Posted: September 19th, 2022

Psy II


The scientific method allows us to pose questions, test questions, and analyze results. Through observation and research we begin to understand the world around us. Consider research you have read about or been a part of and analyze the following in one page:

· Was the Scientific method followed? How?

· What pieces were or were not part of it? (Randomization, study type, placebos, etc.)

For the second part, present a research project you would like to propose in approximately one page.

· How can it help us learn about basic principles of behavior?

· How can you use the scientific method to find and address possible problems in your research design?

This paper should be 2pages in length and use APA formatting (cover page, paper body formatting, citations, and references

This is an example rubric that was used for the last word


Identified the psychological issues from the 1st paper, with some explanation. 3

Identified the psychological issues from the 2nd paper, with some explanation. 3

Correctly defined at least one each contribution and limitation. 4

Identified future problems, with some supporting information. 4



Question 1

The scientific method is a human achievement that has continued to benefit us in developing new ideas and methods. Through research and testing, we have conquered various terrains and know more about what is in our environment.

One of the most famous psychology experiments that led to the development of a theory used the scientific method to come up with conclusions. B.F. Skinner researched behavior and developed the Behavioral reinforcement theory. He followed the scientific research method, which has five steps. These include first making an observation, then asking a question, testing the hypothesis and collecting data, examining the examination of results and concluding, and reporting the results.

Psychologists wanted to know how they could influence people’s behavior, which led to various scientists conducting different research. Skinner argued that people could learn new behaviors that could lead to either positive or negative outcomes if there is reinforcement as a hypothesis. As the scientific method requires, testing this hypothesis in a controlled environment was conducted on a dog using a bell. The bell was used as a reinforcement tool and was linked to feeding the dog (Ziafar & Namaziandost, 2019). In the beginning, the dog did not associate the food with the bell when it was rung. After some time, the dog got accustomed and associated the bell with food and started to salivate whenever the bell was rung, even without the sight of food. In the end, the experiment concluded that our minds could be induced towards certain behaviors if we have the right reinforcement or catalyst.

Question 2

One of the topics I would like to research is the impact of caffeine on performance as stimulant caffeine affects brain activity and the whole nervous system having an impact on the cognition performance of the brain itself. It is recommended in small doses as it leaves people feeling refreshed and focused, but what happens if the limit is passed? Just like in the scientific method, we start by asking this question. Too much of it is associated with fast heart rates, dizziness, dehydration, anxiety, restlessness, and insomnia. Caffeine also increases the circulation of adrenaline and other chemicals, such as cortisol. Cognitive effects are less studied. My research would look at the cognitive effects using the Stroop test. The Stroop test forms the basis of our hypothesis that different levels of caffeine will affect human cognition and decision-making differently.

The Stroop test is a neuropsychological test used to measure the levels of cognitive interference by the use of colors and words where the description of one stimulus is simultaneously affected by another. This method uses words and the colors of the words to give normative data that could be used to assess cognitive interference. A randomized sample will be used, incorporating different races, ages, ethnicities, and gender into the population sample. Participants will be asked to tell the colors of the words instead of reading the word. The study will help us know the adequate amounts of caffeine without negative effects on the body and how differently it affects our brain in matters of sports, exercise, and work. This experiment will enable us to come up with the right amounts of caffeine for the human body, the stress levels induced by caffeine, and the different things we ought not to do under high caffeine levels (Shabir et al., 2018). This experiment will use the scientific method as it incorporates the steps used in the methods and will come up with how it affects cognition differently based on the results.


Shabir, A., Hooton, A., Tallis, J., & F. Higgins, M. (2018). The influence of caffeine expectancies on sport, exercise, and cognitive performance. Nutrients, 10(10), 1528.

Ziafar, M., & Namaziandost, E. (2019). From Behaviorism to New Behaviorism: A Review

Study. Liquid: English Studies Journal, 12(2), 109-116.

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