Posted: September 18th, 2022
Show your solutions for the exercises below, including all the equations you used, all the calculations you performed and at least three relevant screen shots.
Objective: Use concepts of oscillations in the given pendulum and find out its time period.
Material: Use this Phet simulation for Simple Pendulum.
Part I – Find out time period (T) of Pendulum.
1. When you click to this website, it will take you to this page.
2. Pick “Intro” from this screen. Then you will see this page.
3. Test each button on this page to understand their functions.
4. Now pick one particular length (L), mass (M) and gravity of Earth, No friction.
5. Use stopwatch to record time of oscillation of the pendulum and pick “Slow” motion on the screen before you deviate your pendulum. The screen will look like this.
6. Now deviate pendulum on left side by -33 degrees and the screen will show you that angle. See in the screen shot here.
7. Count it as zero and also start your stopwatch at this time. Let the pendulum oscillate.
8. Count 1 when pendulum reaches to the same position where it started.
9. Keep counting for 10 oscillations and record time of 10 oscillations and then stop the stopwatch. See the screen shot here.
10. The time shown in the stopwatch is the time for 10 oscillations here and it is t = 0.1705 s.
11. Now use this time “t” to calculate Experimental time period “T” using this formula.
Texp = t/10.
12. Now calculate theoretical time period of the pendulum using this formula where g = 9,81 m/s^2.
Tth = 2*pi*√(L/g)
13. Now find out percent error in between these time periods using this equation.
% error = (Tth-Texp)*100/Tth
Part II – Find out time period (T’) of Pendulum when mass is increased.
14. Now repeat all steps from step 6 -13 with a different mass of the pendulum. Try picking up a heavier mass.
15. You are changing mass only. Rest of the things will stay same as before i.e., Length, gravity and friction.
16. How time period of the pendulum with heavier mass (T’) is different than time period (T) you found in the Part 1?
Part III – Find out time period (T”) of Pendulum when length has increased.
17. Now repeat all steps from step 6 -13 with a longer length of the pendulum. Keep mass same as part I.
18. You are changing length only. Rest of the things will stay same as before i.e., mass, gravity and friction.
19. When you are calculating theoretical time period Tth, use new length of the pendulum there.
20. How time period of the pendulum with longer length (T”) is different than time period (T) you found in the Part 1?
Part IV – Find out time period (T’”) of Pendulum when gravity has increased.
21. Now repeat all steps from step 6 -13 with same length, mass and friction as before you had in part I but change gravity from Earth to any other place.
22. You are testing effect of gravity here. Make sure when you calculate theoretical time period of the pendulum Tth, use your changed gravity.
23. How time period of the pendulum with different gravity (T’”) is different than time period (T) you found in the Part 1?
Part V – Find out time period (T’’”) of Pendulum when angle of deflection is changed to lower value of angle.
24. Now repeat all steps from step 6 -13 with same length, mass, friction and gravity as you have used in Part I, but change the angle of deflection to any smaller number than -33 degrees, example is 20 degrees.
25. You are testing effect of angle that is used to deviate pendulum here.
26. How time period of the pendulum with different gravity (T’’”) is different than time period (T) you found in the Part 1?
27. Now type a full lab report and show your all results, screen shots, calculations, and discussion and conclusion.
28. In discussion and conclusion, show how time period of the pendulum is affected by mass, length, gravity, angle.
© 2022 Dr Dipti Sharma
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