Posted: September 4th, 2022

Question

rubricent x605054-PDF-ENG.PDF

Analysis Sections Points

1. Opportunity Evaluation 25

Product/ Service strengths; weakness

Analyze market segment; potential

How attractive (or not) is the industry: Direct/ Indirect Competitors

Analyze trends; regulations; other issues

What is the stage: Risk? Proof? (secondary; primary; real)

Analyze pricing, including value added and margins

Your analysis: How good is the opportunity and long-term sustainability

2. Business & Marketing Strategy 25

Product/ Service strengths; weakness
Analyze market segment; potential
How attractive (or not) is the industry: Direct/ Indirect Competitors
Analyze trends; regulations; other issues
What is the stage: Risk? Proof? (secondary; primary; real)
Analyze pricing, including value added and margins
Your analysis: How good is the opportunity and long-term sustainability

3. Management 25

What are the management needs for the business to achieve its goals?

Evaluate management/ team v. needs: Education; expertise; industry; track record; motivation

4. Analysis and Recommendations? 25

Key pros

Key negatives

Financial Analysis – Specify how much money the company will make (projections) and any other financial information to make your case (ex. current financial performance and discuss its impact on future earning potential)

What is your recommendation – invest, more study or reject. Study costs. Must include quantitative analysis to further enhance your recommendation

9-605-054
R E V : J U N E 3 0 , 2 0 0 5

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Professor Frances X. Frei and Research Associate Hanna Rodriguez-Farrar prepared this case. This case was developed from published sources
and certain details have been disguised. HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as
endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management.

Copyright © 2005 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685,
write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to http://www.hbsp.harvard.edu. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the permission of Harvard Business School.

F R A N C E S X . F R E I

Zipcar: Influencing Customer Behavior

Anita Karr frantically gathered everything she needed for her road trip: water, her favorite “mix”
CD from Javier (the ex-boyfriend), ear plugs. After years as a struggling musician her sister was
making her debut as the new drummer for No Bags to Check, a performance art/hard rock band that
was gaining momentum on the East Coast college circuit. The venue for this breakthrough in her
sister’s career was Lupo’s in Providence, Rhode Island and Karr had to be there.

Living in Cambridge a car hadn’t been necessary; most of the places she needed to visit on a daily
basis were within walking distance of Karr’s Valentine Street apartment. To visit her sister across the
river, grocery shop, and run errands Karr relied on Zipcar, which she had signed up for a year ago
rather than continue to pay for parking, car insurance, and gas. For tonight’s trip she had reserved
weeks ago, using Zipcar’s convenient online reservation system, a VW Jetta Jericho. It was 3:30 pm.
Karr was scheduled to pick up the Jetta at 4:00 pm, her sister by 4:30 pm, and arrive at Lupo’s by 6:00
pm. Both she and her sister had figured that this was more than enough time to get to Boston from
Cambridge, load the drums, and make Providence by the appointed hour. Karr made one final
sweep of her belongings—she couldn’t find Javier’s Best of Bob Dylan CD, which she had
conveniently forgotten to return—then gathered her bags and headed for the Charles Hotel where
she expected the Jetta Jericho to be gassed up and ready to go.

In Brookline Sal Fishman glanced nervously at his Iron Man-branded “expedition” watch as 3:30
pm approached. He was confident that the watch had helped him communicate vitality and focus
during his two-hour interview with representatives of the Simon Property Group, owner of the
Chestnut Hill Mall. Fishman had been advised that the introductory interview would last no more
than an hour. But to his considerable surprise he had been asked to stay beyond the one-hour time
frame. The interview was going well and everyone, himself included, seemed to be having a good
time. Fishman had hedged his bets when he reserved the Zipcar for this interview. He had picked
up the Jetta at 1:00 pm for the 2:00 pm interview and expected to return it by 3:30 pm. But with the
interview progressing well beyond the designated time Fishman found himself in a difficult position
regarding the car.

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800-988-0886 for additional copies.

605-054 Zipcar: Influencing Customer Behavior

2

Zipcar Service

Zipcar was a car-sharing service. Members, who paid annual fees to participate and were assessed
usage fees, based on time and mileage, monthly, were provided common use of the service’s vehicles
independently of one another. Started in Boston in 1999, the company had expanded to 21 cities and
owned more than 400 cars. (Exhibit 1 lists Zipcar locations as of 2004.)

By January 2005 Zipcar had 30,000 registered members, the largest active membership base of any
car-sharing service in the United States.1 On average 1,500 new members joined monthly. Growth in
2004 was fueled by numerous partnerships forged between Zipcar and universities. Tufts, for
example, had partnered with Zipcar to provide two fuel-efficient cars to its Medford campus and
negotiated a reduced membership fee for students. The administration provided deposits and
parking spaces for the cars. The partnership had originated in May 2003, reflecting a pledge by
President Bacow that Tufts would strive to achieve environmental goals.2

Zipcar had positioned its service as a low-cost alternative to car rental and ownership (see Exhibit
2). Recently, it had expanded its vehicle fleet to include luxury cars and SUVs. In Boston a BMW 325i
rented for $12.50 per hour, a Honda Civic for $8.50 per hour. (Exhibit 3 lists a selection of vehicles
available in Boston’s Back Bay with associated rates.)

Tara Diab, a typical Zipcar customer, had sold her truck and motorcycle and had no plans to
replace them. Although she drove a van for work, Diab not infrequently took recourse to one of
Zipcar’s BMW 325is. “It’s way cheaper,” she explained, adding: “Besides, nobody wants to go on a
date in a work van.”

3

Members signed up for the service online. Initial fees included $25 to cover a driver’s license
check and a refundable $100 deposit. Annual membership fees ranged from $50-$250 depending on
the plan type. (Exhibit 4 describes the plans available to Boston residents.) Rental periods could be
as short as a few hours or as long as a few days. (Exhibit 5 details daily and hourly usage fees by
region.) Every reservation included 125 free miles; beyond that $0.20 per mile was charged to cover
gas. (Exhibit 6 presents a company explanation of how Zipcar works.)

Members could either call or go online to reserve a car. Reservations could be made as much as a
year in advance or minutes before a car was needed. Each car was provided with a permanent
parking location and a name that indicated the make and model, for example, Toyota Matrix Myrna,
Ford Focus Freddie, VW Jetta Jakarta, and Toyota Prius Pascale. Members were provided with a
Zipcard that unlocked their preferred vehicle and provided access to the keys locked inside.4 A
member who made a reservation simply went to the location of the reserved car and swiped the
Zipcard over the transponder in the windshield.

Insurance was included in the usage fees for Zipcars and members were responsible for filling the
gas tank when the gauge registered a quarter or less using a declining balance card kept with the
vehicle. Zipcar provided routine maintenance for the cars and members who washed their cars were
reimbursed up to $15 and given a free hour of use. In the event of a breakdown or accident the
member was required to telephone the company as soon as possible. Members paid tolls and parking

1 The only major competition in the car-sharing service business was Seattle-based Flexcar. In 2004, the only city in which both
Flexcar and Zipcar operated was Washington, D.C.

2 “Tufts U.: Tufts U. students offered Zipcar discount,” U-Wire, October 15, 2004.

3 Marc Daniel, “Car-Sharing Allows Marriage of Utility, Luxury,” Boston Globe, November 7, 2004, B7.

4 Theft of Zipcars was prevented by integrating the ignition system with the sensor that unlocked the door.

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800-988-0886 for additional copies.

Zipcar: Influencing Customer Behavior 605-05

4

3

tickets and were responsible for returning the Zipcar to its designated parking location at the end of
the reservation.

Should He Stay or Should He Go?

Karr gasped when she arrived at the Charles Hotel Zipcar parking space and found no car. She
anxiously called her sister to let her know that she was on the way, and then called Zipcar hoping to
track the car down. She knew she had included some extra time in her planning, but that time was
running out. With no backup plan for getting to Providence, Karr listened nervously as the telephone
rang at Zipcar headquarters.

Fishman excused himself from his interviewers to call Zipcar from his GPS-enabled 3G cell phone
and extend his reservation. The phone was ringing when one of the interviewers stepped out and
waved Fishman back to the room. Before Zipcar could pick up the line Fishman hung up. He
walked back down the hall, debating whether he should continue the interview or schedule another
time so that he could return the car.

This document is authorized for use only by Michael Mata (mmata036@fiu.edu). Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Please contact customerservice@harvardbusiness.org or
800-988-0886 for additional copies.

605-054 Zipcar: Influencing Customer Behavior

4

Exhibit 1 Zipcar Locations and Numbers of Cars in 2004

State City/Neighborhood Number of Cars
Massachusetts Alston/Brighton 10
Boston-Back Bay 22
Boston-Beacon Hill/West End 13
Boston-Fenway/Longwood 13
Boston-Financial District/Seaport 13
Boston-North End 13
Boston-South End 19
Brookline 21
Cambridge-Central 30
Cambridge-East & Kendall 10
Cambridge-West & North 12
Charlestown 1
Dorchester 1
Jamaica Plain 11
Medford 2
Somerville 1

5

South Boston

6

Wellesley College 2

New York Brooklyn-Cobble Hill 1
Brooklyn-Downtown 1
Brooklyn-Dumbo 1
Brooklyn Heights 2
Brooklyn-Park Slope 6
Brooklyn-Prospect Heights 2
Long Island City 1
Manhattan-Lower 25
Manhattan-Midtown 33
Manhattan-Upper East 14
Manhattan-Upper West 1

8

New Jersey Hoboken 4
Metro North 3
Princeton 2

North Carolina UNC Chapel Hill 4

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800-988-0886 for additional copies.

Zipcar: Influencing Customer Behavior 605-054

5

Exhibit 1 Zipcar Locations and Numbers of Cars in 2004 (continued)

State City/Neighborhood Number of Cars
Washington, DC Adams Morgan 19
American University/Tenley 4
Capitol Hill 10
Cathedral Heights/Glover Park 4
Catholic University/Brookland 1
Cleveland Park 5
Columbia Heights/Mount Pleasant 12
Downtown

7

Dupont Circle 18
Farragut Square 2
GWU/Foggy Bottom 8
Georgetown 4
Howard University/Shaw 9
Logan/Thomas Circle 10
U Street 3
Van Ness 6
Woodley Park 4

Maryland Silver Spring 3
Takoma Park 3
Greenbelt 2

Virginia Alexandria 1
Arlington North 11
Arlington South 2

Source: Compiled from company web site.

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800-988-0886 for additional copies.

605-054 Zipcar: Influencing Customer Behavior

6

Exhibit 2 How Zipcar Compares to Car Rental and Car Ownership

Source: Zipcar web site.

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800-988-0886 for additional copies.

Zipcar: Influencing Customer Behavior 605-054

7

Exhibit 3 A Selection of Boston Back Bay Zipcars

Car Name Daily Price Hourly Price
Civic Cullen $65.00 $8.50
MINI Mojito $70.00 $9.50
Escape Edith $75.00 $10.50
BMW 325 Bethany $90.00 $12.50

Source: Compiled from company web site, December 2004.

Exhibit 4 Zipcar Boston Plans

Occasional Driving Plan Members paid an initial $25 application processing fee, a $50 annual
fee, and hourly and/or daily usage fees. Gas, parking, insurance, and maintenance were included in
all reservations. Credit card information was maintained on file and the card automatically charged
after each reservation.

Extra 50 Members paid an initial $25 application processing fee, pre-paid a $50 monthly fee, and
received a 10% discount on each month’s driving. Usage in excess of the $50 monthly fee was charged
at the prevailing rates. This was a “use it or lose it” plan, meaning that any balance remaining from
the $50 monthly fee did not roll over to the next month.

Extra 75 Members paid an initial $25 application processing fee, pre-paid a $75 monthly fee, and
received a 10% discount on each month’s driving. Usage in excess of the $75 monthly fee was charged
at the prevailing rates less a 10% discount. Any balance remaining from the $75 monthly fee was
rolled over to the next month.

Source: Compiled from company web site, December 2004.

Exhibit 5 Zipcar Pricing by Region

Daily Price Range Hourly Price Range
Massachusetts $60-$90 $8.50-$12.50
North Carolina $55 $5.00
Washington, DC $59-$89 $8.50-$12.50
Maryland $59 $8.50
Virginia $59-$69 $8.50-$10.50

New York/New Jersey Pricing

M-F Daily Price Range M-F Hourly Price Range S-S Daily Price Range S-S Hourly Price Range

$65.00-$100.00 $8.50-$12.00 $65.00-$130.00 $8.50-$16.00

Source: Compiled from company web site, December 2004.

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800-988-0886 for additional copies.

605-054 Zipcar: Influencing Customer Behavior

8

Exhibit 6 How Zipcar Works (Screen Shot from Web Site)

Source: Company web site.

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