with significant societal impact. This is because bIoTope will present use cases of transformative innovations in Smart City environments and related sectors, built on open access and participatory innovation processes. bIoTope will mobilise local communities on solving shared challenges, to sustain economic growth and to smoothly revamp the economic model towards a fairer distribution of resources among major ICT players and SMEs (e.g., to create new jobs driven by SMEs).
Overall, the bIoTope social impact inherits from the IoT social impact. Also, the benefits to the productivity of corporations can be significant since bIoTope will also provide tools and techniques that can greatly accelerate the formation of added-value IoT services, smart city and industry environments, where dynamic and adaptive configuration capabilities are key prerequisites for the development of such new services.
In this respect, the bIoTope SoS platform and related ecosystem could become a vehicle for innovation by alleviating technological and economic difficulties for both IoT application developers and end-users. Thus, bIoTope can directly, or indirectly, benefit enterprises, citizens and the society as a whole.
S4 – Technological
Proof of concept of distributed standard based-IoT solutions built on open access technologies, utility based IoT services and suite of standards-based components. Furthermore, bIoTope relies on flexible standards (O-MI/O-DF, SSN) that enable future integration of disruptive technologies. These reference implementations provide further evidence on the potential of the technologies in various application domains, including evidence of pilot replicability in distinct smart cities.
S5 – Environmental
bIoTope will contribute to a decreased carbon footprint through increased efficiency in resource use and use of shared assets and thus contribute to reach the objectives set in the 2020 climate and energy package. Replication of experiments and scalable solutions will also contribute to improved ROI for RDI (Researcher Development Initiative) investments. bIoTope will empower the creation of added-value digital manufacturing that facilitates on-demand access to information about green-friendly products and services (for sustainable logistics operations), whose benefits in environmental performance will be demonstrated as part of the bIoTope proofs-of-concept scenarios. For instance, in the smart building scenario, energy efficiency in building facilities and transport services will be created by connecting real-time feedback from sensors on usages to monitoring, planning, and scheduling systems. Dynamic adjustment of energy usage will be developed by analysis of usage patterns and real-time energy demand.

The bIoTope project directly targets the call objectives and further PESTE-based Strategic Impacts
Expected impact for beneficiaries
According to a recent study of IDC (October 2014) about “Forecasting the Future of the Internet of Things in Europe”, the number of the Installed Base of Connected Devices will pass from 9.1 Billion in 2013 to 28.1 Billion in 2020 representing 17.5% of CAGR (compound annual growth rate). The corresponding Global Revenue Forecast of IoT businesses will pass from $1.9 Trillion in 2013 to $7.1 Trillion in 2020. These conclusions show the importance of the impact expected to be created by the XaaS Suite of the bIoTope SoS platform. Within this business framework, the major specific bIoTope KPIs that are expected to contribute to the future of the global IoT market are presented in the table given on the next page.
External factors that may determine whether bIoTope impacts will be achieved
The consortium has carefully studied external factors that can significantly impact bIoTope success. Specifically, the following external factors (and relevant assumptions) may impact the project’s results:
· Cost of sensors and other data acquisition equipment can be decisive for some applications. Given that several large-scale pilot deployments are targeted, a high cost may hinder the potential penetration and wider use of the bIoTope infrastructure and deployments;

· Lack of standards for the IoT integration, which can make end-users cautious against the wider deployment of bIoTope-based solutions. Despite the availability of standards such as O-MI and O-DF, there are still a limited number of systems that implement IoT standards. Nonetheless, the commitment of bIoTope to use applicable standards is intended to provide solid, flexible and reliable technological and business foundations for the IoT. Such a standards-based approach also provides readiness for and resilience against future disruptive technologies and business models;
· The availability of adequate resources is another requirement for the development of the ecosystem with the complexity, flexibility and open source character of bIoTope. The project foresees that it will manage to mobilise the OSS community, towards building a sufficient ecosystem base of contributors. Nevertheless, support for a much larger number of supported “entities” and services will be needed to ensure the continued success and sustainability of the established ecosystem. To this end, the consortium will find a pilot owner for each local pilot, who has the means and mandate to orchestrate/mobilise the ecosystems after the project is finished (e.g., NGOs, SMEs, universities)
External factors affecting the success of the project and the realization of its impacts, relate to the growth of IoT. Fortunately, prospects at these ends are extremely positive, as introduced in the previous section with the IDC’s prediction. Last but not least, bIoTope depends on the evolution and wide adoption of widely accepted royalty-free standards. Vendor efforts to lock-in corporations to proprietary solutions may become a serious external setback to the bIoTope envisaged impact.

Beneficiaries & Expected impact

KPIs in the bIoTope Pilots

Solution Scalability

Smart Cities & Other Governments

Access to platforms for creating new IoT enabled services for citizens and communities, which will help reducing costs and environmental impact, while increasing administration transparency using open data and a reduced time for service composition and deployment. Acceptance improvement and wide adoption of services, e.g. using user experience feedback from UIaaS widget solution.

FVH

Brussels

Lyon

Expected benefits demonstrated through the cross-domain city pilots can be extended to, and replicated in other cities. Indeed, bIoTope solutions are domain-agnostic and are valuable for any cross-domain process. bIoTope will meet expectations of Open and Agile Smart City (OASC) to connect the FI-WARE platform with future smart city systems that want to be built on top of open APIs, or open innovation ecosystems. In this respect, deliverable (D3.5) will demonstrate how the bIoTope ecosystem can integrate FI-WARE, OpenIoT, and other systems.

Enhanced usage of Open Data in new applications developed for the city community

35%

45%

50%

Time reduction for city managers to create new services

80%

80%

80%

Cost reduction in the targeted pilot domains

25%

40%

30%

Number of citizens expected to benefit from pilot services

50.000

70.000

80.000

Enhanced online service delivery

30%

45%

40%

Improved acceptance of services by citizens

50%

50%

60%

Number of services developed based on the bIoTope XaaS uite

[1-3]

[1-3]

[1-3]

Manufacturing industries

Offer access to open innovation ecosystems where all participants (IT and non-IT users) can quickly develop innovative services by combining cross-domain information, knowledge, and contexts that remain (up to now) confined/siloed into sector- or domain-specific systems/platforms.
Reduction of time and costs for the development and maintenance of new IoT enabled services.

Smart Mobility Pilot – BMW, eccenca, BIBA, Fraunhofer

These impacts are expected to be perceived also by manufacturing industries from other sectors, as the project outcomes are aligned with some major emerging trends in the Factory of the Future (FoF): i) the shift from product-centric offer to Product Service Systems (Servitization) bIoTope will have a high Servitization potential since it will allow the combination of cross-domain information from platforms for connected smart objects, different environments, while supporting context-aware computing services, ii) Collaborative business models where sharing of knowledge and product life-cycle data will be key assets to be managed: the bIoTopeXaaS Suite will support all these aspects through KaaS, CaaS services; iii) urbanization of manufacturing that pushes for integration of Smart manufacturing and Smart Cities.

Number of services developed based on the bIoTope XaaS suite:
i) Charging Station Selection Service, ii) Route Planning Service,
iii) Electric Car Gearing Service;

≥3

Customer satisfaction regarding the new services

80%

Smart Building and Equipment Pilot
– Enervent, CT

Number of services developed based on the bIoTope XaaS suite:
i) building self-management, ii) neighbourhood energy comparison, iii) equipment predictive maintenance, iv) enhanced design

≥4

Customer satisfaction regarding the new services

70%

Smart Air Quality
– CSIRO, Melbourne City

Number of services developed based on the bIoTope XaaS suite
i) Air quality visualisation service, ii) Early pollution detection

2

Customer satisfaction regarding the new services

70%

Other Beneficiaries

Large companies, SMEs, start-ups

– Development of new IT solutions for the Smart City and adjacent domains (e.g., healthcare, manufacturing, logistics, transport…);
– Accessing information and services that are dispersed across multiple domains and using interoperable XaaS services;
– Dramatically reducing the costs and effort for combining them in more complex solutions.
– Provision of an advanced service platform offering the XaaS services.

Reduction of TCO for the service platform

20%

IoT is a rapidly growing market, as was discussed with the IDC’s prediction, which is a huge opportunity for SMEs, as whereas the big players still have a dominating role, they can, beyond the IoT itself, create real value out of the data; bIoTope is designed to concretize this vision.

New applications developed by the Open Call Winners

[6;12]

Number of start-ups stepping into bIoTope every year

10

OSS projects

– Benefit of the XaaS suite where services are developed and made available taking into account the OSS principles.
– Have access, through standardized APIs, to data and services offered by different IoT platforms and middleware
– Being supported in the development of sustainable business eco-systems using and contributing to OSS projects.

Contributors (i.e., developers, SMEs, governments) – at the end of the project – of the bIoTope OSS project.

>100

IDC predicts that by 2018, 60% of IT solutions originally developed as proprietary, closed-industry solutions will become open-sourced allowing a rush of vertical-driven IoT markets to form.
https://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prUS25291514

Large OSS projects impacted during the project execution and afterwards:
FI-WARE ; OpenIoT, OpenPlatform 3.0…

5

0. Measures to maximise impact
This section describes the measures for the Exploitation, Dissemination and Standardisation of bIoTope results, as well as the management of project’s data and intellectual property (IPR).
Innovation strategy and exploitation activities
Given the variety of consortium partners with different and complementary Research & Business interests, as well as the diverse exploitable results targeting different categories of end-users, it is mandatory to develop a suitable exploitation approach based on a global and common vision. A variety of exploitation activities and channels will be adopted to ensure maximum impact. Each of these activities will be pursued by one or more partners, most suited to exploit the technology through that channel, as discussed below.
Open Source Products (TOG, AALTO, EPFL, BIBA, Holonix, CSIRO, OpenDataSoft, FVH, Greater Lyon, Brussels-Capital Region)
Open Source distribution of Software (OSS) from bIoTope will be a primary product strategy for the partners in the project. bIoTope intends to exploit its development through the establishment, evolution and sustainability of open source project(s). Note that this will be the primary exploitation modality for TOG, AALTO, EPFL, BIBA (all involved in the O-MI and O-DF standardization initiatives), CSIRO (contributor to relevant OSS projects such as OpenIoT), as well as OpenDataSoft and the involved cities/regions (FVH, Greater Lyon and Brussels-Capital Region) that are involved in various open city data platforms. Note that these partners have a good understanding of OSS issues and IPR management, successfully applied in open source distribution of results from many former and ongoing projects/products.
Commercial Products and Solutions (OpenDataSoft, BMW, eccenca, Cityzen Data, Holonix, Enervent, CT, itrust, IRISNET)
All the partners listed above have product- and service-based business in different sectors. Hence, the primary exploitation modality for each of these partners is to enhance various aspects of their current products and platforms, as briefly described in §1.4.8 (Innovation potential of bIoTope). For instance, BMW Group aims to offer its customers premium end-to-end mobility beyond the car. In 2014, about 2118 Million automobiles were built and sold worldwide at total revenues of approximately 80 Billion euros. The BMW Group’s vision is to further extend the currently offered “BMW ConnectedDrive” package (see §4 for greater detail) based on the bIoTope SoS platform and underlying XaaS components. Note that “BMW ConnectedDrive” is already well established and used by customers around the world every day.
Another exemple is Enervent who aims to maintain its position as a lighthouse manufacturer of energy-efficient ventilation and heat-recovery solutions. In 2013 Enervent launched its eAir product family. The data collection possibilities offered by eAir are expected to become competitive key factors in the future, where interoperability will facilitate the integration of the Enervent’s products with other HVAC equipment and IoT information sources. Enervent’s goal is to gain important market shares by having some of the most advanced Smart Connected Products in the world and gain considerable profit from connectivity with IoT Platforms.
Another exemple is OpenDataSoft that envisions to become a prominent front-line player in the smart city market (particularly for managing open data with a multi-cloud approach) and views its participation in bIoTope as a golden opportunity to extend its Software-as-a-Service (SoftaaS) Platform with new functionalities based on standardised open APIs, including new context-sensitive dashboard generator engines. OpenDataSoft could therefore exploit the project outcomes in the different cities that currently use the SoftaaS platform (namely: Paris, Brussels, Toulouse, the Durham, NC) and other customers such as the French Ministry of Higher Education, Agriculture, EDF, ErDF, GRDF, Veolia, SNCF or RATP.
Such a primary exploitation modality regarding each industrial partner is provided in §4-5.
Commercial Support Services – Consulting Services(itrust, Cityzendata, Holonix)
Using the bIoTope SoS platform for IoT as a vehicle, several partners within the consortium will endeavour to offer consulting and/or training services. In particular, training services will concern the use and deployment of the bIoTope XaaS Suite in various application domains. Likewise, target-consulting services may be provided to application developers or application service providers wishing to offer services based on bIoTope.
itrust are likely to offer such consulting services in parties interested in deploying and using the bIoTope solutions. For instance, five employees of itrust consulting are members of CLUSIL (information security professionals Luxembourgish association) and actively participate to working group. Results and advances reached during this project will be presented to CLUSIL members and disseminated in the Luxembourgish security professional’s community, including professionals working in financial institution in Luxembourg.
Academic Research, Education and Training(AALTO, EPFL, Uni.lu, Fraunhofer, BIBA, CSIRO)
One should not underestimate the value of exploitation of bIoTope results in academic research. Europe depends on its ability to develop and maintain a strong, knowledge-led economy, and new research is one of the drivers of such an economy, whether industrial or academic. Publication in academic conferences and journals is also one of the most important mechanisms for ensuring that the insights gained from research in the project will be taken up and used in other contexts. This plays a key role in expanding the bIoTope SoS ecosystem for bIoTope as technology advances from academic partners feed additional value and innovations into the ecosystem, thus providing further exploitation opportunities for others. The partners most involved in this type of innovation activity will mostly of course be the university and research partners listed above. For example, AALTO plans to promote the research of their scientific expertise by means of publication, enabling the organization to keep the leading position in linking the Finnish industry with worldwide evolutions in science and technology. Scientific results of the project will be presented in international conferences, printed in journals, propagating knowledge through the scientific community and stressing the prestige of the University and the European Community. All the research partners will exploit bIoTope insights and technology as the starting point for new research initiatives, extending their ability to generate new research funding from other sources, and strengthening their research rating in assessments by funding bodies.
Education also provides a modality for exploitation of bIoTope results, through the strengthening of degree and other high-value courses to students. The University partners AALTO, BIBA, EPFL and Uni.lu will use results and expertise gained from bIoTope to ensure that the educational course content is updated in line with the developing state of the art. Alongside educational institutes, bIoTope will also be exploitable through the provision of professional and corporate training services.
Technology Transfer (Fraunhofer, BIBA, CSIRO, TOG)
Another function of academic and industrial research groups is technology transfer from research to industry. The partners most relevant to this activity are the research technology transfer institutes (Fraunhofer, BIBA, CSIRO) who have well-established collaborations with industrial organisations that provide funding for joint research into advanced technologies and new industrial innovations related to IoT. Let us cite Fraunhofer that performs exploitation and transfer activities through contractual research with customers in telecommunications (Vodafone, Nokia Siemens), financial services and insurance (Allianz, Commerzbank), publishers (Springer, Zeit), retail (Rewe, Douglas) and logistics (Deutsche Post). Technology transfer exploitation activity is also important for TOG, who will endeavour to transfer knowledge associated with the project’s results to its 400+ members.
Certification and Branding (TOG)
TOG as a standardization body will provide important accelerators for the SoS ecosystem through industry publication of reference technology implementation(s), establishing industry consensus and standardization of bIoTope results. TOG will also seek opportunities for creating a small revenue stream through the creation of certification and branding mechanisms for products within the bIoTope ecosystem. Certification and branding will show compliance with the bIoTope reference implementations, and standards providing greater trust by industrial organizations across Europe in products that exploit bIoTope technologies. This will further contribute to expand and strengthen the ecosystem.
SME-Oriented Dissemination (eccenca, OpenDataSoft, Cityzen Data, Holonix, itrust, CT, IRISNET)
EU SMEs are expected to be a primary recipient of the project’s results. In particular, we expect ICT SMEs to acquaint themselves with bIoTope in order to build added-value solutions for their clients. bIoTope leverages on the support and services that its’ partners and affiliates provide for SMEs and developers, including webinars on the application of technology, pitching support, investment forums, one-to-one consulting and matchmaking services with potential partners locally and internationally. These very concrete services help SMEs test and integrate bIoTope XaaS technologies to their own offering and create different business model scenarios in low risk environment. Specifications of these APIs are public and royalty-free. Network APIs are simply a business enabler, whose five main principles to make money on open APIs are:
· Marketing: sell advertisement space;
· Commission: use APIs to create widgets to drive new customers to a partners’ site;
· Selling applications: write a creative application where you charge users to download it;
· Selling services: use your API-driven direct connection to offer buyers and sellers assistance in doing things like market research and custom listing templates;
· Selling developer skills: specialise in custom development and consulting.
Some success cases using open APIs to create new business market have been presented e.g. in FI-WARE[footnoteRef:13] . In this regard, bIoTope will enable, via an “easy-to-use” API mediator solution, FI-WARE APIs to be interoperable with all bIoTope products/services, and vive-versa (a demonstrator is presented in Deliverable D3.6). This opens up opportunities for new collaboration, co-creation, thereby increasing innovation for SMEs. The importance of disseminating the results to SMEs through additional contract thus becomes very high. To this end, the Open Calls is one additional channel, whose main protagonists of open call management will be AALTO:CKIR and the involved cities – e.g. FVH has extensive know-how in managing Open Calls; see e.g. Kasvuvalmennus (200 SMEs gone through a SME coaching program) or CreatiFI (99 SMEs competing). AALTO:CKIR will promote the project results to wider SME communities through excellent SME networks it has in FI-PPP, EU Network of Living Labs and Smart City networks. [13: https://www.fi-xifi.eu/publications/white-papers-about-technical-xifi-showcases.html]
Standardization activities
Commitment to open standards is a fundamental principle underlying all of the bIoTope RTD activities. The work plan includes project tasks focused on monitoring and maintaining alignment with existing technology standards used within bIoTope. More importantly, bIoTope intends to establish new standards and extensions to existing ones, based on the advanced development work to be undertaken in the project. Table 5 lists the potential contributions of the consortium to standards. These will be performed through the partners that participate in the respective standard bodies and therefore attend their meetings.
To achieve such standardization activities, the bIoTope consortium includes a standards organisation as work package leader for the standards related tasks, who also collaborates with many other standards bodies (TOG) and fora around the globe. TOG has substantial experience in all of the standardisation processes and supporting activities, and is a member of the ICT Standardization Policy Multi-stakeholder Platform, a EU Commission funded grouping of EU Standards Organisations and international Industry consortia who collaborate with representatives (from all EU member) states to establish recommended standards for use in government procurement. TOG publishes standards, provides certification and branding of products as conformant to standards, and conducts public “PlugFest” and similar events for key industry standards.

Standard (or Framework)

Related Objective/WP

Standardization Work

Partners

ISO PAS

O2.1
(WP3)

IoT Work Group of TOG is exploring the possibility of submitting O-DF & O-MI to become International Standards under ISO PAS process

TOG, AALTO:CS

TOG

O2.2-O2.3
(WP4)

Open Lifecycle Management (O-LM) is a specification for enabling semantic interoperability (O-DF compliant) regarding product lifecycle information and is a future standard of the IoT Work Group of TOG.

TOG, EPFL, AALTO:CS, Holonix, BIBA

W3C
or TOG

O2.2
(WP4)

Extension of the DATEX II standard with vocabulary extensions to support a new range of applications such as context-aware systems in the IoT combining information from other domains than road and traffic.

MobiVoc partners (BMW…)

W3C Semantic Sensor Ontology

(O2.3-O2.4)
WP4, WP6

Enhancement to the W3C ontology for semantic sensor networks, on the basis of the Smart Air Quality proofs-of-concept that extend the current OpenIoT middleware platform with bIoTope SoS enablers..

CSIRO
Table 5: bIoTope standardization activities (notably contributions to existing standards)
bIoTope business model
The Canvas presented in Fig. 6 provides a high-level vision of the bIoTope SoS Business Model, although a more advanced and detailed business model, relying on semi-open ecosystem theories and frameworks will be developed and published as regular deliverables during the project (see D8.1).
The “Value Proposition” (see Fig. 6) summarises the added value that bIoTope will bring into the IoT market: it will offer a combination of services (OSS or commercial) created on top of the XaaS suite, consultancy and certification services. This value proposition will address different potential customers and stakeholders (see “Customer Segments”): IT players interested in using the platform to easily access and re-use available components, to create solutions to be commercialised (SMEs, Start-ups, larger IT companies), or to offer new services and apps to the citizens (governments and smart cities). To successfully penetrate these different sectors, a phased approach is adopted, aiming first to attract, involve, and support the customer and supplier networks of each bIoTope partner, while providing capabilities to grow/expand the established ecosystem for ensuring long-term impact-, community- and ecosystem-building success (see “Customer Relationship” in Fig. 6). A first extension of the bIoTope ecosystem will be made possible through the Open Calls, i.e., with additional contracts (see “Channels” in Fig. 6). Several “Key Activities” need to be carried out to produce the Value Proposition: they can be summarised (see “Key Resources” and “Key Partners” in Fig. 6) as (scientific) developments of i) appropriate Theories and Software Systems that fulfil the different XaaS topics, and ii) development of adapters, based on standards, to make accessible the components of the various interconnected platforms. To this end, “). The ‘Skill matrix given in Table 2 provides evidences on the fact that the bIoTope consortium has been assembled to bring such key resources and partners.
Then, the main cost elements that have to be covered to achieve the above results are represented in the “Cost Structure”: in addition to the Research, Development and Innovation costs that will be incurred during the project execution, the other costs are related to: engineering of the project results (to make solutions ready for a commercial, large scale exploitation); platform deployment, support and maintenance; and business plan development and IPR protection. Finally, several options are on the tables regarding “Revenue Streams” (see Fig. 6) and will be further investigated during the project: revenues could be generated from ad-hoc customisation, integration and deployment of the bIoTope Platform (e.g., for an industrial eco-system or a government), from consultancies on how to generate bIoTope services to impact on companies business, or still through the five main principles to make money on open APIs.
Fig. 6: bIoTope SoS Canvas business model
Open call usage and methodology
bIoTope will organise open calls during the use case piloting in two respects: i) providing competences and technologies needed for the successful completion of the projects; ii) engaging local developer communities and expanding the scope and scale of the pilots. Indeed, during extensive piloting periods, additional and complementary competences may be needed. These are acquired through targeted, specific calls for tenders for potential suppliers. The additional partners can further provide new tangents to the development and open new directions for the pilot developments. Open calls also broaden the bIoTope community, and thus increase project impacts on local and EU levels. Open calls are organised during the 2nd year (M17-M21); furtherdetails about the open call process are provided in §4.3.
Project dissemination and communication activities
This section describes how the results rendered in bIoTope will be disseminated to a broad audience. bIoTope will provide various types of dissemination materials, ranging from traditional project brochures and reports to blogs, social media posts and videos. Table 6 provides greater emphasis on what types of channels will be developed and tailored to different target audiences (six Categories A to F being targeted).
Greater details about each dissemination channel is provided below:
· bIoTope Website: A website dedicated to the project will be designed and developed. This work amongst others requires the initial content collection from all the partners in the consortium, the creation of additional content related to the project, the regular content update, based on the communication, interaction and feedback provided by the other partners. Another task is the creation of mailing lists with specific-topic inside the context of the project.

Category A
ICT Industrial stakeholders

Category B
Regulation authorities

Category C
Academia
(Students…)

Category D
Cities &
Municipalities

Category E
General Public (citizens…)

Category F
Standardization bodies

bIoTope Website

X

X

X

X

X

X

Scientific articles

X

X

e-Newsletters

X

X

X

X

X

Social media

X

X

X

X

X

Flyers/Posters

X

X

X

X

X

White papers

X

X

X

X

Workshops

X

X

X

X

Training events

X

X

X

X

X

Videos

X

Table 6:Key dissemination channels used and tailored to various stakeholder categories
· Scientific articles: bIoTope partners, academic and industrial, will pursue dissemination activities in international refereed scientific & technical international journals (IEEE Communications Magazine, IEEE Transactions on Networking, IEEE Systems and Software, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, IEEE Internet of Things Journal…) and conferences (IEEE Conference on Future Internet of Things & Cloud, IEEE International Smart Cities Conference, IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things, Extended Semantic Web Conference…);
·
e-Newsletter: A newsletter in electronic format will be regularly sent out to interested stakeholders on a subscription basis, which will be managed through the bIoTope website. This newsletter will summarise and report on significant intermediate research results, press releases covering joint dissemination activities, as well as conferences and thematically related projects.
· Social media: bIoTope will exploit national and international media to disseminate the project results and progress to a wider range of public awareness and impact. For instance, different types of social networking websites to target distinct end-user communities will be used, e.g. Linkedin, Academia for scholars/researcher/students, GovLoop for governments; Facebook, Twitter and other RSS solutions for citizens, or still Open Source Social Network such as HumHub, OSSN;
· Flyers/Posters: This dissemination material will be used in large events or public events in order to communicate about the overall bIoTope goal, consortium and scheduled events (e.g., Workshops…);
· White Paper(s): The best application of a white paper is to provide information that helps solve a problem that is meaningful to the reader. bIoTope aims to deliver one white paper about why open innovation SoS ecosystems for IoT and Platforms for Connected Smart Objects must to be solved, objectively explore alternative ways to solve this challenge, which will (logically) lead the reader to the conclusion that the bIoTope project has the knowledge, expertise and tools required to solve it;
· Workshops: bIoTope partners will participate to public and industrial exhibitions and demonstrations, as well as major EU workshops. Furthermore, apart from being present at external workshops, bIoTope will organise its own workshops and events, as well as panel discussions;
· Training events: The project aims to deliver effective training programmes for industrialists and research scientists. Particular attention will be paid to SMEs, first in the involved cities to strengthen the overall ecosystem, and then all around Europe. The delivery of the training programme will be carried out both by traditional approaches (e.g., class-based courses, seminars and workshops) and where appropriate, a modern online platform to personalise and learn at each learner’s convenience;
· Videos: Video editing will be carried out and posted on website such as Youtube in order to exhibit bIoTope objectives, RTD activities and the different demonstrators/pilots developed in bIoTope.
The effectiveness of the dissemination activities will be continuously monitored and adjusted based on both the project KPIs introduced in §1.1.2 (e.g., number of times the project web is linked to other web sites) but also based on the dissemination KPIs (cf. Table 7). To ensure that the project results are effectively disseminated and communicated, a DCM (Dissemination and Communication Manager) is appointed, who will manage and coordinate the dissemination activities within different work packages. We have chosen this approach so that communication takes place in the work packages immediately by the people who do the scientific work. At the beginning of the action, the DCM will create a dissemination plan in collaboration with all beneficiaries to identify different audiences and means to dissemination tasks. The dissemination plan will be compatible with the protection of IPR (detailed in §2.1.5) and confidentiality obligations.
bIoTope will develop a dissemination calendar, which will be regularly updated. This includes European level workshops and events with and for the European Future Internet and Smart City research communities, local events to mobilise communities in the pilot cities, and scientific community involved in IoT and related fields. First insights into concrete events targeted by bIoTope partners are given in Table 8, in which we briefly describe the main message conveyed to the audience as well as the contribution of each event to the Expected and Strategic Impacts. The project nominated two Advisory Boards consisting of influential, acknowledged professionals in the field (see attached reeference letters of Open Platform 3.0 and EUROCITIES), which will provide high-level strategic advice and guidance to bIoTope project and will act as a further dissemination channel for the project for increased impact.

bIoTope Website

1

Scientific articles

International Journals

15
(on average 1 article/year per academic partner)

International Conferences

30
(on average 2 papers/year per academic partner)

e-Newsletters

6 (on average 1 issue every 6 months after M6)

Social media

5 (on average 1 social media network per stakeholder category; cf. §1.1.2)

Flyers/Posters

4000
(on average 1000 per involved city + 1000 distributed among partners)

White Papers

1

Workshops

External Workshops

5
(including joint workshops among partners)

bIoTope Workshops

2
(on average 1 per year after M12)

Training events

7
(on average 1 event per bIoTope Academia/Research centres as well as city)

Videos

7 (on average 1 video per bIoTope pilot + 1 “project trailer”)
Table 7: List of KPIs for auditing/monitoring the bIoTope dissemination activities

Partner

Target Group

Diss. Channel
(cf. Table 6)

Main Message

Contribution to Impacts

EI1

EI2

EI3

EI4

SI1

SI2

SI3

SI4

SI5

Academia

AALTO,
Uni.lu,
Fraunhofer, BIBA, CSIRO, EPFL

Undergraduate & Postgraduate Students

Category C

Transfer knowledge and research findings from bIoTope to undergraduate and graduate students + providing new fields of research to Ph.D

+

++

+

+

Science Community

Presentation of bIoTope results + Feedback from academic discussions

++

+

++

European Future Internet Research Community

Collaboration opportunities with project partners + extended use of FI-WARE, OpenIoT APIs in a new context + access to new value networks

++

++

++

++

++

++

Standardization body

TOG

Industrial ICT Users
(Quarterly TOG conferences)

Category A, F

Opportunity to create an open marketplace based on the bIoTope SoS platform and related ecosystem + Greater choice of platform providers

++

++

++

++

++

+

Other standardisation organisations (OMG, W3C)

Category F

Opportunity to collaborate towards extending existing standards for emerging open ecosystems based on bIoTope software components.

++

++

+

++

EU Member State IT Procurement Experts

Category B, F

Recognition of standards for IoT ecosystem emergence + Open market creation + System deployment efficiency and reliability for governments

+

++

++

++

++

SME – Company

OpenDataSoft

Open Data Day Workshop

Category A,B,D

OpenDataSoft will give live demos of bIoTope UIaaS products/services

++

+

++

+

+

OpenDataSoft followers

Category E

Regular communications on social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google)

++

++

Cityzen Data

Big Data Paris Workshop

Category
A, B, D, E

Technologies related to KaaS, and particularly the bIoTope data storage and filtering techniques to cope with big data issues will be presented

++

++

++

itrust

CLUSIL (CLUb de la Sécurité de l’Information)

Category A, B

bIoTope results and advances will be presented to CLUSIL members and disseminated in the Luxembourgish security professional’s community

++

+

++

++

Holonix

World Manufacturing Forum

Category A, C

One of the most important manufacturing events that will facilitate the communication of the bIoTope results to industry & government entities

+

++

++

++

++

++

+

SMAU (ICT events)

Category A,B,E

Holonix will distribute flyers and gadgets for visitors about bIoTope

+

+

+

+

+

CT

FIIF – Finnish Industrial Internet Forum

Category A

“Jam session” workshops where solution providers and end-users get together; opportunity to communicate about the bIoTope XaaS Suite

++

++

+

++

+

+

+

DIGILE (ICT events)

Category A

DIGILE stresses “co-creation” in IoT (watchword of bIoTope ecosystem)

++

++

+

+

+

Enervent

Construction and building automation community

Category D, E

Enervent regularly participates with its own stand in all major building-related fairs and expositions in Finland, and other main target countries.

eccenca
BMW

VDA, ITA, AKJ (German Automotive Industry; automotive partnerships…)

Category
A, D, E

Communication of bIoTope’s findings such as the smart mobility pilot results, as well as the bIoTope scientific results, will be disseminated within the automotive industry (e.g., German Auto Show Events…)

++

++

+

+

++

+

+

++

+

+

+

++

Cities
Regions

FVH Helsinki,
Brussels-Capital Region Greater Lyon

Forum Virium workshops

All Categories

Cities have a wide range of dissemination channels to reach all categories of IoT stakeholders, from SMEs, to public organizations and multiple citizen groups (e.g., FVH participates annually in hundreds of different events/workshops. Accordingly, the three involved cities will take full advantage of their own events to promote the bIoTope initiative and adapt the message according to each audience expectations.

++

++

++

++

++

++

+

+

The Belgium IoT Community events (http://www.iotbe.org)

Greater Lyon Business Website

Table 8: Dissemination activities by each bIoTope partner and contribution to the identified impacts (i.e., expected and strategic impacts)
Data management activity plan
This section outlines the principles and processes for data collection, organization, management, storage, security, analysis and sharing for the bIoTope project. The data management plan is important to ensure that all project data are well managed during the lifetime of the project and prepared for further use and preservation in the future. The plan ensures that all data are collected and annotated in the required format for easy access, usability and reliability, and ensures that the privacy of all parties is secured. Related documents are the bIoTope project consortium agreement, which details the rules and responsibilities of the parties in terms of data management; the project handbook, which will define the quality criteria for all work conducted in the project, and the ethical code of conduct, which all project partners have agreed upon. In the bIoTope project, data can be divided in two sets of data: Project data and Research data, as discussed below.
Project data and Associated Management Plan
Project data includes administrative and financial project data, including contracts, partner information and planning documents, as well as accumulated data on project meetings, teleconferences and internal materials. This data is by definition public to the project consortium and to the EC. Project data includes mainly MS Office documents, in English, which ensures ease of access and efficiency for project management/reporting.
All project administrative data will be stored at a dedicated database. The project will use the online workspace of TOG, named Plato[footnoteRef:14], which is a secure, password protected document workspace and archive system. Access to the database will be managed both by TOG and AALTO University. The project data will be stored on TOG servers, not in the cloud, for added security. The data will be organised in the database following the Work Package, Task and Deliverable structure as defined in the project plan and contract. The bIoTope project handbook will detail the project internal management structure, quality and reporting practices, which includes general rules for version control, version numbering… Documents will be stored in the database and shared within the consortium via a link to the database rather than email attachments. All Deliverables will have unified look and feel with a unified template that helps reviewers in their project evaluation. [14:http://www5.opengroup.org/consortia_services/management_infrastructure_detail.htm]
Research data and Associated Management Plan
Research data covers the data collected on the project subject matter. The bIoTope project will collect and process sensor data from Connected Smart Objects in, at least, six proofs-of-concept scenarios:
· Smart Mobility Pilot: Personal user data will be collected, e.g., when accessing user’s agenda or user’s location for optimising route planning, electric car gearing, and so on;
· Smart Building and Equipment Pilot: Sensor data and other information related to the building, and potentially to inhabitants will be collected (e.g., when comparing energy between neighbours);
· Smart Air Quality Pilot: public bikes will be tracked to provide a free air quality visualisation service, but not the bike riders;
· Large-scale Helsinki, Brussels and Lyon City pilots: the exact pilot to be developed will be defined in the beginning of the project and, consequently, privacy and ethical aspects might need to be tackled accordingly. Nonetheless, use cases will not involve tracking or observation of humans without their consent.
In light of these use cases, research data will thus be stored in different locations. However, bIoTope intends to deal with data privacy and trust in community sensing both technically and economically. Linking-to-the-user-identity and tracing attacks will be technically dealt with by combining obfuscation, anonymisation, digital signatures, etc. (§5 provides greater details on such measures). The bIoTope proof-of-concept scenarios are inherently privacy-secure. These and similar applications can be greatly beneficial for the society in multiple ways. However, the project itself cannot prevent future applications from using the platform with malicious intends.
The project consortia also place strong emphasis on data quality and, consequently, the project dedicates tasks for developing a joint conceptual framework and methodology for systematically examining the acceptance and value of the bIoTope solutions. This methodology is developed in the beginning of the project (Task 2.E) and is based on questionnaires, interview scripts, and similar instruments, targeting different categories of stakeholders (project partners but also the advisory boards, citizens, developers, municipalities…). Survey data will always be anonymised prior to making this publicly available. Following the principles of the European Commission Open Data pilot, anonymised data gathered in the project will be made available to other researchers outside the project, increasing the potential exploitation of the project work. The summary reports will be made available according to the schedule detailed in the project plan and contract. bIoTope will further establish a toolbox (made available via the project website) that future users can access and continue to use and enrich with additional national data.
bIoTope will publish summary reports of the project findings, as well other reports and recommendations on how to accelerate the deployment of best innovation practices in EU. These publications will be made publicly available through the project website, as well as through the partners’ websites. The reports are accessible for everyone and can be freely quoted in subsequent research and publications. The project will assume the principle of using commonly used data formats for the sake of compatibility, efficiency and access in all dissemination activities (to the extent possible). The preferred means of data types is MS Office compatible formats where applicable. The data will be opened using Creative Commons CC-BY or CC0 licenses as recommended by the EU Commission. As part of the Pilot on Open Research Data in H2020, a data management plan will be drafted and submitted to the commission on M6 (see deliverable D8.2).

The data management plan (submitted on M6) will ensure that all project data are well managed during the project lifetime and prepared for further use and preservation in the future
IPR management
The bIoTope project will establish systematic IPR management rules for the project, which will be further described in the Consortium Agreement, and in the Data Management Plan. The overarching principle is to adapt open access policy to publishing and deliverables where ever possible. Some of the key principles are:
· The background
: necessary either to perform the work or needed to exploit the results (foreground) will be identified in detail by each party at the beginning of the project;
· Foreground
:
the party that has generated the results will be the owner of the results. If the results have been jointly generated, they will be owned by the parties in question. The parties will establish an agreement regarding the allocation and terms of exercising that joint ownership. In the agreement, the parties will agree that fair compensation will be provided to the other joint owner(s) if the joint owner(s) receive income from the exploitation of the jointly owned foreground. If the contributions cannot be identified, the agreement may also be the transfer of ownership to a single owner;
· Access rights for the project work implementation
:
Access rights to foreground and background needed for the performance of the own work of a party under the project will be granted on a royalty-free basis, unless otherwise agreed in the consortium agreement. Foreground and background will be used only for the purposes for which access rights to it have been granted.
The published foreground, as well as the aggregate data published in data repository for the validation of foreground, is made available to all parties and any interested third parties under a Creative Commons licence, which will be, at the author’s option, either a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 License, or a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. The coordinator, AALTO University, has a Green Open Access repository for the consortium to use, at https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/?locale-attribute=en. A machine-readable electronic copy of the published version or final peer-reviewed manuscript accepted for publication will be available in a repository for scientific publications. Electronic copies of publications will have bibliographic metadata in a standard format and will include “European Union (EU)” and “Horizon 2020”, the name of the action, acronym and grant number; publication date, and identifier.
Implementation

The core partners of bIoTope are global IoT and Smart Connected Objects pioneers, such as the first IoT middleware in 2001 (AALTO:CS), Intelligent Products, Product Avatars in 2003 (AALTO:CS, BIBA), Closed-Loop Lifecycle Management in 2004 (EPFL). These partners have been working together since the EU FP6 Lighthouse project PROMISE (2004-2008), which also laid the base for the first IoT Systems of Systems standards (O-MI/O-DF), published by TOG. bIoTope complements this unique IoT experience with competences in security of Uni.lu, context-awareness of CSIRO and information analysis of Fraunhofer. SME partners provide complementary existing platforms that can be combined into a complete SoS ecosystem, which will be implemented in Large-Scale Pilots in big cities together with extended partners. This combination of unique IoT experience, commercial solution providers and end-users is a guarantee of the quality/efficiency of implementation of bIoTope
Work plan (work packages, deliverables and milestones)
Work in bIoTope has been broken down into logical tranches of actions called Work Packages (WPs) combining the necessary partners and expertise to ensure the successful execution of tasks and the production of high-quality results. The table given below provides insight into how each WP is associated to each bIoTope Objective (O1-O4).

O1

O2.1

O2.2

O2.3

O2.4

O2.5

O2

O3

WP1: Project Management

WP2: Requirements, Methods and Pilot Validation

WP3: Building a Secure, Open, Standardised SoS Platform for IoT

WP4: Context-Aware Service Provisioning for IoT

WP5: User Interaction Development and Adaptation

WP6: Pilot Deployment and Testing

WP7: Open Call Management and Support

WP8: Dissemination, Exploitation, Evaluation and Standardization

WP1: Project Management
Defines the project vision, quality procedures and management actions for resource-efficient and timely management of bIoTope. WP1 produces regular financial and operation reports on the project progress.
WP2: Requirements, Methods & Pilot Validation
Produces the technical and OSS specifications of the bIoTope IoT SoS platform for IoT based on requirements collected and processed from all bIoTope stakeholders (cities, application integrators, developers, end-users…). Such requirement collection and analysis enable the definition of the exact city pilots that will be developed in the involved cities (in WP6), and the definition of a proper methodology for pilot evaluation and validation throughout the project duration. WP2 also supports software development throughout the project and ensures that coding procedures and conventions are respected.
WP3: Building a Secure, Open & Standardised IoT SoS Platform for IoT
Provides the technological foundation of the bIoTope SoS Platform for information source publication and consumption in the IoT around O-MI and O-DF standards (IaaS). This includes new mechanisms to better manage ‘Identities’, ‘Context-sensitive Security and Privacy’ (SaaS) of Connected Smart Objects and People so as to cope with the dynamic nature of the IoT. WP3 also develops an appropriate billing framework (BaaS) for enabling financial incentives to information sharing in the IoT.
WP4: Context-Aware Service Provisioning for IoT
Develops new tools to address challenges of context representation, validation and reasoning about context, as well as data storage and performance, along with new techniques and processing frameworks for knowledge discovery and extraction (KaaS). This knowledge is used as input for creating more intelligent systems and services in the IoT such as context-aware systems (CaaS), which help to better support consumers in their everyday life and work.

WP5: User Interaction Development & Adaptation
Develops new means and patterns generations of user interactions (UIaaS) targeting different categories of end-users: i) developers who will be provided with a visual and easy tool to combine different data sources, XaaS block processing, billing… ii) end-users such as citizens, manufacturers, etc., who will be provided with a new generation of context-sensitive dashboards, highly customizable, able to self-adapt to objet and user contexts.
WP6: Pilot Deployment & Testing
Aims to deploy, test and validate the bIoTope XaaS Suite through real-life proofs-of-concept, namely in: i) smart mobility, ii) smart building and equipment, iii) smart air quality, and iv) and smart city pilots. The pilots are developed based upon the Pilot specifications resulting from WP2.
WP7: Open Call Management & Support
Defines a methodology to support the pilot implementation through Open Calls for acquiring new project partners to complement the original consortium partners. The methodology will be applied in the involved cities through Open Call Publication, Evaluation and Negotiation activities.
WP8: Communication, Exploitation, Evaluation & Standardization
WP8 defines dissemination, exploitation, evaluation and standardization plans. At the heart of these plans is the semi-open ecosystem approach ensuring the maturity and growth of the bIoTope SoS ecosystem, the creation of transformative capabilities for partners for the future, and the quality of internal and external collaborations, including IPR management, data management and standardization activities.
Overview of bIoTope WP structure, associated Deliverables and Milestones
Fig. 7 gives insight into the overall WP structure and interdependencies between the different WPs. Fig. 8 gives insight into the different Tasks composing each WP and the associated GANTT chart. Finally, Table 9 and 11 respectively detail the list of WPs and of Deliverables
Fig. 7: Work Packages and their interdependencies

WP n°

Work package title

Type of Activity

Lead Partner n°

Lead
Partner

Pers/
Month

Start Month

End Month

WP1

Project Management

MGMT

1

AALTO:CS

52

M1

M36

WP2

Requirements, Methods & Pilot Validation

RTD

5

BIBA

128.5

M1

M36

WP3

Building a Secure, Open & Standardised SoS Platform for IoT

RTD

3

Uni.lu

115

M1

M29

WP4

Context-Aware Service Provisioning for IoT

RTD

6

CSIRO

140

M1

M30

WP5

User Interaction Development & Adaptation

RTD

4

Fraunhofer

76

M1

M33

WP6

Pilot Deployment & Testing

RTD

3

BIBA

110

M4

M36

WP7

Open Call Management & Support

RTD

1

AALTO:CKIR

51

M1

M36

WP8

Communication, Exploitation, Evaluation & Standardization

RTD

7

TOG

141.5

M1

M36

814

Table 9: Work Package list

Nr.

Name

WP n°

Nat-ure

Dissemi-
nation level

Delivery date

D1.1

Project Management Handbook

1

R

CO

3

D1.2

Quality Plan

1

R

CO

3

D1.3

Progress Report and Financial Statements Period 1, 2, 3

1

R

CO

13, 25, 36

D1.4

Report on the Use of Extended Project Partner Budget

1

R

CO

36

D2.1

Ecosystem Stakeholder Requirements Report and Pilots Definition

2

R

CO

5

D2.2

Open Source Project Requirements and Specifications Report

2

R

PU

8

D2.3

Evaluation Methodology for Pilots Validation

2

R

PU

8

D2.4

bIoTope SoS Reference Platform Specifications

2

R

PU

9, 24

D2.5

Software Suite Integration and Quality Report

2

R

CO

12, 24, 36

D2.6

Evaluation Report of the bIoTope Pilots

2

R

PU

13, 24, 36

D3.1

Information Source Publication and Consumption Framework

3

P, R

PU

12, 24

D3.2

Framework for Identity Creation, Management and Authentication

3

P, R

PU

12, 24

D3.3

Safe Micro-Billing Framework for IoT

3

P, R

PU

12, 27

D3.4

Context-Sensitive Security, Privacy Management, Adaptation Framework

3

P, R

PU

15, 29

D3.5

Prototype of Platform Integration using API mediators

3

D

PU

18

D4.1

Theoretical Framework for Context and Situation Awareness in IoT

4

R

PU

9

D4.2

Edge Data Storage and Intelligent Filtering Framework

4

P, R

PU

12, 24

D4.3

Knowledge Representation and Inference Framework

4

P, R

PU

12, 24

D4.4

Framework for Knowledge Extraction from IoT Data Sources

4

P, R

PU

15, 28

D4.5

Context-Aware Actions and Self-Adaptation Framework

4

P, R

PU

15, 30

D5.1

IoT Interaction Patterns Report

5

R

PU

9

D5.2

Service Composition Framework

5

P, R

PU

12, 24

D5.3

2D and 3D UI Widgets Library

5

P, R

PU

15, 24, 33

D5.4

Context-Sensitive End-User Dashboard Framework

5

P, R

PU

15, 24, 33

D6.1

Proof-of-Concept “Smart Electric Car” Implementation

6

P, R

PU

18, 33

D6.2

Proof-of-Concept “Smart Building and Equipment” Implementation

6

P, R

PU

18, 33

D6.3

Proof-of-Concept “Smart Air Quality Services” Implementation

6

P, R

PU

18, 33

D6.4

Proof-of-Concept “Helsinki Pilot” Implementation

6

P, R

PU

24, 36

D6.5

Proof-of-Concept “Brussels-Capital Region Pilot” Implementation

6

P, R

PU

24, 36

D6.6

Proof-of-Concept “Greater Lyon Pilot” Implementation

6

P, R

PU

24, 36

D7.1

Open Call Methodology, Management and Support Framework

7

R

PU

16

D7.2

Open Call Publication, Evaluation and Negotiation Report

7

R

PU

19

D8.1

External Collaboration and Standardization Governance Strategy

8

R

PU

5

D8.2

Data Management Plan

8

R

PU

6

D8.3

IoT Ecosystem Management, Exploitation & Business Modelling Report

8

R

PU

12, 24, 36

D8.4

Communication, Dissemination, Exploitation and Training Report

8

R

PU

12, 24, 36

D8.5

External Collaboration and Standardization Governance Report

8

R

PU

12, 24, 36

D8.6

IPR & Open Data Management Report

8

R

PU

12, 24, 36

D8.7

Techno-Economic Evaluation of bIoTope Pilots Report

8

R

PU

26, 36
Table 10: Deliverable list
Fig. 8: GANTT chart for the bIoTope project
(*) d – Indicate that a deliverable is produced at a specific Month
(*) M1… M8 – Indicate the Month where the Milestones 1-8 are expected (cf. Table 11)

N° WP

WP1

Start Date

M1

Title

Project Management

N° Partner

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

Short
Partner
Name

AALTO:CS

AALTO:CKIR

EPFL

Uni.lu

Fraunhofer

BIBA

CSIRO

TOG

BMW

eccenca

OpenDataSoft

Cityzen Data

Holonix

itrust

Enervent

CT

ISP

FVH

Greater Lyon

IIRISNET

CIRB

Brussels Mob.

Person/
Months

8

2.5

3

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

18

1

1

1

1

1
Objectives
WP1 is under the responsibility of the Coordinator (AALTO), supported by an experienced project management office (ISP) and will last throughout the project duration. WP1 implements and coordinates the use of a trusted project management methodology to: a) Manage project meetings (coordination, documentation…); b) Control deadlines and delivery dates; c) Produce management documentation; d) Monitor the overall performance and work towards the vision of the project; e) Ensure all outputs are delivered to time and budget; f) Keep the project on track and manage all risks and issues; g) Administer project resources and monitor project expenses; h) Ensure all project documentation is in place. Each partner will be directly accountable to the Project Manager for all of its actions and deliverables.
Description of work
This Work Package comprises the following tasks:
Task 1.A Project Management and Administration (M1 – M36)
This task is carried out by the Project Manager (AALTO) and consists of a series of tasks including: a) Managing project meetings (preparation, coordination, documentation); b) Controlling deadlines and delivery dates; c) Producing management documentation; d) Performing quality control and risk management; e) Resolving issues and conflicts; f) Acting as the liaison point of contact with EU; g) Managing partner and stakeholder enquiries;
The management of a project team from a wide variety of countries, cultures, political backgrounds and languages requires a sensitive approach that balances the demands of the project with the needs of the Partners, whilst keeping a firm control on document and product versions. To implement the trusted project management methodology, the Project Manager will deliver a project management plan in a form of handbook for the project partners. The workflows of the different WPs and their interdependences will be designed during the first month of the project. AALTO and ISP will set up an online workspace using the collaboration platform of TOG, i.e. Plato. Twice a year, the project manager will organise a general meeting with all partners. Furthermore, regular monthly conference calls around “thematic” issues of the Management Committee and ad-hoc conference calls will be conducted around “thematic” issues. This task includes the preparation of any modifications to the Description of Work required due to changes to the project as a result of annual reviews, partnership changes, or external factors.
Deliverables:
D1.1 Project Management Handbook (M3);
D1.3 Progress Report and Financial Statements Period 1, 2, 3 (M13, M25, M36);
Involved Partners:
ISP (lead) will coordinate the project management activities. All partners will be involved in peer reviewing of deliverables as instructed by the ISP.ISP and AALTO have a final sign-off.
Task 1.B Quality and Performance Monitoring (M1 – 36)
Quality and Performance monitoring goes beyond controlling performance in the fundamental areas of budget, schedule, and quality. It also addresses the monitoring, measurement and management of the project’s scope, quality, partner satisfaction, user satisfaction and the interdependent team relationships. Quality Assurance is the joint responsibility of all partners and will be applied at all levels of the project activities. To ensure the high quality of the project results, the Project Manager will deliver and implement a quality and risk-monitoring plan for the time of the project. Performance indicator monitoring will be defined to measure project’s operational performance, as well as project’s progress towards its objectives. The detailed risk analysis for each WP will be conducted in the early stage of the project in close collaboration with all WP leads. Based on the risk analysis, risk mitigation actions will be proposed. The risk assessment will be regularly updated during the project by setting up and maintaining the Risk Log and appointing the Quality Assessors. To fulfil regular project and performance monitoring requirements, the Project Manager will collect regular feedback from all partners in the form of interim reports on activities completed, time spent, issues faced, deliverables achieved, etc.
Deliverables:
D1.2 Quality Plan (M3).
Involved Partners:
ISP is the task leader. Each partner is responsible for reporting progress to ISP.
Task 1.C Financial Management and Extended Project Partners Budget Management (M1 – M36)
This task covers all areas of financial planning, budgeting, accounting, auditing (including audit certification where required), administering project resources, monitoring project expenses, submission of cost statements, receipt of funds from the Commission, financial transfers between the coordinator and partners, and the handling of income and expenditure for any items that are centrally managed on behalf of the group as a whole. This task contains the collecting of cost statements and explanation of the use of resources from the consortium partners. The periodical financial report, detailing also the explanation of the partner’s use of resources, will be included in the periodical progress reports delivered within the T1.A. This task also involves planning, management, contracting, administration, and transfer of the budget designated for the financial support to extended project partners (through Open Calls).
Deliverables:
D1.4 Report on the Use of Extended Project Partner Budget (M36).
Involved Partners:
ISP is the task leader, supported by AALTO (AALTO:CS responsible for budget distribution towards the partners and AALTO:CKIR responsible for the Open Call budget). Each partner is responsible for the financial reporting to the project manager.
D1.1 Project Management Handbook (M3, R, CO)
(Lead partner) ISP
D1.2 Quality Plan (M3, R, CO)
(Lead partner) ISP
D1.3 Progress Report and Financial Statements Period 1, 2, 3 (M13, M25, M36, R, CO)
(Lead partner) ISP
D1.4 Report on the Use of Extended Project Partner Budget (M36, R, CO)
(Lead partner)ISP

N° WP

WP2

Start Date

M1

Title

Requirements, Methods & Pilot Validation

N° Partner

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

Short
Partner
Name

AALTO:CS

AALTO:CKIR

EPFL

Uni.lu

Fraunhofer

BIBA

CSIRO

TOG

BMW

eccenca

OpenDataSoft

Cityzen Data

Holonix

itrust

Enervent

CT

ISP

FVH

Greater Lyon

IIRISNET

CIRB

Brussels Mob.

Person/
Months

12

2

5.5

9

4

20

6

6

5

3

3

3

4

3

6

4

3

9

9

4

4

4
Objectives
The main objectives of this Work Package are to:
· Elicit and analyse requirements from all the stakeholders involved in the bIoTope ecosystem, including the involved cities, infrastructure providers, application integrators, platform developers, end-users, open source communities;
· Define the most relevant Pilot City Use Cases according to the requirement analysis outcomes;
· Produce technical specifications of the bIoTope SoS platform for IoT in terms of functional and non-functional features. The structuring specification also addresses the open source project;
· Specify an evaluation methodology and validation plan of the bIoTope pilots.
Description of work
This Work Package comprises the following tasks:
Task 2.A Requirement Analysis Integration for bIoTope Pilots Definition (M1 – M5)
This task will elicit and analyse requirements from the various bIoTope stakeholders, according to the envisaged value chains. In particular, requirements from infrastructure providers, application integrators, and application service providers will be analysed. To this end, direct contacts with these stakeholders within and outside the consortium (e.g., a physical meeting with the different Advisory Boards) will be pursued. In addition to analysing requirements, this task will produce the main functional specifications for the bIoTope SoS platform and related service-provisioning models that will feed Tasks 2.B and 2.C.
Subsequently, this task will develop unified templates for defining use cases in the different pilot locations. The templates will include the overall vision for the use scenario, service domain, organizational arrangements and resources, financial estimates and identification of key technologies and expertise that need to be brought into the project via the Open Calls. It also addresses identified or anticipated implementation challenges and plans for use case validation. Further to internal organizing of the use case, the interfaces and linkages to other use cases (e.g., smart electric car with one or more involved cities…) will be identified in this task.
Deliverables:
D2.1 Ecosystem Stakeholder Requirements Report and Pilots Definition (M5);
Involved Partners:
BIBA is the task leader. All partners take part in the requirement analysis.
Task 2.B Open Source Project Requirements and Specifications (M4 – M8)
This task will focus on the analysis of the requirements for the bIoTope open source project(s). The requirements will span the project’s contents, organization, as well as the needs of the IoT open source community (users, developers, researchers, enterprises). This task will also define procedures and conventions regarding the coding styles and the software repository structure that need to be respected when developing the XaaS software components in WP3, WP4 and WP5. Both the bIoTope open source requirements and the coding conventions will be delivered in the form of a report.
Deliverables:
D2.2 Open Source Project Requirements and Specifications Report (M8).
Involved Partners:
BIBA is the task leader, supported by TOG. All partners involved in software development activities also take part of this task: AALTO:CS, EPFL, Uni.lu, Fraunhofer, BIBA, CSIRO, eccenca, OpenDatasoft, Cityzen Data, itrust, CT.
Task 2.C bIoTope Reference SoS Platform and Technical Specifications (M4 – M24)
This task provides the technical specifications of the bIoTope SoS platform for IoT. Those specifications will be directly derived from the Reports of the Ecosystem Stakeholder Requirements and Open Source Project Specifications and Coding Procedures (i.e., D2.1 and D2.2), and will result in a set of structuring principles and interfaces across the different software components, principally developed in WP3, WP4 and WP5. A standard modelling language (such as UML) will be used to create and formalise the Technical Specifications, while considering key IoT reference architectures such as IoT-A (e.g., the IM and DM models). The technical specifications will be communicated to the leaders of WP3, WP4 and WP5, which will help them structuring the project’s R&D actions throughout the project duration. Finally, in order to cope with the evolution of the bIoTope ecosystem, e.g. with extended project partners or performance issues (monitored in Task 2.E), we will deliver two distinct reports about the bIoTope SoS platform specifications (M9, M24);
Deliverables:
D2.4 bIoTope SoS Reference Platform Specifications (M9, M24);
Involved Partners:
BIBA is the task leader, supported by all scientific partners, as well as TOG, eccenca, Cityzen Data, Holonix and itrust.
Task 2.D Software Development Support and Suite Integration (M1 – M36)
In this Task, the Technical Project Manager will make sure that all partners involved in software development activities in WP3, WP4 and WP5 respect the project-specific coding procedures and conventions, the Open source specifications, as well as deadlines that have been specified in the bIoTope SoS platform specifications (D2.4). Testing and checking stages will be requested from the Technical Manager for each software deliverable.
Deliverables:
D2.5 Software Suite Integration and Quality Report (M12, M24, M36)
Involved Partners:
Uni.lu is the task leader (being the ‘Technical Project Manager’) supported by AALTO:CS.
Task 2.E Evaluation Methodology and Pilot Validation (M1 – M36)
This task will develop a framework for ex-ante and ex-post evaluation of the application and use case validations. The framework will assess both the use case internal arrangements and validation processes, as well as their impact against the KPIs assigned for the validation outcome. Periodic evaluation will enable agile adjustment of the validation arrangements where needed, peer learning and knowledge transfer, as well as best practice sharing across the use cases. The ex-ante evaluation will focus on actors, processes and interfaces in the validation ecosystems, whereas the ex-post evaluation focuses on policy, economic, societal, technical and environmental impact of the validation cases. Such evaluation methodology will, for instance, allow us for refining RTD specifications all along the project.
Deliverables:
D2.3 Evaluation Methodology for Pilots Validation (M8). D2.6 Evaluation Report of the bIoTope Pilots (M13, M24, M36).
Involved Partners:
BIBA is the task leader, supported by partners having a key role in the smart pilots (in WP6), namely: FVH, Greater Lyon, IRISNET, CIRB, Brussels Mobility, BMW, Enervent, CT, ISP, AALTO:CKIR, EPFL and CSIRO.
D2.1 Ecosystem Stakeholder Requirements Report and Pilots Definition (M5, R, CO)
BIBA
D2.2 Open Source Project Requirements and Specifications Report (M8, R, PU)
BIBA
D2.3 Evaluation Methodology for Pilots Validation (M8, R, PU)
BIBA
D2.4 bIoTope SoS Reference Platform Specifications (M9, M24, R, PU)
BIBA
D2.5 Software Suite Integration and Quality Report (M12, M24, M36 R, CO)
Uni.lu
D2.6 Evaluation Report of the bIoTope Pilots (M13, M24, M36, R, PU)
BIBA

N° WP

WP3

Start Date

M1

Title

Building a Secure, Open & Standardised SoS Platform for IoT

N° Partner

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

Short
Partner
Name

AALTO:CS

AALTO:CKIR

EPFL

Uni.lu

Fraunhofer

BIBA

CSIRO

TOG

BMW

eccenca

OpenDataSoft

Cityzen Data

Holonix

itrust

Enervent

CT

ISP

FVH

Greater Lyon

IIRISNET

CIRB

Brussels Mob.

Person/
Months

18

0

0

26

0

10

4

0

0

9

2

2

4

21

0

19

0

0

0

0

0

0
Objectives
The main objectives of this Work Package are to:
· Specify, implement and make universally available mechanisms for service and information source discovery in the IoT (i.e., IaaS), developed around Open API standards (O-MI and O-DF);
· Develop certificate management tools based on P2P paradigms for identity-based authentication;
· Develop context-sensitive security and privacy mechanisms that enable, either seamlessly or in a friendly manner, end-users to have full end-to-end control over their data and privacy, and particularly end-users involved in bIoTope pilots (in WP6);
· Develop micro-transaction mechanisms for IoT billing services based on recent developments in Block Chain technologies and networks such as Bitcoin (e.g., to easily and safely sell and/or buy sensor data).
The achievement of these objectives envisages a strict cooperation with WP4 in which knowledge- and context-as-a-service (i.e., knowledge and context broker services) are developed and will feed WP3 Tasks.
Description of work
This Work Package comprises the following tasks:
Task 3.A IoT Information Source Publication and Consumption (M1 – M24)
This task develops mechanisms for IoT devices and IoT-related information systems to publish their presence, and be discovered by, other IoT systems. The objective is to extend the mechanisms provided by O-DF standard with geo-location and semantic web discovery methods (e.g., describing meta-data about different services). Depending on the context, service publication standards as UPnP, DLNA, Apple’s Bonjour, and similar, will be used in conjunction with O-DF. O-DF also makes services discoverable by standard search engines. The Cloud Search Engine provided by Holonix exploits the O-MI and O-LM standards to offer advertising, discovering and retrieving functionalities for lifecycle information of IoT objects. Furthermore, the O-MI standard will be the main communication API, while other Open API capable standards will be supported as and when needed. API mediators, such as the semantic mediators, will be used for translating those existing APIs into standardised and interoperable IoT services. As a matter of demonstration, the API mediators will be applied to translate APIs of, at least, the FI-WARE and OpenIoT platforms, which results in a prototype at M18.
Deliverables:
D3.1 Information Source Publication and Consumption Framework (M12, M24).
D3.5 Prototype of Platform Integration using API mediators (M18).
Involved Partners:
AALTO:CS is the task leader, supported by BIBA (API mediator development), Holonix (Cloud Search Engine), CSIRO (e.g., prototype at M18) and other partners that need to make their platform compliant with O-MI and O-DF standards: eccenca, OpenDataSoft, Cityzen Data and CT.
Task 3.B Identity Creation, Management and Authentication in IoT (M1 – M24)
This task develops certificate management mechanisms based paradigms such as Distributed Hash Tables (DHT), along with new mechanisms for identity-based lookup and authentication. Furthermore, the systems to be developed in this task are based on existing concepts and software made by consortium partners, notably by CT. The Product Agent and Product Avatar concepts coined by AALTO:CS and BIBA for the IoT in 2003 provide the necessary framework for implementing uniquely identified and authenticated Connected Smart Objects, which expose their services using solutions from Task 3.A.
Deliverables:
D3.2 Framework for Identity Creation, Management and Authentication (M12, M24).
Involved Partners:
CT is the task leader, supported by both Uni.lu and itrust who have extensive know-how in distributed systems based on DHT approach, as well as by eccenca that have know-how in distributed semantic on linked data-based business network.
Task 3.C Safe Micro-Billing for IoT (M1 – M27)
This task will define a billing framework for the IoT that will be based on ‘pay-as-you-go” business models and Block Chain technologies. For this, Crypto Currencies (such as Bitcoin) will be considered as potential technological basis for investigating novel intuitive and safe on-line payment solutions that cope with the IoT world (e.g., need for seamless micro-billing services). Paying through the phone bill, buying credits with companies such as PayPal, Moneybookers, or using API for money such as Bitcoin could be partial solutions. This task will create an O-DF extension that complies with the Bitcoin protocol rules and regulation. A prototypical implementation of this O-DF Bitcoin extension in an IoT context, e.g. between constrained-limited devices such as sensors and requesters will be developed. Furthermore, documentation on how third‐party developers can reuse and extend this initial O-DF Bitcoin extension for domain-specific applications (e.g., health, manufacturing and any other sector) will be provided.
Deliverables:
D3.3 Safe Micro-Billing Framework for IoT (M12, M27)
Involved Partners:
Uni.lu is the task leader, supported by AALTO:CS and BIBA (e.g., when creating the O-DF Bitcoin extension); itrust brings the Cryptology and Security expertise.
Task 3.D Context-Sensitive Security, Privacy Management and Adaptation (M5 – M29)
This task develops a two-layer framework that will enable the specification and implementation of i) context-sensitive security policy and ii) context-sensitive privacy for open SoS ecosystem platforms. The context-sensitive security policy framework will provide the mechanisms for taking access control decisions based on one or more “Contexts” related to a human being or a physical object (e.g., location, situation, level of trust or reputation of the surrounding entities and objects…). This first layer of the framework relies on the standardised XACML model, and the existing concepts already promoted by Uni.lu for handling advanced adaptive security mechanisms, such as non-permanent delegation of rights. The second layer of the framework will enhance the security policy capabilities with privacy enforcement mechanisms. The framework will enable the specification, design and implementation of partial opt-out capabilities by adapting traditional blurring techniques to the IoT peculiarities. A strong cooperation with WP4 is required since “Context(s)” are provided as-a-Service (CaaS) by WP4.
Deliverables:
D3.4 Context-Sensitive Security, Privacy Management, Adaptation Framework (M15, M29).
Involved Partners:
Uni.lu is the task leader, supported by itrust, but also AALTO:CS and CSIRO (when using CaaS modules as input of this task), CT (when using as input trust- and reputation-based ID tools from D3.2) and eccenca (to link context-sensitive security with context-sensitive user interaction components and techniques, e.g. to handle partial opt-out techniques from a graphical/visualization point of view).
D3.1 Information Source Publication and Consumption Framework (M12, M24, P, R, PU)
AALTO:CS
D3.2 Framework for Identity Creation, Management and Authentication (M12, M24, P, R, PU)
CT
D3.3 Safe Micro-Billing Framework for IoT (M12, M27, P, R, PU)
Uni.lu
D3.4 Context-Sensitive Security, Privacy Management, Adaptation Framework (M15, M29, P, R, PU)
Uni.lu
D3.5 Prototype of Platform Integration using API mediators (M18, D, PU)
AALTO:CS

N° WP

WP4

Start Date

M1

Title

Context-Aware Service Provisioning for IoT

N° Partner

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

Short
Partner
Name

AALTO:CS

AALTO:CKIR

EPFL

Uni.lu

Fraunhofer

BIBA

CSIRO

TOG

BMW

eccenca

OpenDataSoft

Cityzen Data

Holonix

itrust

Enervent

CT

ISP

FVH

Greater Lyon

IIRISNET

CIRB

Brussels Mob.

Person/
Months

19.5

0

32

13

20

8

22

0

0

6

0

11.5

6

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0
Objectives
The main objectives of this Work Package are to:
· Develop a framework for representing, validating and reasoning about context;
· Provide cutting edge data storage and retrieval mechanisms to cope with Big Data issues;
· Develop a formal framework for information and knowledge representation, inference and extraction from heterogeneous IoT data sources using semantic-based ontology matching process;
· Provide context aware and proactively-adaptive decision support;
· Develop new technology to deliver real-time “Context-as-a-Service” for enhanced digital businessdecisions.
Description of work
This Work Package comprises the following tasks:
Task 4.A Theoretical framework for Context and Situation Awareness in IoT (M1 – M9)
This task targets the definition of the bIoTope glossary and domain ontology describing the basic entities of IoT and contexts (used for modelling relevant structures of IoT, users and all kind of services). A formal description of ‘context spaces’ and ‘context states’ (e.g., partially observable and hidden Markov processes) will be defined. The bIoTope framework for context and situation awareness in IoT will meet the different requirements of bIoTope pilots and stakeholders who need to have access to different aspects of information and objects on the Internet. The framework will be reported in Deliverable 4.1.
Deliverables:
D4.1 Theoretical Framework for Context and Situation Awareness in IoT (M9)
Involved Partners:
CSIRO is the task leader considering the extensive know-how holds by the involved scientists (e.g., Prof. Arkady Zaslavsky [14]), supported by other experienced centres (EPFL, Fraunhofer, AALTO:CS, Uni.lu) and Cityzen Data (Big Data expert).
Task 4.B Edge Data Storage and Intelligent Filtering (M1 – M24)
IoT related data are issued from various sensors potentially at high velocity and variety. To extract and build relevant ‘contexts’ to feed alerts or other reasoning systems, this data has to be processed in near real-time. In some applications, the volume of data to transfer over the network makes it difficult or even impossible to meet the near real-time expectation. To cope with such issues, data must be filtered and pre-processed as close as possible to sensor nodes or, to put it another way, on IoT infrastructure edge nodes. Accordingly, this task develops a lightweight data storage and pre-processing software layer to be embedded on limited hardware platforms. To this end, lightweight virtualization technologies from Cloud computing such as Docker and LXC technologies) will be re-used, as well as Big Data tools like NoSQL databases to compress and store streams of data in the best possible way.
Deliverables:
D4.2 Edge Data Storage and Intelligent Filtering Framework (M12, M24)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is Uni.lu, supported by CSIRO and two bIoTope SME partners that detain key platforms for deal with Big Data issues (i.e., Cityzen Data, eccenca).
Task 4.C Knowledge Representation and Inference (M1 – M24)
This task addresses the methodology for an extensible and evolving context modelling based on ontology and semantic concepts. Existing and relevant vocabularies for representing semantic information in the IoT will be identified, e.g. DATEX II standard in the context of the smart electric car scenario or smart city pilots (e.g., Lyon also uses DATEX II). In this task we will create an RDF mapping and alignment for DATEX II to increase is extensibility and flexibility for use in such scenarios. This also signifies continued work on the Open Lifecycle Management (O-LM), which is a specification for enabling semantic interoperability regarding product lifecycle information (manufacturing, maintenance…), and a future standard of TOG IoT Work Group. Semantic and inference analysis will be performed to support compatibility among distinct ontology models. To this end, the model of “User context and Business context ontologies” presented in [6] will be extended to each use case relying on domain expert knowledge. Software components will be created to provide Open Linked Data interfaces (e.g., SPARQL, RDF query language) for searching and querying knowledge. Ontologies will feed Task 3.A (to enrich published information) and Task 4.D (to describe ‘context’).
Deliverables:
D4.3 Knowledge Representation and Inference Framework (M12, M24)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is EPFL, supported by key academic partners in the semantic area (Fraunhofer, BIBA, CSIRO), as well key SMEs in that field (Holonix, eccenca).
Task 4.D Knowledge Extraction from Heterogeneous IoT Information Sources (M5 – M28)
This task develops methods by which information coming from heterogeneous sources (smart connected objects, weather services…) can be analysed in various ways. The knowledge resulting from such analysis is used for identifying and describing
Context
. This includes context detection such as “traffic is fluid in the whole city”, transitioning contexts such as “risk of traffic congestion”, etc. This task develops methods of
Context Fusion
, including validation, consolidation, and reasoning techniques. An example of context fusion is evaluating how slippery the roads are based on temperature sensors in the road, traction control systems of vehicles, etc. Context fusion is used to handle the challenge of reliable state identification in Partially Observable and Hidden Markov Models [16], which is used to build context prediction and transition models (needed in Task 4.E).
Deliverables:
D4.4 Framework for Knowledge Extraction from IoT Data Sources (M15, M28)
Involved Partners: The task leader is EPFL, supported by the same academic partners (Fraunhofer, BIBA, CSIRO), as well as AALTO:CS and key SMEs (eccenca and Enervent).
Task 4.E Context-Aware Actions and Self-Adaptation (M5 – M30)
This task develops the bIoTope context management system, relying on a Context-Broker that serves as an intermediate between “Context Producers” and “Context Consumers”. A person, an object or system will be able to produce relevant ‘context(s)’ thanks to the solutions developed in Task 4.B, 4.C and 4.D, where resulting ‘contexts’ will be capitalised in the context broker and delivered (CaaS) to interested consumers (context could even be monetised using the BaaS tools from Task 3.C). Any System or Object will then be able to discover and process ‘real-time contexts’ so as to take context-aware actions and decisions, and to self-adapt the system. CaaS will, for instance, be used in WP3 (Context-sensitive security) and in WP5 (Context-sensitive UIs). There is a myriad of applicable methods for taking context-aware action decisions such as rule-based reasoning, neural network-based methods, multi-criteria decision-making. In addition to such “static” methods, adaptive methods such as reinforcement learning (learning by exploration, trial) will be used to improve decision-making over time, by learning from user behaviour.
Deliverables:
D4.5 Context-Aware Actions and Self-Adaptation Framework (M15, M30)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is CSIRO, supported by AALTO:CS and Fraunhofer (expert in neural network, reinforcement learning), and EPFL when using outputs of T4.C, T4.D.
D4.1 Theoretical Framework for Context and Situation Awareness in IoT (M9, R, PU)
CSIRO
D4.2 Edge Data Storage and Intelligent Filtering Framework (M12, M24, P, R, PU)
Uni.lu
D4.3 Knowledge Representation and Inference Framework (M12, M24, P, R, PU)
EPFL
D4.4 Framework for Knowledge Extraction from IoT Data Sources (M15, M28, P, R, PU)
EPFL
D4.5 Context-Aware Actions and Self-Adaptation Framework (M15, M30, R, PU) CSIRO

N° WP

WP5

Start Date

M1

Title

User Interaction Development & Adaptation

N° Partner

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

Short
Partner
Name

AALTO:CS

AALTO:CKIR

EPFL

Uni.lu

Fraunhofer

BIBA

CSIRO

TOG

BMW

eccenca

OpenDataSoft

Cityzen Data

Holonix

itrust

Enervent

CT

ISP

FVH

Greater Lyon

IIRISNET

CIRB

Brussels Mob.

Person/
Months

8

0

6

0

18

0

6

0

0

7

16

0

11

0

0

4

0

0

0

0

0

0
Objectives
The objectives of this Work Package are to:
· Identify and describe IoT interaction patterns and IoT objects that are applicable in bIoTope Pilots;
· Provide intuitive, user-friendly graphic tool that allows developers and non-programmers to compose and assemble XaaS components and services in a visual manner;
· Develop customizable UI widgets including a multitude of features (e.g., equipment status indicators, alarms, graphs of sensor values, statistics on traffic…) that can be used for composing personalised dashboards in web browsers, smartphones and other devices;
· Develop context-sensitive end-user dashboards that can self-adapt the layout, contents and other properties of the dashboard according to the user’s or object’s location, profile, surrounding and behaviour, possible even learningfrom user behaviour;
Description of work
This Work Package comprises the following tasks:
Task 5.A Identification of IoT Interaction Patterns and Service Composition (M1 – M24)
This task is dedicated to an analysis of the instances of explicit interaction with the IoT and Smart Connected Objects. This task differentiates between different types of IoT objects and recognises the heterogenic nature of their implementation (NFC, RFID, 2D-codes, RF Memory Tags, embedded systems, sensor networks…). It furthermore takes into account current interaction methods for buildings, machines, haptic interfaces, especially in mobile devices, and advanced forms of intuitive physical interfaces as for instance by the Ubiquitous Computing paradigm. On the basis of the analysis of interaction situations with the IoT, this task identifies and describes interaction patterns that are applicable to the different bIoTope Pilots.
Because bIoTope software components will support standardised Open APIs, notably O-MI and O-DF, it is possible to represent them in a generic way as “function blocks” with inputs and outputs that can be connected together without programming. This signifies that new, assembled components and services can be configured also by non-programmers, including services that connect various input sources and events to suitable actions, possibly passing by one or several “processing blocks”, thereby making it possible to implement the identified interaction patterns (D5.1), without programming. Such tools exist in many platforms and domains (automation systems, JavaBeans composition editors…). Therefore, this task will not develop such editors from scratch; it will rather choose, improve and apply such tools to bIoTope software components, including FI-WARE, OpenIoT and other components.
Deliverables:
D5.1 IoT Interaction Patterns Report (M9).
D5.2 Service Composition Framework (M12, M24).
Involved Partners:
Fraunhofer is the task leader, supported by all partners involved in WP5 (with the exception of Holonix): AALTO:CS, EPFL, CSIRO, eccenca, OpenDataSoft, CT.
Task 5.B Development of 2D and 3D UI Dashboard Widgets (M5 – M33)
Many software components developed in WP3 and WP4 provide outputs that are best used when presented visually – and in the right context – to end-users, such as citizens, building owners, vehicle owners, manufacturers, etc. Examples of such visualizations are equipment status indicators, alarms, graphs of sensor values, statistics on traffic, and so on. This task develops generic widgets that can be used for composing personalised dashboards in web browsers, smartphones and other devices. Widgets that are useful in bIoTope Pilots will be developed in particular. There will be an emphasis on 3D visualization widgets, which have turned out to be particularly useful and attractive in Smart City and Smart Building applications made by different consortium partners. Widgets will be programmed so that they can easily be used as “apps” also in mobile phones.
Deliverables:
D5.3 2D and 3D UI Widgets Library (M15, M24, M33).
Involved Partners:
Fraunhofer is the task leader, supported by key SMEs in this area: eccenca, Holonix with its iLike platform, OpenDataSoft that has extensive know-how in creating/handling city dashboards; similar for CT in home automation. AALTO:CS and EPFL are part of this task as they develop UI dashboard in different domains (e.g., AALTO:CS for Building Information Modelling applications). Some of the extended project partners (i.e., joining the ecosystem via Open Calls) will contribute by developing key apps or UI components, required in bIoTope pilots.
Task 5.C Context-Sensitive End-User Dashboards (M5 – M33)
Context-sensitive dashboards signify that users can configure different views depending on their context (location, role, surroundings, weather…). Changes in the context may automatically modify the layout, contents and other properties of the dashboard, eventually learning from user behaviour. Simple examples of context-aware user interfaces are car dashboards that modify their luminosity depending on the outdoor luminosity, as well as car radios that adjust their volume depending on the car’s speed. The task will develop such context-sensitive dashboards based on existing systems of consortium partners, notably the Virtual Obeya tool developed in the LinkedDesign EU FP7 project by Holonix. In addition, dashboards will be developed so that they run on smartphones and similar devices.
Deliverables:
D5.4 Context-Sensitive End-User Dashboard Framework (M15, M24, M33).
Involved Partners:
Holonix is the task leader, supported by the coordinator (Fraunhofer), CSIRO and EPFL (when using CaaS modules as input of this task), as well as OpenDataSoft.
D5.1 IoT Interaction Patterns Report (M9, R, PU)
Fraunhofer
D5.2 Service Composition Framework (M12, M24, P, R, PU)
Fraunhofer
D5.3 2D and 3D UI Widgets Library (M15, M24, M33, P, R, PU)
Fraunhofer
D5.4 Context-Sensitive End-User Dashboard Framework (M15, M24, M33, P, R, PU)
Holonix

N° WP

WP6

Start Date

M4

Title

Pilot Deployment & Testing

N° Partner

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

Short
Partner
Name

AALTO:CS

AALTO:CKIR

EPFL

Uni.lu

Fraunhofer

BIBA

CSIRO

TOG

BMW

eccenca

OpenDataSoft

Cityzen Data

Holonix

itrust

Enervent

CT

ISP

FVH

Greater Lyon

IIRISNET

CIRB

Brussels Mob.

Person/
Months

9

2

6

0

5

5

8.5

0

13

6

0

3.5

0

0

12

6

2

10

10

4

4

4
Objectives
The objectives of this Work Package are to use and validate the bIoTope XaaS Suite, i.e. the standards-based software components developed in WP3, WP4 and WP5 respectively. Different combinations, usages and tests of those components will be carried out in each pilot, according to the pilot objectives, the end-user needs involved in the pilots, and so on.
Description of work
This Work Package comprises the following tasks:
Task 6.A Smart Electric Car Pilot’s Proof-of-Concept (M4- M33)
This task is devoted to a bIoTope proof-of-concept implementation in the area of “Smart Electric Car” (cf. §1.3.5), based on the detailed use case specifications defined in D2.1.
Deliverables:
D6.1 Proof-of-Concept “Smart Electric Car” Implementation (M18, M33)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is BMW, supported by partners involved in the MobiVoc consortium (Fraunhofer, eccenca, BIBA), as well as AALTO:CS and EPFL.
Task 6.B Smart Building and Equipment Pilot’s Proof-of-Concept (M4- M33)
This task is devoted to a bIoTope proof-of-concept implementation in the area of “Smart Building and Equipment”(cf. §1.3.5), based on the detailed use case specifications defined in D2.1.
Deliverables:
D6.2 Proof-of-Concept “Smart Building and Equipment” Implementation (M18, M33)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is Enervent, supported by AALTO:CS and CT.
Task 6.C Smart Air Quality Pilot’s Proof-of-Concept (M4- M33)
This task is devoted to a bIoTope proof-of-concept implementation in the area of “Smart Air Quality” (cf. §1.3.5), based on the detailed use case specifications defined in D2.1.
Deliverables:
D6.3 Proof-of-Concept “Smart Air Quality Services” Implementation (M18, M33)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is CSIRO.
Task 6.D Helsinki City Pilot’s Proof-of-Concept (M6- M36)
This task is devoted to a bIoTope proof-of-concept implementation in the area of “Smart City” in Helsinki (cf. §1.3.5), based on the detailed use case specifications defined in D2.1.
Deliverables:
D6.4 Proof-of-Concept “Helsinki Pilot” Implementation (M24, M36)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is FVH, supported by AALTO:CS, AALTO:CKIR, CT.
Task 6.E Brussels-Capital Region Pilot’s Proof-of-Concept (M6- M36)
This task is devoted to a bIoTope proof-of-concept implementation in the area of “Smart City” in Brussels Region (cf. §1.3.5), based on the detailed use case specifications defined in D2.1.
Deliverables:
D6.5 Proof-of-Concept “Brussels-Capital Region Pilot” Implementation (M24, M36)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is Brussels Mobility, supported by CIRB, IRISNET and ISP.
Task 6.F Greater Lyon Pilot’s Proof-of-Concept (M6- M36)
This task is devoted to a bIoTope proof-of-concept implementation in the area of “Smart City” in Greater Lyon (cf. §1.3.5), based on the detailed use case specifications defined in D2.1.
Deliverables:
D6.6 Proof-of-Concept “Greater Lyon Pilot” Implementation (M24, M36)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is Greater Lyon, Cityzen Data (local company) and EPFL.
D6.1 Proof-of-Concept “Smart Electric Car” Implementation (M18, M33, P, R, PU)BMW
D6.2 Proof-of-Concept “Smart Building and Equipment” Implementation (M18, M33, P, R, PU)
Enervent
D6.3 Proof-of-Concept “Smart Air Quality Services” Implementation (M18, M33, P, R, PU)CSIRO
D6.4 Proof-of-Concept “Helsinki Pilot” Implementation (M24, M36, P, R, PU) FVH
D6.5 Proof-of-Concept “Brussels-Capital Region Pilot” Implementation (M24, M36, P, R, PU)
CIRB
D6.6 Proof-of-Concept “Greater Lyon Pilot” Implementation (M24, M36, P, R, PU) Greater Lyon

N° WP

WP7

Start Date

M1

Title

Open Call Management & Support

N° Partner

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

Short
Partner
Name

AALTO:CS

AALTO:CKIR

EPFL

Uni.lu

Fraunhofer

BIBA

CSIRO

TOG

BMW

eccenca

OpenDataSoft

Cityzen Data

Holonix

itrust

Enervent

CT

ISP

FVH

Greater Lyon

IIRISNET

CIRB

Brussels Mob.

Person/
Months

0

12

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

10

10

2

5

6
Objectives
The objectives of this Work Package are to:
· Detail and improve the initial Open Call management methodology (see §4.3) based on success stories from earlier projects like FI-PPP and EIT ICT Labs in managing such open calls;
· Create rules and templates for communicating the call challenges, organise tender submission and support channels for tenderers tenders during and after the open calls;
· Publish open calls, organise evaluation, support negotiations with the new extended project partners.
Description of work
This Work Package comprises the following tasks:
Task 7.A Open Call Methodology, Management and Support (M1 – M36)
This task will detail the methodology, management procedures, selection criteria, administrative instructions, support mechanisms, etc., for the tenderers submitting proposals for bIoTope Open Calls. Although a first draft of such a methodology is detailed in §4.3, it will be enhanced in this task based on feedback and success stories from earlier projects and consultations. The defined methodology will avoid repeating the same mistakes, either from the citizen learning/civic learning perspective at large (e.g. how to engage normal non-nerd-developer people in the IoT), or from the SME/Business exploitation perspectives. The task further lists materials and organises supporting material and channels for tenders during and after open calls.
Deliverables:
D7.1 Open Call Methodology, Management and Support Framework (M16)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is AALTO:CKIR, supported all partners taking part in this task.
Task 7.B Open Call Publication, Evaluation and Negotiation (M17 – M21)
This task involves publishing the Open Calls, organizing evaluation panels and finally, leading supporting the negotiations for the shortlisted candidates. The process will be based upon theenhanced methodology defined in D7.1. Such a drafting process will take into account i) the Pilot Definition Report (D2.1), the Open Source Project Specifications Report (D2.2), ii) the consortiumstrengths, weaknesses and working methods. Note that Open Calls primarily aim to bring extended project partners in WP6 (regarding the city pilots) and WP5 (e.g. for apps development or Widgets). Such interdependencies between WP7 and WP5-6 are shown in Fig. 7. As previously stated, the open call session will be organised during the 2nd year (M17-M21). Further details about the exact process is provided in §4.3.
Deliverables:
D7.1 Open Call Methodology, Management and Support Framework (M16)
D7.2 Open Call Publication, Evaluation and Negotiation Report (M19)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is AALTO:CKIR, supported all partners taking part to this task.
D7.1 Open Call Methodology, Management and Support Framework (M16, R, PU)
AALTO:CKIR
D7.2 Open Call Publication, Evaluation and Negotiation Report (M19, R, PU)
AALTO:CKIR

N° WP

WP8

Start Date

M1

Title

Dissemination, Exploitation, Evaluation & Standardization

N° Partner

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

Short
Partner
Name

AALTO:CS

AALTO:CKIR

EPFL

Uni.lu

Fraunhofer

BIBA

CSIRO

TOG

BMW

eccenca

OpenDataSoft

Cityzen Data

Holonix

itrust

Enervent

CT

ISP

FVH

Greater Lyon

IIRISNET

CIRB

Brussels Mob.

Person/
Months

9.5

14.5

10.5

4.5

5.5

9.5

4

28.5

5

4

2

3

4

2

3

2

3

6

6

7

5

3
Objectives
The objectives of this Work Package are to:
· Define, deploy and maintain updated the overall orchestration and collaboration processes for the bIoTope ecosystem;
· Evaluate the project’s results from a technical, techno-economic, financial and end-user’s perspective. The evaluation will cover the viewpoints and business targets of all stakeholders;
· Establish exploitation plans for the individual partners, but also for the project as a whole. The plans will be shaped and fine-tuned based on the results of the project evaluation. Furthermore, exploitation planning will take into account the novel business models that will be investigated in the project;
· Disseminate the project’s results as widely as possible.
· Actively participate and contribute in EU clustering mechanisms for Smart Connected Objects and the future internet (notably through participation in FI-PPP, FoF…);
· Develop and standardise new project technologies, as well as modify or extend existing standards that will accelerate the take-up of bIoTope project results by industry, city and research communities.
· Address issues related to Quality Assurance, Risk Management, Self-Assessment and agreements about IP ownership, protection and exploitation.
Description of work
This Work Package comprises the following tasks:
Task 8.A IoT Ecosystem Management, Exploitation and Business Modelling (M1 – M36)
This task involves developing and mutually agreeing on overall orchestration and collaboration processes for the bIoTope SoS platform and ecosystem for IoT. This involves definition of the roles, responsibilities, relationships and rules of engagement for the bIoTope partners, as well as for the extended project partners engaged through open calls. The orchestration model will ensure efficient and high quality implementation of the project, and increase transparency and trust on decision making among the partners. Further to the ecosystem orchestration mode, the task will draw scenarios of value capture and exploitation for the jointly developed foreground. It will build business models on the selected application areas (on both individual corporate as well as on system level) and will defined/refined the initial list of project KPIs (cf. §1.1 and 2).
Deliverables:
D8.3 IoT Ecosystem Management, Exploitation, Business Modelling Report (M12, 24, 36)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is AALTO:CKIR, supported by FVH, IRISNET, CIRB, Brussels Mobility, Greater Lyon, TOG, CSIRO, Fraunhofer, EPFL and AALTO:CS.
Task 8.B Techno-Economic Evaluation of bIoTope Pilots (M19 – M36)
This task will perform a thorough techno-economic evaluation of the utility of the bIoTope SoS platform from all IoT stakeholders’ perspective. Aspects relating to the TCO of the platform for a service provider will be studied, along with an assessment of costs and benefits for integrators, infrastructure providers and end-users of bIoTope-enabled services. In addition to financial analysis, this task will be based on the reception of feedback from the various stakeholders (e.g., by using UIaaS widgets/services developed specifically in WP5 (T5.B) to enable user experience feedback. This cyclic process will support the quality of project implementation and ensure that all stakeholders’ interests are met.
Deliverables:
D8.7 Techno-Economic Evaluation of bIoTope Pilots Report

(M26, M36)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is AALTO:CKIR, supported by TOG, EPFL (Scientific Quality & Risk), and all actors from the involved cities.
Task 8.C Communication, Dissemination, Exploitation and Training (M1 – M36)
This task comprises all typical activities relating to dissemination and communication of the project’s results (i.e., journal publications, conference publications, workshops, conferences, flash studies, project documentation, training events…), which are described in detail in the dissemination plan of the project in §2.2. Concrete dissemination plans will be developed for bIoTope as a whole, but also for individual partners. The plans will be regularly updated as needed and they will be included in the management reports of WP1. Special emphasis will be paid on the dissemination of the project’s results to wider communities of potentially interested SMEs, using also TOG’s industry network. This task also comprises all activities relating to the Exploitation of the project’s results (see §2.2). Finally, since bIoTope puts particular emphasis on OSS Community Building, this task will perform actions in that direction (e.g., to encourage users and developers).
Deliverables:
D8.4 Communication, Dissemination, Exploitation and Training Report (M12, M24, M36)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is BMW. All partners are involved in this task.
Task 8.D External Collaboration and Standardization Governance (M1 – M36)
This task will ensure that the bIoTope project initiative will be achieved in close collaboration liaison and co-operation with other ICT projects such as FI-PPP, FIRE or still EIT ICT Labs, but also with other national, regional and international standardization fora thanks to TOG’s involvement. Standardisation activities will ensure the greatest impact and benefits for industry andresearch communities. The first aspect iswhere the project seeks todevelop and standardise newproject technologies, as well as modify or extend existing standards that will accelerate the take-up of bIoTope projectresults by industry and research communities. Examples of potential bIoTope contributions to standards (e.g., possibility of submitting O-DF and O-MI to become International Standards under the ISO PAS process…) have been listed in §2.2.2.
Deliverables:
D8.1 External Collaboration and Standardization Governance Strategy (M5), D8.5 External Collaboration and Standardization Governance Report (M12, M24, M36)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is TOG, supported all academics, as well as eccenca, Holonix, IRISNET and CIRB.
Task 8.E IPR & Open Data Management (M1 – M36)
This task addresses all the issues related to quality assurance, risk management, self-assessment and agreements about IP ownership, protection and exploitation, as well as issues related to open data management. In this task the Project Management Office (ISP) will set up and maintain the Risk Log and appoint the Quality Assessors. Since bIoTope does not wish to opt out of the pilot on Open Research Data in H2020, a Data Management Plan will be delivered at M6. Further details about the basis of IPR and data management activity plans are provided and discussed in §2.
Deliverables:
D8.2 Data Management Plan (M6),
D8.6 IPR and Open Data Management Report (M12, M24, M36)
Involved Partners:
The task leader is TOG, supported by EPFL, Uni.lu, Fraunhofer, BIBA, TOG, BMW, eccenca, Cityzen Data, Enervent, as well as IRISNET and CIRB.
D8.1 External Collaboration and Standardization Governance Strategy (M5, R, PU) TOG
D8.2 Data Management Plan (M6, R, PU) TOG
D8.3 IoT Ecosystem Management, Exploitation & Business Modelling Report (M12, 24, 36, R, PU)
AALTO:CKIR
D8.4 Communication, Dissemination, Exploitation and Training Report (M12, M24, M36, R, PU)
TOG
D8.5 External Collaboration and Standardization Governance Report (M12, M24, M36, R, PU)TOG
D8.6 IPR and Open Data Management Report (M12, M24, M36, R, PU)
TOG
D8.7 Techno-Economic Evaluation of bIoTope Pilots Report (M26, M36, R, PU)
AALTO:CKIR
Management structure and procedures
List of Milestones
Six milestones have been defined for controlling bIoTope progress and as decision points in the project.Table 12 shows for each milestone, the related WPs, the expected date, and the means of verification.

Milestone n°

Milestone Name

Related
WP(s)

Expected date

Means of Verification

1

Project Architecture Specified and
OSS Project Established

WP2

M9

Availability of D2.2 and D2.4

2

First Publication of bIoTope Component
Suite based on OSS Project Specifications

WP2 (WP3, WP4, WP5)

M12

Availability of first D2.5, which implies that D3.1-3.3 and D4.2-4.3 and D5.1 have been delivered, too.

3

Necessary set of bIoTope Components for
Pilot concretization

WP2 (WP3, WP4, WP5)

M24

Availability of second D2.5, which implies that D3.1-3.5; D4.2-D4.5 and D5.1-D5.4 have been delivered, too.

4

First domain-specific proofs-of-concepts operational

WP6

M18

Availability of first D6.1-D6.3

5

Smart City Pilots specified and first Open Call Contract Awarded

WP2, WP7

M19

Availability of D7.1-D7.2

6

First cross-domain proofs-of-concept operational

WP6, WP7

M24

Availability of first D6.4-D6.6

7

bIoTope Pilot and Ecosystem Sustainability Validated by Techno-Economic Studies

WP8

M26

Availability of D8.7

8

bIoTope Ecosystem Operability Demonstrated in Smart City Environments

WP6, WP8

M36

Availability of last D8.3, D8.4, D8-5
and D8.7
Table 11: Milestone List
Organisational and decision making structure
bIoTope is a complex cross-border project with the key objective to deliver rapid innovation in cities and related sectors, as well as to encourage fast adoption of bIoTope solution across Europe, and even beyond (e.g., Australia with CSIRO). The consortium will use a strict project management methodology to ensure the successful delivery of outputs and outcomes as well as the protection and effective utilisation of the knowledge that is generated. In recognition of this, bIoTope has incorporated qualified programme and project managers within its team and will use a widely recognised project management methodology (PRINCE2) to ensure that all Partners understand each other’s roles and responsibilities, as well as their own actions and deadlines. The scheme presented in Fig. 9 visualises the project management approach that will be implemented. Although key partners have been identified for each role, the complete structure will be finalised and implemented within D1.1 (Project Management Handbook) and D1.2 (Quality Plan), which will be delivered in the early months of the project.
Programme Management Board
Composed of the European Commission’s Project Officers supported the external reviewers, the Programme Management Board gives the go-ahead for the project to proceed, sets the tolerances for the project, and receives all the outputs and results.
Management Committee
Composed of a senior representative from each partner, the project will be supervised by a Management Committee. The bIoTope Management Committee will be chaired by the Project Director (AALTO) with the support of the Project Manager (ISP).The bIoTope Management Committee will be formally empowered by the Consortium Agreement to take decisions affecting the budget as well as changes to the Consortium Agreement.The Management Committee is the highest authority for conflict resolution, with the Project Director having the deciding vote if necessary.The Management Committee is the highest authority for conflict resolution, with the Project Director having the deciding vote if necessary.The Committee will meet every six months physically and every month by conference calls.
The Management Committee has the following responsibilities:
· Confirmation of the project tolerances;
· Approval of all project plans including the communication, exploitation, and business ones;
· Provision of overall guidance and direction of the project;
· Review of all deliverables and assurance of their timely deliverable as well as approval to progress to the project’s next stage;
· Ownership of identified risks and approval of all changes to the project; and
· All decisions on recommendations for follow-up actions to be passed on to the Programme Management Board.
Fig. 9: Project management approach implemented in bIoTope
Project Director
The Project Director (AALTO, represented by Prof. Kary Främling) is ultimately responsible for the execution and strategic management of the project.The Project Director will implement the agreed strategy, oversee the choice of techniques, supervise the monitoring of the results, and co-ordinate the quality assurance function.The Project Director will also implement the decisions taken by the Management Committee and be responsible for taking any short-term decisions between Management Committee meetings, seeking its approval if necessary. Responsibilities include:
· Ensure coherent organisational structure and the timely drafting of deliverables following due approval procedures;
· Monitor and control project progress at a strategic level;
· Ensure risks are being tracked and mitigated as effectively and early as possible;
· Organise and chair project meetings;
· Approve deliverables before sending them to the Programme Management Board;
· Responsible for project assurance;
· Conduct quality tests on all deliverables and outputs; and
· Be in general the key decision maker with advice from others.
Senior Supplier
The Senior Supplier represents the interests of those designing, developing, facilitating, procuring, implementing, operating and maintaining the project.The role of Senior Supplier also includes responsibilities of the “Scientific Quality & Risk Manager” of the project. EPFL will play this role in bIoTope, particularly Prof. Dimitris Kiritsis who coordinated large EU FP6 projects (e.g. PROMISE with more than 23 partners). Specific responsibilities include:
· Agree objectives for supplier activities; and
· Advise on selection of development strategy, design and methods;
· Quality control and risk management of the scientific aspects of the project.
Senior User
The Senior User is responsible for the specification of the needs of all stakeholders and eventual beneficiaries of the bIoTope project/service outcomes and for monitoring that the solution will meet user needs in terms of quality, functionality and ease of use.The Senior User role is a part of the tasks of the “Innovation & Exploitation manager” of the project. An industrial partner such as BMW will be responsible for this role. Specific responsibilities will include:
· Ensure the desired outcome of the project is specified;
· Approve product descriptions and functional specifications;
· Resolve user requirements and priority conflicts and monitor risks to the users; and
· Ensure quality checking at all stages has appropriate user representation; and
·
Innovation, intellectual property, and exploitation management.
Project Manager
The Project Manager (ISP) will be responsible for day-to-day operations of the project and the pilots. The Project Manager will be the main link between the Project Director, WP Leads and the Partner Leads. Specific responsibilities include:
· Closely monitor progress on the demonstrator sites;
· Manage the production of deliverables within timely restraints;
· Direct and motivate the project team;
· Plan and monitor the project whilst managing risks;
· Liaise with the Management Committee;
· Be responsible for change control and any required configuration management; and
Technical Project Manager
The Technical Project Manager (Uni.lu) is responsible for removing impediments for the team to deliver products, goals and deliverables.The role acts as a buffer between the development team and the dangerous distraction of simply ticking project plan box.Specific responsibilities include:
· Chairs key technical team meetings;
· Challenges team to improve; and
·
Ensures the delivered product meets needs.
Dissemination and CommunicationsManager
To ensure that the project results are disseminated and communicated as effectively as possible, a DCM (Dissemination and Communications Manager) is appointed. The DCM’s task is to manage and coordinate the dissemination activities within different WPs. bIoTope has chosen this approach so that communication takes place in the WPs immediately by the people who do the scientific work. At the beginning of the action, the DCM will create a Dissemination Plan in collaboration with all beneficiaries to identify different audiences and means to dissemination activities. In order to ensure the highest working efficiency and avoid overlaps in partners’ responsibilities, DCM will be performed by the WP8 leader (TOG).
Work package Leads
The WP Leaders prime responsibility is to ensure production of those products defined by the Project Manager to an appropriate quality, in a time scale and cost acceptable to the Management Committee.The WP Leaders report to and takes direction from the Management Committee to:
· Direct, motivate, plan and monitor the teams work;
· Advise the Project Manager of any deviations to the plan;
· Ensure all project issues are properly reported; and
· Ensure quality controls of the teams work are performed and planned correctly.
Effective innovation management
The Consortium understands that innovation is a fast and complex process that cannot be hindered by over management, and for this reason bIoTope will appoint an Exploitation & Innovation Manager to oversee the innovation processes and handle IPR, placing an emphasis on communication and collaboration, functioning software, and the flexibility to adapt to emerging realities in pilots. The Innovation Manager will ensure that bIoTope’s products meet customers’ dynamic expectations.
Change management
Change management is the process for requesting, reviewing, approving, carrying out and controlling changes to project deliverables. bIoTope

uses of PRINCE2 as its project management methodology, which provides an inherent approach to change management.At the start of the project in the D1.1 Project Management Handbook, the Consortium will agree a well-defined process for change control based upon that will detail:
· Responsibilities
· Tolerances for change at different project levels
· Tools to be used to manage the change process
Any participant in the bIoTope

project may raise a Change Request. The Project Manager and Project Director will ensure they are captured and are proactively managed to conclusion. An initial review should be made to examine the need for the change, how it could be achieved and what the consequences would be. The most appropriate member of the Consortium would normally perform this review. Based on those conclusions, the recommended action would be proposed which would be one of three possible courses:
· Minor changes within scope can be approved by the Project Manager
· Any change affecting the deadline of a deliverable or outcome would need to be reviewed by the Project Director and shared with the Management Committee which would agree the necessary revisions to get the project back on course
· Changes of scope and contract revisions would require the approval of the European Commission
The diagram below highlights bIoTope

approach to change control.
Fig. 10: bIoTope change management procedure
Quality control
Consortium Agreement
Before the project begins, the Consortium members will sign a formal Consortium Agreement in which roles, responsibilities and mutual obligations will be defined. The Consortium Agreement will include:
· Internal organisation of the Consortium, its governance structure, decision making processes, reporting mechanisms, controls, penalties and management arrangements
· Mitigation processes and provisions for the settlement of Partnership disputes
· Specific arrangements concerning ownership and intellectual property rights to be applied among participants
· Management of knowledge generated by the project and rules for knowledge transfer
· Rules for Partners joining and leaving the Consortium

Quality Management
Quality management will be carried out to ensure that the quality expected by the EC is achieved. Progress of the work within the project will be monitored against the milestones and the defined objectives and performance indicators. These criteria, based on the EC’s expectations for the project, will be defined at the beginning of the project, to ensure that all work is carried out in reference to them. To help ensure the project meets its objectives, all the quality procedures to be implemented during the project life cycle will be formalised in the D1.1 Project Management Handbook and D1.2 Quality Plan issued at the start of the project in WP1. The plan will define the techniques and standards to be used in the project. These techniques and standards will include a set of rules for the organisation of the day-to-day work, the procedures and reporting mechanisms to be used, the organisation ofmeetings and the preparation of Deliverable documentation for submission to the EC.
The Project and Quality Assurance role for bIoTope will be coordinated by the Project Director. The specific responsibilities of this role will be defined in the Quality Assurance Plan, but the main role will be to review and approve plans created for each stage of the project, and ensuring that quality checking arrangements for the deliverables in these plans are satisfactory.
In addition, the Project Manager will perform a Quality Control role for the project. This will involve a structured internal peer-review of each deliverable produced in a planned, documented and organised fashion. Once the deliverable has been reviewed, the Project Manager will either give ‘sign off’ to the deliverable to assert that it has passed the quality review and is able to be sent to the EC, or they will assert that the deliverable is not ‘fit for purpose’. In this circumstance, the deliverable will be sent back with comments to its producer. If the producer is unable to resolve the problems, this will be taken to Management Committee to decide on the appropriate action.
Document Quality Management
By using conferences, meetings and mailing lists, the project partners will be regularly informed about the project status, planning and any other issue relevant for the partners in order to obtain maximum transparency and awareness.Documents shall be transmitted and published via the web page, where appropriate.In addition, direct transmission of information to the partners will be used.A template for the deliverables will be elaborated so that all the project deliverables comply with the same form and structure.
Critical risk management
A detailed risk management plan will be created at the start of the project (as a part of the D1.2 Quality Plan) to clearly define how the bIoTope consortium will manage risks throughout the life of the project.This plan will include the creation of a risk log where risks will be identified by the Project Manager in close collaboration with the WP leaders, including also an account of actions to mitigate these risks.The risk exposure will be assessed for each of the identified risks, being derived from a calculation based on the effect/impact coupled with the probability of the risk. Specific mitigation strategies will be put in place and acted upon for risks the project is highly exposed to. The Project Manager will review each risk (based upon the risk’s impact and its likelihood) and define a mitigation and contingency plan that is aimed at preventing the risk from materialising or taking corrective action if the former fails.The mitigation plan will include the preventive actions to be performed, responsibilities to be assigned, and tentative dates by which the plan will be implemented.A contingency plan will also be defined in order to counter any risks that eventually materialise further on down the road.
Risk Monitoring
A mitigation plan for all identified risks will be defined and closely monitored by the project management team. Issue resolution and escalation will be defined for the project as per this mechanism.Risk will be analysed at project and/or engagement level. Once a risk is identified, it will be tracked and monitored during the course of the project in order to minimise its potential damage.This will be done via status reports and periodic management reviews of the project. A risk log outlining potential issues and contingency actions will be created at the start of the project.An initial list of key project risks for each WP has been identified and reported in the Table given on the next two pages.

Risk

Impact

Probability

Proposed risk-mitigation measures

WP1: Project Management

R1.1 Project partners fail to adhere to the strict development schedule and fail to deliver in time and high quality.

Critical

Medium

i) Redefine strategies for internal communication and monitoring by project coordinator to ensure full understanding of the complex dependencies between development tasks; ii) Use an online project management space to keep track of partner discussions, decisions and configure and store documentation; iii) Ensure the quality management procedures for deliverables are clear to partners. To avoid staffing shortfalls, partners commit to a fall back plan to bring in extra labour if tasks are late or of poor quality.

R1.2 Project partners fail to report their progress fully and accurately

Marginal

Low

Provide reporting training at the project kick-off meeting and supporting project partners by giving them plenty of notice and support during the first reporting period.

R1.3 A partner leaving the consortium or being unable to perform a task within the given time schedule or allocated budget.

Critical

Medium

Appropriate management procedures to remove the partner will be undertaken by the Coordinator. The next step will be to either reallocate the work to a partner having the necessary skills or to call for potential new partners to fill the gap. EC will be requested for GA amendment.

WP2: Requirements, Methods and Pilot Validation

R2.1 Fundamental conflicts between Privacy, Security and Usability.

Marginal

High

In conjunction with the Security and Privacy partners (e.g., Uni.lu), it will be possible to re-engineer or re-design specific processes throughout the project duration (e.g., for specific end-users in a specific pilot).

R2.2 Knowledge from the user requirements is not captured in a useful form for enabling the teams to create the project architecture.

Critical

Low

The technical partners will be engaged in the user requirements gathering to ensure the outcomes from the process can be easily understood and used. Furthermore, the bIoTope project puts particular emphasis on the Data Management Plan (cf. §2.1.5), e.g., using common and interoperable format, templates…

R2.3 Use case definitions forming the base for WP6 are too complex and cannot be realised during the project.

Critical

Low

Based on a well-evaluated state of the art, the use cases as well as the research actions will be defined in accordance to the available capacity of both the project partners and extended partners, thus ensuring that the defined scenarios can be realised in the most innovative and beneficial way for future exploitation.

R2.4 Conflicts between industrial partners developing commercial software based on the project results and the OSS policies

Critical

Marginal

During the requirements analysis, the OSS policies and methods in the area of non-competitive specifications will be defined in Task 2.B, along with IPR management (including conflict risks) will be carried out in Task 8.E in order to ensure the access rights to foreground and background exploitations.

WP3: Building a Secure, Open, Standardised IoT Service Architecture

R3.1 O-MI and O-DF standards (i.e., Open API standards for Systems-to-Systems in the IoT) do not become widely used

Marginal

Medium

Both standards were published in October 2014; it is thus difficult to assess how widely used they will be. However, even if other standards would become more widely used, the bIoTope Service Value Chain will remain unchanged and could work on other standards (e.g., using the bIoTope API mediator).

R3.2 Software development carried out in WP3-WP5 do not respect coding directives

Critical

Low

A Task for each RTD WP including software developments is dedicated to make sure that the involved partners respect the coding procedures and conventions (the Technical Manager will also follow this).

WP4: Context-Aware Service Provisioning for IoT

R4.1 Partners do not agree on a common framework for context representation, validation and reasoning.

Criticial

Medium

Extensive research and development in the theory of ContextSpaces (CSIRO) has proven its applicability and generic nature. It will be offered as a basis with complements from Context-Broker (Gartner) and contributions from other partners.

R4.2 Data storage and filtering do not scale and cope with the volume, velocity, variety and value of incoming data streams.

Critical

Low

Scalability of IoT data storage will be addressed from the very beginning and every effort will be made to keep scalability and performance issues at the top of the T4.B research agenda.

WP5: User Interactions Development and Adaptation

R5.1 Problems occurring in WP3 and WP 4 could lead to unexpected issues due to WP5’s dependencies

Critical

Medium

Keeping the process in WP3 and WP4 in view and start early communication and coordination between the members of the different WPs, so that WP5 is informed about possible issue within WP3 and WP4. Furthermore, Open Calls may be an option to bring a required expertise to address the issues or gaps.

R5.2 Widgets based on the identified interaction patterns exceed the graphical processing capacities of mobile devices.

Marginal

Low

Due to the rapid development in the hardware capacities the focus can be on more sophisticated devices. However, the development of graphical processing capacity of current devices should be kept in view and the trends should be considered in developing the widgets.

WP6: Pilot Deployment and Testing

R6.1 Pilot use cases cannot be implemented due to technical or regulatory issues.

Critical

Low

Close communication and collaboration among the project management, technical partners, and the pilots to find solutions and determine work-arounds. If this fails, we determine an alternative for the pilot location, and if necessary, a change in DOW will be requested.

R6.2 Low take up by pilot users

Critical

Low

WP2 will play a key role to ensure that relevant needs and challenges facing IoT stakeholders are taken into account. Furthermore, Open Calls will enable to adapt the pilots as we go along, e.g. two distinct Open Call periods are defined (M8-M11; M21-M24) thus providing high flexibility in pilot development.

R6.3 The Open Call principle cannot be used to support the Smart Air Quality City Pilot

Negligi-ble

Medium

As explained 1.3.3, if the pilot cannot be achieved, this will not compromise the project for two reasons: i) we have enough use cases; ii) the money we planned to use for this use case (from the Open Call budget) could be used for defining another pilot (or even translating the smart air quality scenario) in another city.

WP7: Open Call Management and Support

R7.1 Open call focus does not match the needs of users and pilots use cases

Critical

Low

The Open Call methodology will be drafted based on city stakeholder requirements. The know-how of Consortium partners such as AALTO:CKIR and FVH in organising open calls will be exploited.

R7.2 Low interest in the Open Call

Critical

Low

Targeted communication campaign towards stakeholders and local developer communities. Tailored supporting materials and channels to achieve a high participation in the Open Call.

WP8: Dissemination, Exploitation, Evaluation and Standardization

R8.1 Inconsistencies or weaknesses in communication fail to maximise the impact of the project

Marginal

Low

A clear and consistent set of guidelines to govern the presentation of the project across all channels will be designed and then enforced with the support of the project manager and a strict adherence to internal targets for communications per-partner. Furthermore, to reduce such a risk, a Dissemination and Communication Manager role has been defined in the overall project management structure (§3.2)

R8.2 Dissemination fails to reach the targeted audiences and stakeholders groups.

Critical

Low

Specific goals regarding target groups will be set up and the commercialisation strategy adapted to the context will be developed. A first insight into such dissemination activities is given in §2.1.4

R8.3 Certain partners fail to participate fully in the dissemination process or perform sub-standard communications of the project.

Marginal

High

The risk will be minimised by a clear and consistent set of guidelines to govern the presentation of the project across all channels and then enforce this with the support of the project manager and a strict adherence to internal targets for communications per-partner.

R8.4 Business case is unclear

Critical

Low

Additional consultations with stakeholders and pilot partners to re-evaluate value chain will be carried out
Consortium as a whole
The core partners of bIoTope are AALTO, EPFL, BIBA and Holonix (a spinoff from Politecnico di Milano), who are also the founding members of the IoT Work Group of The Open Group (TOG). These partners have worked together at least since 2003 when preparing the EU FP6 Lighthouse project PROMISE (2004-2008), which also laid the base for the first IoT Systems of Systems standards (O-MI/O-DF), published by TOG in 2014. These partners are also worldwide pioneers regarding IoT and Smart Connected Objects. AALTO developed the first fully operational IoT middleware according to the Call’s vision of IoT and Smart Connected Objects in 2001. AALTO and Cambridge University (another PROMISE partner) published the first papers and real-life applications of Smart Connected Objects using the term “Intelligent Products” in 2003 [33]. Product Avatars were introduced in 2003 simultaneously by AALTO and BIBA as a distributed model for identity- and data management for the IoT and Smart Connected Objects. Meanwhile, EPFL described the Closed-Loop Lifecycle Management model in 2003, which was a cornerstone for PROMISE applications. Closed-Loop Lifecycle Management describes very similar concepts as the much more recent term Industrial Internet (2012). The team has proven to work well together also within other EU projects such as EU FP7 LinkedDesign, EU FP7 FITMAN, H2020 FALCON. The bIoTope’s core team has therefore a unique experience and background knowledge on IoT and Smart Connected Objects on a worldwide scale [34]. bIoTope complements this unique IoT experience with competences in:
· Security and Privacy of Uni.lu, particularly the Interdisciplinary Centre for Security, Reliability and Trust that is very motivated by the lack of 2nd bIoTope’s challenge, i.e. ”get in place a clear framework for Security, Privacy and Trust that facilitates the responsible access, use, and ownership of data”;
· Context-awareness of CSIRO, particularly the team from Autonomous Systems Program at Digital Productivity Flagship that consists (in the bIoTope project) of highly qualified scientists in this domain such as Prof. Arkady Zaslavsky (see e.g. his recent survey on “Context aware computing for the internet of things” published in 2014, who is an active member of W3C, ISO/IETC, which is very important from the bIoTope standardization work perspective;
· Information analysis and visualisation of Fraunhofer ‘Institute for Intelligent Analysis and Information Systems’ (IAIS), particularly the “Organized Knowledge” department that is one of the most renowned research institutions in the data science area, with an extremely strong track record in data mining, machine learning, semantic technologies, information retrieval and software engineering. Fraunhofer is a key partner of the MobiVoc project (involving BMW, BIBA and eccenca) and will thus have a key role in the Smart Mobility pilot;
All have academic merits in their domains and have participated in earlier successful EU projects in the IoT clusters such as IERC or FI-PPP. For instance, CSIRO contributed (as official partner) to the last project in the IERC cluster with the OpenIoT EU FP7 project.
A set of bIoTope SME partners have been selected to provide complementary existing platforms and skills that can be combined into a complete IoT solution provider ecosystem. CT has an existing platform for connecting any Smart Connected Objects to the IoT in a secure and scalable way, including bi-directional communication for remote control and configuration. Cityzendata’s platform provides rapid transfer, filtering and storage of sensor data, as well as other data from Smart Connected Objects. eccenca provides platforms and software components for performing data analysis and knowledge engineering as well as data integration of the collected data and information by employing semantic technologies.. Holonix’s iLike platform is developed for Industrial Internet purposes and the Virtual Obeya tool allows to create collaboration web spaces that will be used in bIoTope. itrust consulting (awarded “Start-up of the Year 2008”) will complement and work closely with Uni.lu on security and privacy aspects; itrust has several turnkey products and services that can be deployed or adapted to the bIoTope needs to tackle information security management systems, risk management, penetration testing, digital signature, or still cryptology aspects. For instance, cryptology solutions will be of utmost importance when investigating new Block Chain technologies and networks such as Bitcoin.in the “Safe Micro-Billing for IoT” task (T3.C). OpenDataSoft operates an open data platform for several large cities, notably cities of Brussels, Paris, Toulouse, Durham, NC, as well as a graphical dashboard for Smart City-related information. Such a network will be a key asset for dissemination, communication and exploitation activities in bIoTope.
Further complementary skills and extended project partners will be included according to Pilot requirements through Open Calls. In this regard, bIoTope tried to incorporate partners that have know how Open Calls work (based on past experience), how rules must be defined, how extended project partners must be supported, etc. To this end, bIoTope decided to involve:
· The Centre for Knowledge and Innovation Research (CKIR) at AALTO School of Business. CKIR coordinates the facilitation and support action for the 600 Million euro Future Internet PPP Program, and facilitated the definition of IPR rules and open call definitions and rules to FIWARE and other FI-PPP projects. CKIR has acted as coordinator in several Future Internet Research (FIRE) CSA projects, developing rules of engagement, indicators and tools for community orchestration and mobility;
· Forum Virium Helinski (FVH) that have long history of working with open data activists in Helsinki and Europe[footnoteRef:15], and to some extent in US as well (see e.g. or history of Apps4Finland). FVH has also good hands-on experience and understanding of where apps-competitions and some other kind of open calls work and where they do not, what the “open data” -driven developer scene is good in doing. FVH will actively work with AALTO:CKIR to investigate a new approach for ecosystem orchestration in T7.A. [15:http://www.hri.fi/en/news/hri-wins-eus-prize-for-innovation/]
Large-scale pilots will be implemented for domain-specific pilots: Smart Houses and Equipment (Enervent, CT), Smart Mobility (BMW), Smart Air quality Monitoring (CSIRO/Australia). These domain-specific pilots will be parts of cross-domain Large-Scale Pilots in big cities (Brussels, Helsinki, Lyon). Three pilot cities have been included for cross-domain pilots so that the implementation and use of bIoTope solutions can be validated in different environments, while providing a proof-of-concept of their ‘replicability’. These pilots provide true use cases around which the initial bIoTope ecosystem can be created, while proving the ecosystem’s economical and business-wise sustainability.
This combination of unique IoT experience, commercial solution providers and end-users is a guarantee of the quality and efficiency of implementation of bIoTope. To complement Table 2 in which we presented the‘Skill matrix’ with regard to the bIoTope RTD activities (XaaS-oriented), we present in Table 12 a higher level of the partner skill matrix, considering the expertise areas of each partner. With this carefully composed consortium, we believe to be able to fully accomplish bIoTope objectives, while finding equilibrium between visionary research, EU expectations, applied innovation, industrial relevance, and the creation of new business opportunities.

Area of expertise

AALTO:CS

AALTO:CKIR

EPFL

Uni.lu

Fraunhofer

BIBA

CSIRO

TOG

BMW

eccenca

OpenDataSoft

Cityzen Data

Holonix

itrust

Enervent

CT

ISP

FVH

Greater Lyon

Brussels Mob.

Foundation

Security and privacy

x

x

x

0.1.1.1

0.1.1.2 Data management & integration

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Ontologies / Logics

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0.1.1.3

0.1.1.4 Big Data Management

x

x

x

x

x

x

0.1.1.5 Technology

0.1.1.6 Context Awareness

x

x

x

x

x

0.1.1.7

0.1.1.8 Adaptive UI and Web 2.0

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0.1.1.9

0.1.1.10 System integration

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0.1.1.11

0.1.1.12 Interface design, standards

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0.1.1.13

0.1.1.14 Internet of things

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0.1.1.15

0.1.1.16 Semantic Web

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0.1.1.17 Application fields

0.1.1.18 Smart Cities

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0.1.1.19

0.1.1.20 Smart Mobility

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0.1.1.21

0.1.1.22 Smart Building & Equipment

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0.1.1.23

0.1.1.24 Smart Air quality Monitoring

x

x

x

x

x

0.1.1.25

Smart Manufacturing

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Open Calls

x

x

x

x

x

x

Business, Dissemination

x

x

x

Project Management

x

x

Table 12: Competence mapping
Resources to be committed
All partners come from EU Member states, with the exception of EPFL and CSIRO. CSIRO is an internally renowned research agency that excels in the core bIoTope subjects. The inclusion of CSIRO in the consortium serves multiple objectives:
· It injects missing expertise in the consortium, mainly in terms of the design and integration of large scale e-science experiments, involving multiple distributed geographically and administratively dispersed sensors. Indeed, CSIRO is a world-wide leader in this subject and the consortium could hardly find a EU based partner that could possess this expertise in the capacity possessed by CSIRO;
· It boosts the research collaboration of EU with other continents (Australia in this case), with a view to promoting exchange of ideas, best practices and research results. In the context of bIoTope the synergy of CSIRO with an EU consortium will result in “win-win” benefits;
· It broadens the scope and potential success of the bIoTope open source project and open source community. The active participation of partners and researchers from both Australia and the EU maximizes the chances of rapidly expanding the bIoTope ecosystem community worldwide.

N° Partner

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

Short
Partner
Name

AALTO:CS

AALTO:CKIR

EPFL

Uni.lu

Fraunhofer

BIBA

CSIRO

TOG

BMW

eccenca

OpenDataSoft

Cityzen Data

Holonix

itrust

Enervent

CT

ISP

FVH

Greater Lyon

Brussels

Total

IIRISNET

CIRB

Bruss. Mob.

WP1

8

2.5

3

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

18

1

1

1

1

1

52

WP2

12

2

5.5

9

4

20

6

6

5

3

3

3

4

3

6

4

3

9

9

4

4

4

128.5

WP3

18

0

0

26

0

10

4

0

0

9

2

2

4

21

0

19

0

0

0

0

0

0

115

WP4

19.5

0

32

13

20

8

22

0

0

6

0

11.5

6

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

140

WP5

8

0

6

0

18

0

6

0

0

7

16

0

11

0

0

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

76

WP6

9

2

6

0

5

5

8.5

0

13

6

0

3.5

0

0

12

6

2

10

10

4

4

4

110

WP7

0

12

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

10

10

2

5

6

51

WP8

9.5

14.5

10.5

4.5

5.5

9.5

4

28.5

5

4

2

3

4

2

3

2

3

6

6

7

5

3

141.5

Total PM

84

33

63

54

54

54

54

36

24

36

24

24

30

27

24

36

30

36

36

18

19

18

814
Table 13: Summary of staff effort
Other direct cost’ items
According to Table 13 (Table related to “Summary of Staff Effort”), the sum of the costs for’ travel’, ‘equipment’, and‘goods and services’ exceeds 15% of the personnel costs for AALTO, which is justifies I the following Table:

AALTO
(partner n°1)

Cost (€)

Justification

Travel

36 000 €

Aalto has a greater number of researchers than the other partners in bIoTope, which signifies more people travelling. Aalto is also the coordinator of the project, so at least the project director will need to travel to most meetings. Finally, distances and flight prizes tend to be significantly higher when traveling from Finland than elsewhere in Europe.

Advisory Board

25.000 €

This sum covers travel expenses (travel tickets, accommodation, daily allowances, etc.) of the Advisory Board. The Advisory Board support letter (provided in Appendix Y) provides greater details about how this budget has been calculated.

Other goods and services

10 000 €

This is a “Consumables” budget that has been allocated for poster and stand production costs, costs related to project web site and various other communication relatedcosts (flyers, brochures, etc.).

Total

71 000 €

OPEN CALLS budget

AALTO
(partner n°1)

Cost (€)

Justification

Direct costs of providing financial support to third parties –
Open Calls

750 000€

AALTO, and particularly the AALTO:CKIR is the partner who will supervise the Open Calls (WP7 lead) which includes the responsibility for financial management (monitoring of the budget, payment ofthe grants to the extended project partners) hence the attribution of the related budget. More details about the Open calls in §2.2.4 and 4.3).

Total

750 000 €

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