Posted: September 20th, 2022

Question

PH3120.HW8 xjournal.pone.0246226

PH
3

1

20 Homework Assignment #8

DIRECTIONS: Please answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper. Include your name and CIN number on your homework assignment. Students are welcome to work in groups to complete homework assignments. However, each student must submit his/her own answers to receive credit. SHOW ALL OF YOUR WORK!

All the following questions are in relation to the following journal article which is available on Canvas Week 11

1. What makes this a cross sectional study?

2. How did the researchers obtain their study sample?

3. See Table 1, describe the study population?

4. How many of the study subjects were tested for covid-19?

5.

The researchers administered question about knowledge, practice and attitudes about covid-19. What is the range of possible scores for Knowledge? Practice? Attitudes?

6. In table 5, use he proportions and p-values to answer the following questions.

a. Is there a statistically significant difference in the proportion of undergraduates that believe “infection with the virus is associated with stigma” compared to the postgraduates?

b. Do medical students and allied health students mostly agree that “the current measures taken by the UAE government are effective in stopping the spread of the infection?

c. State the null hypothesis associated with the p-value calculated for 6b.

7. What is figure 2B telling you?

8. What are the three limitation of the study mentioned by the authors?

1

RESEARCH ARTICLE

COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices

of United Arab Emirates medical and health

sciences students: A cross sectional study

Noura Baniyas1, Mohamud Sheek-HusseinID
2*, Nouf Al Kaabi1, Maitha Al Shamsi1,

Maitha Al Neyadi1, Rauda Al Khoori1, Suad AjabID
2, Muhammad Abid2, Michal Grivna2,

Fikri M. Abu-Zidan3

1 United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates, 2 Institute of Public Health, United Arab

Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates, 3 Department of Surgery, College of Medicine and Health

Sciences, UAE University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates

* msheekhussein@uaeu.ac.ae

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic is the largest viral pandemic of the 21st century. We aimed to

study COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among medical and health sci-

ences students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). We performed a cross-sectional study

between 2 June and 19 August 2020. The survey was distributed online using Survey Mon-

key. It was conducted in English and comprised two parts: socio-demographic characteris-

tics, and KAP towards COVID-19. 712 responses to the questionnaire were collected. 90%

of respondents (n = 695) were undergraduate students, while 10% (n = 81) were postgradu-

ates. The majority (87%, n = 647) stated that they obtained COVID-19 information from mul-

tiple reliable sources. They were highly knowledgeable about the COVID-19 pandemic, but

76% (n = 539) did not recognize its routes of transmission. Medical students were signifi-

cantly more knowledgeable compared with allied health students (P<0.0001, Mann Whitney

U test) but there was no difference in knowledge between undergraduate and postgraduate

students (P = 0.14, Mann Whitney U test). Medical students thought that more could be

done to mitigate the COVID-19 situation compared with the allied health students (66.2%

compared with 51.6%, p = 0.002 Fisher’s Exact test). 63% (n = 431) were worried about get-

ting COVID-19 infection, while 92% (n = 633)) were worried that a family member could be

infected with the virus. 97% (n = 655) took precautions when accepting home deliveries,

94% (n = 637) had been washing their hands more frequently, and 95% (n = 643) had been

wearing face masks. In conclusion, medical and health sciences students in the UAE

showed high levels of knowledge and good attitudes and practices towards the

COVID-19

pandemic. Nevertheless, they were worried about themselves or their family members

becoming infected. Medical students had more knowledge about COVID-19 pandemic

which was reflected in their opinion that more can be done to mitigate its effects.

PLOS ONE

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226 May 12, 2021 1 / 15

a1111111111

a1111111111

a1111111111

a1111111111

a1111111111

OPEN ACCESS

Citation: Baniyas N, Sheek-Hussein M, Al Kaabi N,

Al Shamsi M, Al Neyadi M, Al Khoori R, et al.

(2021) COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and

practices of United Arab Emirates medical and

health sciences students: A cross sectional study.

PLoS ONE 16(5): e0246226. https://doi.org/

10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

Editor: Jenny Wilkinson, Endeavour College of

Natural Health, AUSTRALIA

Received: January 14, 2021

Accepted: April 24, 2021

Published: May 12, 2021

Peer Review History: PLOS recognizes the

benefits of transparency in the peer review

process; therefore, we enable the publication of

all of the content of peer review and author

responses alongside final, published articles. The

editorial history of this article is available here:

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

Copyright: © 2021 Baniyas et al. This is an open

access article distributed under the terms of the

Creative Commons Attribution License, which

permits unrestricted use, distribution, and

reproduction in any medium, provided the original

author and source are credited.

Data Availability Statement: All relevant data are

within the paper and its Supporting Information

files.

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4925-2447

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8534-0981

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

http://crossmark.crossref.org/dialog/?doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0246226&domain=pdf&date_stamp=2021-05-12

http://crossmark.crossref.org/dialog/?doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0246226&domain=pdf&date_stamp=2021-05-12

http://crossmark.crossref.org/dialog/?doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0246226&domain=pdf&date_stamp=2021-05-12

http://crossmark.crossref.org/dialog/?doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0246226&domain=pdf&date_stamp=2021-05-12

http://crossmark.crossref.org/dialog/?doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0246226&domain=pdf&date_stamp=2021-05-12

http://crossmark.crossref.org/dialog/?doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0246226&domain=pdf&date_stamp=2021-05-12

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Introduction

COVID-19 pandemic is one of the major global threats of the 21st century. Its virus (SARS–

CoV-2) was isolated after causing a cluster of fatal pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China [1]. The

pandemic spread swiftly because of the rapid transportation methods with major global impact

on physical and mental health and on the economy [2–4]. Currently more than 150 million

infected persons and 3 million deaths are attributed to this pandemic [5, 6].

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) was the first country in the Gulf Cooperation Council to

report a COVID-19 case (on January 29, 2020) which was linked to Wuhan [7]. In the UAE,

more than 450,000 infections and 1,470 deaths had been reported to March 28, 2021 [8]. Due

to the initial lack of availability of vaccines at the outset [9], each country adopted various

responses to COVID-19 to slow down transmission and to prevent oversaturation of health-

care systems. The UAE government issued a set of guidelines and preventive measures to fight

the spread of COVID-19, including the closure of borders, educational institutions, and shop-

ping malls; introduction of remote working rules; restriction of public movement; and imple-

mentation of personal hygiene measures including using face masks, social distancing, mass

screening of asymptomatic cases, and contact tracing [10].

If these measures are to be effective, adherence is essential, and this is influenced by people’s

knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) towards COVID-19 [11, 12]. KAP towards infectious

diseases, including acceptance of immunization, are associated with emotional reactions

which can affect virus transmission and control [9, 13, 14]. KAP involves a range of beliefs

about the causes of the disease, risk factors, identification of symptoms, and available methods

of treatment and their consequences [15]. These beliefs come from different sources, including

preconceptions concerning similar viral diseases, governmental information, social media and

the internet, previous personal experiences, and medical sources. These beliefs may drive pre-

ventive behaviours that can vary across different populations. Lack of knowledge or false medi-

cal beliefs may carry potential risks [16]. A study from Henan, China, showed that higher

levels of information were associated with more positive attitudes towards COVID-19 preven-

tive practices [16]. Perception of risk is important for prevention of infection during pandem-

ics [17–20].

University students can be a source of increased health awareness and health education not

only for themselves but also for those around them as they take part in the dissemination of

pandemic-related knowledge supporting the prevention and control of the pandemic [21, 22].

Recent studies from Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Japan have shown that medical students have

sufficient knowledge, positive attitudes, and proactive practices during the COVID-19 crisis

[23–25].

There are more than 138,000 students in the UAE colleges and universities [26]. From

March 2020 their classes were shifted to online learning which was a new learning experience

for them [27]. The students received information regarding COVID-19 by online lectures,

webinars, university websites, LinkedIn, WhatsApp groups, Facebook pages and Newsletters.

A recent study conducted in Sharjah University, UAE, showed that their students demon-

strated adequate knowledge, possessed good attitudes, and had low-risk practices towards pre-

vention of COVID-19 [28]. Nevertheless, this study was limited to a single university in UAE

and included both medical and non-medical students. We thought it was important to study

the KAP towards COVID-19 of medical and allied health sciences students in all UAE.

Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate the knowledge of COVID-19, awareness of preventive

behaviors, practice, and risk perception among the medical and allied health sciences students

in the higher education institutions in the UAE.

PLOS ONE Students and COVID-19 pandemic

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226 May 12, 2021 2 / 15

Funding: None.

Competing interests: The authors declare that they

have no competing interests.

Abbreviations: SARS-CoV-2, Severe acute

respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; COVID-19,

Coronavirus disease 2019; HCW, Healthcare

workers; ICU, Intensive care unit; ILO, International

Labour Organization; IFAD, The International

Fund for Agricultural Development; WHO, World

Health Organization; FAO, Food and Agriculture

Organization; KAP, knowledge, attitudes, and

practices; UAE, United Arab Emirates; UAEU,

United Arab Emirates University.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

Materials and methods

Ethical considerations

Ethical approval was obtained from the UAE University Social Research Committee [UAEU

ERS_2020_6119]. Participants’ data were anonymized at the point of registration. No personal

identifiable data were collected.

Study design

This is a cross-sectional study which was conducted among medical and health sciences stu-

dents in the UAE between 2nd June and 19th August 2020.

Sample size

We developed a sampling frame including the list of all medical and health sciences colleges

and universities in the UAE. As we did not have an access to the information about the num-

ber of students at relevant institutions we were not able to estimate a sample size. As the

method of data collection was an online-based survey, we used a non-probability sampling

approach, namely convenience sampling. The study invitation and survey link were sent

directly to the medical and health sciences colleges and universities in the UAE by e-mail and

circulated on multiple social media outlets including WhatsApp©. Participants were encour-

aged to forward the link to their fellow medical and health sciences students and to post it on

their social media platforms to maximize enrolment. Accordingly, we could not know the

response rate. The study invitation included an introduction, a brief description of the study,

and the link to the questionnaire. Respondents were grouped according to their educational

institutions.

Questionnaire design

The questionnaire was designed and developed in May 2020 based on two similar published

studies [29, 30] and on our own review article which was accepted for publication on 25th

March 2020 [3]. These three papers contained early knowledge about the COVID-19 pan-

demic. Zhong et al study was published on 15th March 2020 and contained 12 questions with

true, false, do not know answers [29] while Taghrir et al study [30] was published on 1st April

2020 and contained 15 questions with true/false answers. The attitude and practice sections of

Zhong et al [29] were measured using two questions each (agree, disagree, do not know or yes/

no). The attitude section of Taghrir et al [30] was measured using two items having a 4-point

Likert-type scale while practices were measured by 9 items using a yes/no answer.

Our questionnaire was developed under the direct supervision of an infectious disease

expert which was reviewed by another two experienced epidemiologists, one of them is a quali-

tative researcher. The questionnaire was then piloted among 10 participants for face and con-

tent validity. The questions were then modified, refined, rephrased, and restructured to be

simpler and clearer. The details of our final questionnaire are attached as S1 Appendix. Since

the COVID-19 pandemic is evolving quickly and hence influencing related knowledge and

attitudes we decided to depend on face and content validity, as reliability testing was not

feasible.

Consent was taken from the participants after providing a brief description of the study,

clarifying the voluntary nature of participation, and confirming the declaration of anonymity.

The questionnaire was conducted in English, and comprised two parts: socio-demographic

characteristics and KAP towards COVID-19. The KAP part consisted of 3 sections with a total

of 34 questions, described below.

PLOS ONE Students and COVID-19 pandemic

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226 May 12, 2021 3 / 15

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

Knowledge. This section included 12 multiple choice and true/false questions which

assessed the participants’ knowledge about COVID-19. The items included etiology of the dis-

ease, transmission of the virus, symptoms, incubation period, diagnostic tests, treatment

options, and prevention. In the knowledge section, respondents were given options to answer

true, false, or don’t know.

Attitude. This section included 6 questions which assessed the participants’ attitudes

towards the COVID-19 pandemic using a Likert scale. This was coded as follows: strongly dis-

agree = 1, disagree = 2, undecided = 3, agree = 4, strongly agree = 5. Items included fear of get-

ting infected, stigma around infected individuals, government measures, and participants’

confidence in the measures.

Practice. This section included 16 questions which assessed the participants’ practices related

to COVID-19 using multiple-choice questions, yes/no questions, and a Likert scale. The items

were related to practices and compliance with preventative measures and precautions imple-

mented by the government, such as social distancing, wearing face masks, and hand washing.

Statistical analysis

Knowledge level was calculated as follows: incorrect or uncertain responses were given a score

of 0, and correct answers were given a score of 1. Choosing a correct answer along with an

incorrect answer was given a score of 0.5. The total score for knowledge ranged from 0 to 26,

with high scores indicating better knowledge of COVID-19. Poor practices were given a score

of 0, and good practices were given a score of 1. Choosing a good practice with a bad practice

was given score of 0.5. The total score for practices ranged from 0 to 25, with high scores indi-

cating better COVID-19 practices.

Continuous data were presented as median (range) while categorical data were presented as

number (%). Percentages were calculated from the actual available responses. Continuous data

(age and scores) did not have a normal distribution, hence nonparametric statistical methods

were used to compare different groups as such methods analyse the ranks, do not need a nor-

mal distribution, and can be used for small groups. Categorical data of two independent

groups were compared using Fisher’s Exact test. while continuous data of two independent

groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test [31]. We used the Statistical Package for

the Social Sciences (IBM-SPSS version 26, Chicago, Il) for statistical analyses. A p value

of< 0.05 was accepted as statistically

significant.

Results

A total of 712 responses to the questionnaire were collected. Table 1 shows the detailed

demography of the participants. 90% (n = 695) of respondents were undergraduates, while

10% (n = 81) were postgraduates. The majority of respondents (87%, n = 647) obtained

COVID-19 information from multiple sources, 7% (n = 52) obtained it from social media,

while the rest 6%, (n = 48) relied on either medical platforms, healthcare professionals, govern-

ment media briefings, or university newsletters. 406 respondents (57%) attended webinars to

learn more about COVID-19.

Table 2 shows the comorbidities and COVID-19 history of the participants. 8% of the par-

ticipants who were tested for COVID-19 had a positive result. 85% (n = 506) had had a family

member or friend who was tested for COVID-19, of which 15% (n = 89) had a positive result.

Knowledge

A total of 712 respondents completed the knowledge section of the survey (Table 3). 76%

(n = 539) of participants did not recognize the correct routes of transmission of COVID-19,

PLOS ONE Students and COVID-19 pandemic

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226 May 12, 2021 4 / 15

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

although the majority of respondents correctly recognized its symptoms, average incubation

period, best diagnostic test, and its management (95%, 85%, 89%, 89% and 70% respectively).

The majority of the respondents were aware of the COVID-19 preventative measures, includ-

ing methods to reduce viral spread, isolation of positive cases, N95 mask use limited to health

care workers, and the necessity of following preventative precautions among young adults and

children (83%, 92%, 84%, and 87% respectively).

There was a highly significant difference in the overall scores representing knowledge on

COVID-19 between medical students and allied health students (median (range) 17.5 (8.5–23)

score compared with 16.5 (5–22.5), P<0.0001, Mann Whitney U test). This represented a 22%

difference of the mean rank which is considered as a practical difference. There was no

Table 1. Characteristics of respondents of the KAP survey collected between 2nd June and 19th August 2020.

Variables� Median or Number Range or %

Age (years) 20 (16–48)

Gender

Male 108 14%

Female 690 86%

Nationality

UAE 480 60%

Non-UAE 315 40%

Emirate of residence

Abu Dhabi 421 54%

Dubai 125 16%

Sharjah 94 12%

Ajman 60 8%

Ras Al Khaimah 55 7%

Fujairah 15 2%

Um Al Quwain 6 1%

Academic affiliation

UAE University (CMHS) 247 32%

Fatima College of Health Sciences 169 22%

RAK Medical & Health Sciences University 116 15%

Sharjah University 77 10%

Mohammed Bin Rashid University 48 6%

Gulf Medical University 46 6%

Ajman University 24 3%

Other Colleges 49 6%

Speciality

Medicine 431 56%

Nursing 117 15%

Pharmacy 49 6%

Physiotherapy 45 6%

Dental 44 6%

Radiology and Medical Imaging 21 3%

Biomedical Sciences 20 3%

Medical Laboratory Technology 17 2%

Others 29 4%

�All variables are expressed as number (%) except age which is expressed as median (range)

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.t001

PLOS ONE Students and COVID-19 pandemic

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226 May 12, 2021 5 / 15

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.t001

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

significant difference in knowledge scores between undergraduate and postgraduate students

(median (range) score 17.25 (5–23) compared with 17.5 (7.5–22.5), P = 0.14, Mann Whitney U

test) (Fig 1).

Attitude

A total of 686 respondents completed the attitudes section of the survey (Table 4). 63%

(n = 431) of participants were worried about getting COVID-19 infection, while the vast

majority (92%, n = 633) were worried that a family member could get infected with the virus.

67% (n = 461) of the respondents thought that infection with the virus is associated with

stigma. 83% (n = 570) agreed that the current measures taken by the UAE government are

effective in stopping the spread of the infection, and 89% (n = 614) were confident that the

UAE will be able to stop the spread of the virus. Nevertheless, 60% (n = 288) thought that

more measures could be implemented such as aggressive screening, full lockdown, further

education for the public, monitoring the media, and combatting rumors. Some were opposed

to the lockdown and suggested relaxing restrictions.

There were no significant differences in any of the negative attitudes between the medical

and allied health students or undergraduate and postgraduate students (Table 5). Nevertheless,

the medical students thought that more can be done to mitigate the situation compared with

the allied health students (176/266 (66.2%) compared with 112/217 (51.6%), p = 0.002 Fisher’s

Exact test). This difference was not significant between the undergraduate and postgraduate

students (261/435 (60%) compared with 27/49 (55.1%), p = 0.54 Fisher’s Exact test).

Practices

A total of 677 respondents completed the practices section of the survey (Table 6). 60%

(n = 407) did not attend family gatherings, and did not visit shopping malls, coffee shops,

industrial areas, hospitals or COVID-19 facilities for volunteering. 97% (n = 655) took precau-

tions when accepting home deliveries, 94% (n = 637) had been washing their hands more

Table 2. Comorbidities and COVID-19 history of the KAP survey respondents.

Variable Number (%)

Personal chronic condition

Asthma 28 37%

Diabetes 10 13%

Hypertension 5 7%

Inflammatory bowel disease 3 4%

Migraine 3 4%

Polycystic ovary syndrome 3 4%

Others 24 32%

Personal history of COVID-19

Tested for COVID-19 = yes 160 92%

Tested positive = yes 13 8%

Household history of COVID-19

Asymptomatic 16 19%

Quarantined with mild symptoms 57 67%

Admitted to hospital with severe symptoms 6 7%

Admitted to ICU with severe symptoms 3 4%

Died 3 4%

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.t002

PLOS ONE Students and COVID-19 pandemic

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226 May 12, 2021 6 / 15

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.t002

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

frequently, and 95% (n = 643) had been wearing face masks. Meanwhile, out of 666 respon-

dents almost all followed curfew timings set by the UAE government (99% (n = 658)). Overall,

most medical students and allied health sciences students followed proper practices.

There was no significant difference in the COVID-19 practice scores between medical stu-

dents and allied health students (median (range) 15 (0–25) score of compared with 15 (0–25),

P = 0.15, Mann Whitney U test, and between undergraduate and postgraduate students

(median (range) score of 15 (0–25) compared with 15.5 (0–24), P = 0.3, Mann Whitney U test)

(Fig 2).

Discussion

Our study has shown that the majority of medical and allied health students at UAE were

knowledgeable about COVID 19, worried about getting infected or having a member of their

family infected, and had proper practices and precautionary measures for preventing COVID-

19. Nevertheless, medical students were more knowledgeable about COVID-19 and thought

that more can be done to mitigate the COVID-19 situation compared with allied health stu-

dents. There was no difference in knowledge, attitudes, or practices towards COVID-19 pan-

demic between undergraduate and postgraduate students.

Table 3. Responses to the survey on COVID-19 knowledge.

Statement Correct Incorrect/

Uncertain

Total�

n (%)� n (%)�

COVID-19 is a new disease caused by virus SARS-CoV-2. 570 80% 142 20% 712

Answer: True
Which animal is most likely to transmit this virus to human? 633 89% 79 11% 712

Answer: Bat, Pangolin, or Civet Cat
SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted between humans by the following routes? 173 24% 539 76% 712

Answer: Respiratory droplet, or surfaces
Which of the following are COVID-19 symptoms? 679 95% 33 5% 712

Answer: Fever, Dry cough or with sputum, Shortness of breath, Nausea, Vomiting, diarrhea, Loss of taste or smell, Runny nose
What is the average incubation period of COVID-19? 602 85% 110 15% 712

Answer: 7–14 days
What is the best diagnostic test for COVID-19? 636 89% 76 11% 712

Answer: RT-PCR
COVID-19 can be treated by using the following: 500 70% 212 30% 712

Answer: Antiviral, Anti-malarial, or Convalescent plasma transfusion
Which of the following can reduce the spread of COVID-19? 591 83% 121 17% 712

Answer: Social distancing, Self-isolation, Wearing face masks, or Avoiding crowded places
People who are asymptomatic and COVID-19 test positive must stay at home until they are free of the infection: 653 92% 59 8% 712

Answer: True
Who should wear N95 masks? 601 84% 111 16% 712

Answer: Healthcare professionals who are dealing with COVID-19 patients
Persons with COVID-19 cannot transmit the virus to others when a fever is not present. 635 89% 77 11% 712

Answer: False

It is not necessary for children and young adults to take measures to prevent infection from COVID-19 virus. 616 87% 96 13% 712

Answer: False

Percentages may not total 100 because of rounding

�Percentages were calculated out of 712, which is the total number of respondents who completed the knowledge items

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.t003

PLOS ONE Students and COVID-19 pandemic

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226 May 12, 2021 7 / 15

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.t003

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

A recent study of Sharjah University students [28] compared COVID19–related KAP

between students of health-related and non-health related majors. Similar to our study, it was

carried out during the early period of the pandemic. Students of health-related majors had

higher knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic and used face masks more compared with

students of non-health related majors, despite both groups having the same attitudes [28]. A

study from 10 universities in China reported that knowledge of COVID-19 was significantly

higher in public universities and among medical majors compared with in private colleges and

among non-medical majors [22]. In contrast other studies from Japan [25] and India [32] did

not show any differences between medical and non-medical students. The high knowledge

about COVID-19 among medical and allied health students in the UAE is similar to findings

reported from Japan [25], Saudi Arabia [24], Portugal [33], and Pakistan [23] (96%, 86%, 82%,

72% respectively). These studies used different sets of questions to explore the KAP among

Fig 1. Box-and-whiskers plot of overall score for knowledge comparing medical students with allied health students

(A) and undergraduate students with postgraduate students (B). The box represents the 25th to the 75th percentile

IQR. The horizontal line within each box represents the median. ��� = p< 0.0001, Mann-Whitney U test, ns = non

significant.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.g001

PLOS ONE Students and COVID-19 pandemic

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226 May 12, 2021 8 / 15

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.g001

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

students; study populations are variable; and sampling techniques are different, although most

of them were carried out early in the pandemic. Studies on medical students found that they

generally had good knowledge about COVID-19, although this was less in preclinical years

compared with clinical years [23, 34]. Medical students are commonly asked for medical

advice from their family members which prompts them to learn more about COVID-19 [35,

36].

The high level of knowledge about COVID-19 among medical and allied health students in

the UAE may be attributed to their access to multiple reliable medical platforms, healthcare

professionals, government media briefings, and university newsletters. These sources may

have increased the existing knowledge of these students. It may also be related to the training

many of them had received as volunteers in the healthcare system [37]. The majority of our

respondents were aware of COVID-19 symptoms, the incubation period, diagnostic testing,

management, and the preventative measures. However, only 24% in our study correctly recog-

nized the route of COVID-19 transmission compared with other studies in which

Table 4. Responses to the survey on COVID-19 attitude.

Attitudinal Statement

Strongly

dis

agree

Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly

agree

Total�

Attitude with negative feeling n (%)� n (%)� n (%)� n (%)� n (%)�

You are worried that you will get COVID-19 40 6% 151 22% 64 9% 330 48% 101 15% 686

You are worried that a family member can get infected with this virus 8 1% 29 4% 16 2% 303 44% 330 48% 686

Infection with the virus is associated with stigma 53 8% 118 17% 54 8% 300 44% 161 23% 686

Attitude with positive feeling

The current measures taken by the UAE government are effective in stopping

the spread of the infection

16 2% 57 8% 43 6% 295 43% 275 40% 686

You are confident that the UAE will be able to stop the spread of the virus 4 1% 27 4% 41 6% 263 38% 351 51% 686

Percentages may not total 100 because of rounding

�Percentages were calculated out of 686, which is the total number of respondents who completed the Attitude items

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.t004

Table 5. Responses to the survey on COVID-19 attitude comparing medical students with allied health students and undergraduate with postgraduate student.

Medical Allied health Undergraduate Postgraduate

Attitude with negative feeling Strongly

agree/agree

Strongly

disagree/

Strongly

agree/agree

Strongly

disagree/

p Strongly

agree/agree

Strongly

disagree/

Strongly

agree/agree

Strongly

disagree/

p

n (%) disagree n (%) disagree n (%) disagree n (%) disagree

Attitude with negative feeling

You are worried that you will get

COVID-19

239 (67.9) 113 (32.1) 192 (71.4) 77 (28.6) 0.38 381 (68.5) 175 (31.5) 50 (75.8) 16 (24.2) 0.26

You are worried that a family member

can get infected with this virus

366 (95.6) 17 (4.4) 266 (93) 20 (7) 0.17 567 (94.5) 33 (5.5) 66 (94.3) 4 (5.7) 0.99

Infection with the virus is associated

with stigma

259 (73) 96 (27) 201 (72.8) 75 (27.2) 0.99 413 (73.4) 150 (26.6) 48 (69.6) 21 (30.4) 0.57

Attitude with positive feeling

The current measures taken by the

UAE government are effective in

stopping the spread of the infection

323 (88) 44 (12) 246 (89.5) 29 (10.5) 0.62 508 (88.3) 67 (11.7) 62 (91.2) 6 (8.8) 0.69

You are confident that the UAE will

be able to stop the spread of the virus

348 (96.4) 13 (3.6) 265 (93.6) 18 (6.4) 0.14 549 (95.1) 28 (4.9) 65 (95.6) 3 (4.4) 0.99

�Percentages were calculated out of 686, which is the total number of respondents who completed the Attitude items

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.t005

PLOS ONE Students and COVID-19 pandemic

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226 May 12, 2021 9 / 15

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.t004

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.t005

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

undergraduate students were quite knowledgeable about the route of transmission [22, 23].

COVID-19 is transmitted by respiratory droplets; however, airborne transmission may be pos-

sible during a medical procedure that generates aerosols [38]. This lack of knowledge was

unexpected, given that the majority of our respondents had access to freely available medical

resources for this information.

The majority of our participants had followed proper practices and precautionary measures

against COVID-19. 60% did not visit shopping malls, attend family gatherings, or go to coffee

shops, industrial areas and hospitals; and the majority reported good preventative practices

including hand washing, wearing face masks, and abiding by curfew timings. These findings

could be attributed to the strict lockdown at the time when the survey was launched, access to

trusted medical resources, and training in medical fields. These results are similar to those

reported among undergraduate medical students in China, Pakistan, and Iran [22, 23, 31].

The participants in our study reported both negative and positive feelings regarding the

pandemic, and the majority were worried that they or a member of their family might get

infected. It is important to note that this study was conducted during a period of rapid increase

in COVID-19 cases in the UAE. Most of the participants were confident that the UAE will be

able to stop the spread of the virus. They also believed that the current measures taken by the

UAE government were effective in stopping the spread of the infection although more can be

done. This positive attitude can be explained by the drastic measures taken by the UAE gov-

ernment to contain the spread of the virus [39].

Limitations

We have to acknowledge that our study has certain limitations. First, this study was conducted

using an online survey and mass web-based invitation, so our response rate is unknown. The

respondents were predominantly females and medical students. Consequently, the results of

the questionnaire all depended on the participants self-reported behaviors, with no means of

confirming whether the responses were exaggerated because of social desirability and selection

bias. Second, this study was begun in the early stages of the pandemic, when the UAE was

under lockdown, and continued for a while after the restrictions were lifted. Since then, more

information about the pandemic has been published and public health measures in the UAE

have changed. Thus, the results of the study may not represent the current COVID-19 KAP of

Table 6. Responses to the survey on COVID-19 practices.

Practice Statement Good

Practice

Bad

Practice

Total

n (%) n (%)

Have you visited any of the following places? 407 60%� 270 40%� 677

Shopping mall, Supermarkets, Family gatherings, coffee shops, industrial areas, hospitals for treatment, or COVID-19 facilities for

volunteering

Do you take precautions when accepting home deliveries? 655 97%� 22 3%� 677

Have you been washing your hands more frequently? 637 94%� 40 6%� 677

Have you been wearing face masks? 643 95%† 33 5%† 676

Do you follow the curfew timings set by the UAE government? 658 99%‡‡ 8 1%‡‡ 666

Did you discuss COVID-19 with anyone since the pandemic started? 664 99.7%‡‡ 2 0.3%‡‡ 666

Percentages may not total 100 because of rounding

�Percentages were calculated out of 677, which is the total number of respondents who completed that practice item

†Percentages were calculated out of 676

‡‡ Percentages were calculated out of 666

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.t006

PLOS ONE Students and COVID-19 pandemic

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226 May 12, 2021 10 / 15

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.t006

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

medical and health sciences students. Finally, we did not test the reliability of our question-

naire, depending mainly on face and content validity. Nevertheless, research methodology in

crisis situations differs from ordinary situations. We were keen to collect information to help

us in our disaster planning for mitigation despite some shortcomings in the methodology [3,

4]. A disaster is defined as “a situation in which available resources are insufficient for immedi-

ate need of medical care” [40]. COVID-19 epidemic is a disaster of the highest nature [41].

Research methods and ethics during disasters must be adapted quickly to accommodate the

situation so that that mitigation can be achieved, and lessons learned can be carried for the

future [42, 43]. The rapidly evolving situation of the COVID-19 pandemic, with its concomi-

tant changes in knowledge and practices, made it difficult to assess the reliability of our

Fig 2. Box-and-whiskers plot of overall score of practices towards COVID-19 comparing medical students with allied

health students (A) and undergraduate students with postgraduate students (B). The box represents the 25th to the

75th percentile IQR. The horizontal line within each box represents the median, ns = non significant.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.g002

PLOS ONE Students and COVID-19 pandemic

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226 May 12, 2021 11 / 15

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.g002

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

questionnaire in a routine way especially in the knowledge section, as our understanding of

COVID-19 was continuously changing.

Conclusions

Medical and health sciences students in the UAE showed high levels of knowledge, good atti-

tudes, and good practices towards the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, they were worried

about infection both of themselves and their family members. Medical students were more

knowledgeable about COVID-19 and thought that more can be done to mitigate the COVID-

19 situation compared with allied health students.

Supporting information

S1 Appendix.

(PDF)

S1 Data.

(XLSX)

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Ms. Geraldine Kershaw, Lecturer, Medical Communication and Study

Skills, Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE Uni-

versity, for her professional linguistic and grammar corrections. We are also thankful to Dr.

Ahmed R. Alsuwaidi, Dr. Iffat Elbarazi, Laila Masood, Ph.D. Candidate, Dr. Marilia Silva

Paulo for their advice during developing this project, and for Ms. Laila Masood for facilitating

the SurveyMonkey.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: Noura Baniyas, Mohamud Sheek-Hussein, Nouf Al Kaabi, Maitha Al

Shamsi, Maitha Al Neyadi, Rauda Al Khoori, Muhammad Abid, Michal Grivna.

Data curation: Fikri

M. Abu-Zidan.

Formal analysis: Suad Ajab.

Methodology: Nouf Al Kaabi, Maitha Al Shamsi, Maitha Al Neyadi, Rauda Al Khoori.

Project administration: Fikri M. Abu-Zidan.

Supervision: Mohamud Sheek-Hussein, Fikri M. Abu-Zidan.

Validation: Fikri M. Abu-Zidan.

Writing – original draft: Noura Baniyas, Mohamud Sheek-Hussein, Nouf Al Kaabi, Maitha

Al Shamsi, Maitha Al Neyadi, Rauda Al Khoori, Suad Ajab, Muhammad Abid, Michal

Grivna, Fikri M. Abu-Zidan.

Writing – review & editing: Noura Baniyas, Mohamud Sheek-Hussein, Nouf Al Kaabi,

Maitha Al Shamsi, Maitha Al Neyadi, Rauda Al Khoori, Suad Ajab, Muhammad Abid, Fikri

M. Abu-Zidan.

PLOS ONE Students and COVID-19 pandemic

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226 May 12, 2021 12 / 15

http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchSingleRepresentation.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.s001

http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchSingleRepresentation.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226.s002

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

References
1. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia

in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382:727–733. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001017 PMID:

31978945

2. World Health Organization. Coronaviruses (COVID-19) 2020. 12 October 2020. [Cited 2021Jan 8]

Available from https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-covid-19

3. Khan G, Sheek-Hussein M, Al Suwaidi AR, Idris K, Abu-Zidan FM. Novel coronavirus pandemic: A

global health threat. Turk J Emerg Med. 2020; 20:55–62. https://doi.org/10.4103/2452-2473.285016

PMID: 32587923

4. Sheek-Hussein M, Abu-Zidan FM, Stip E. Disaster management of the psychological impact of the

COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Emerg Med. 2021; 14:19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12245-021-00342-z

Available from https://intjem.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12245-021-00342-z PMID:

33761863

5. Douglas M, Katikireddi SV, Taulbut M, McKee M, McCartney G. Mitigating the wider health effects of

covid-19 pandemic response. BMJ. 2020 Apr 27; 369:m1557. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1557 Avail-

able from https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1557.long PMID: 32341002

6. WorldOMeter COVID-19 Coronavirus pandemic. [Cited 2021 April 29] Available from https://www.

worldometers.info/coronavirus/

7. Turak N. First Middle East cases of coronavirus confirmed in the UAE. CNBC. 2020 Jan 29. [Cited

2020 June 1] Available from https://www.cnbc.com/2020/01/29/first-middle-east-cases-of-coronavirus-

confirmed-in-the-uae.html

8. Abu Dhabi Public Health Centre, Department of Health, UAE. Abu Dhabi Public Health Centre. Scien-

tific Research Monitoring on COVID-19; Issue 411, 28th March 2021; Page 9. [Cited 2021 April 1] Avail-

able from https://www.doh.gov.ae/ar/covid-19/Healthcare-Professionals/Scientific-Publication

9. Sheek-Hussein M, Abu-Zidan FM. COVID-19 Vaccine: Hope and reality. Afr Health Sci 2020; 20:

1507–1509.

10. The United Arab Emirates’ Government portal. 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). [Cited 2021 April

1] Available from https://u.ae/en/information-and-services/justice-safety-and-the-law/handling-the-

covid-19-outbreak/2019-novel-coronavirus

11. Ajilore K, Atakiti I, Onyenankeya K. College students’ knowledge, attitudes and adherence to public ser-

vice announcements on Ebola in Nigeria: Suggestions for improving future Ebola prevention education

programmes. Health Education Journal. 2017; 76:648–660. https://doi.org/10.1177/

0017896917710969 Available from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0017896917710969

12. Tachfouti N, Slama K, Berraho M, Nejjari C. The impact of knowledge and attitudes on adherence to

tuberculosis treatment: a case-control study in a Moroccan region. Pan Afr Med J. 2012; 12:52 Available

from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428172/pdf/PAMJ-12-52 PMID: 22937192

13. Mujibur Rahaman M, Siddiqi UR, Sabuj AAM, Ahmed BN, Tahmina S, Faruque MR et al. Knowledge,

attitude, and practice of a local community towards the prevention and control of rabies in Gaibandha,

Bangladesh. J Adv Vet Anim Res. 2020; 7:414–420. https://doi.org/10.5455/javar.2020.g436 PMID:

33005666

14. Person B, Sy F, Holton K, Govert B, Liang A; National Center for Inectious Diseases/SARS Community

Outreach Team. Fear and stigma: the epidemic within the SARS outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;

10:358–63. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1002.030750 PMID: 15030713

15. Szymona-Pałkowska K, Janowski K, Pedrycz A, Mucha D, Ambroży T, Siermontowski P et al. Knowl-

edge of the Disease, Perceived Social Support, and Cognitive Appraisals in Women with Urinary Incon-

tinence. Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:3694792. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/3694792 Available from

https://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3694792 PMID: 28097132

16. Zhang M, Zhou M, Tang F, Wang Y, Nie H, Zhang L et al. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding

COVID-19 among healthcare workers in Henan, China. J Hosp Infect. 2020; 105:183–187. https://doi.

org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.04.012 PMID: 32278701

17. Corrin T, Waddell L, Greig J, Young I, Hierlihy C, Mascarenhas M. Risk perceptions, attitudes, and

knowledge of chikungunya among the public and health professionals: a systematic review. Trop Med

Health. 2017; 45:21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41182-017-0061-x Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.

nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5582396/pdf/41182_2017_Article_61 PMID: 28878549

18. Janjua NZ, Razaq M, Chandir S, Rozi S, Mahmood B. Poor knowledge—predictor of nonadherence to

universal precautions for blood borne pathogens at first level care facilities in Pakistan. BMC Infect Dis.

2007 Jul 24; 7:81. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-7-81 Available from https://bmcinfectdis.

biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2334-7-81 PMID: 17650331

PLOS ONE Students and COVID-19 pandemic

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226 May 12, 2021 13 / 15

https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001017

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31978945

https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-covid-19

https://doi.org/10.4103/2452-2473.285016

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32587923

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12245-021-00342-z

https://intjem.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12245-021-00342-z

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33761863

https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1557

https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1557.long

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32341002

https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/

https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/

https://www.cnbc.com/2020/01/29/first-middle-east-cases-of-coronavirus-confirmed-in-the-uae.html

https://www.cnbc.com/2020/01/29/first-middle-east-cases-of-coronavirus-confirmed-in-the-uae.html

https://www.doh.gov.ae/ar/covid-19/Healthcare-Professionals/Scientific-Publication

https://u.ae/en/information-and-services/justice-safety-and-the-law/handling-the-covid-19-outbreak/2019-novel-coronavirus

https://u.ae/en/information-and-services/justice-safety-and-the-law/handling-the-covid-19-outbreak/2019-novel-coronavirus

https://doi.org/10.1177/0017896917710969

https://doi.org/10.1177/0017896917710969

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0017896917710969

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428172/pdf/PAMJ-12-52

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22937192

https://doi.org/10.5455/javar.2020.g436

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33005666

https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1002.030750

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15030713

https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/3694792

https://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3694792

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28097132

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.04.012

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.04.012

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32278701

https://doi.org/10.1186/s41182-017-0061-x

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5582396/pdf/41182_2017_Article_61

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5582396/pdf/41182_2017_Article_61

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28878549

https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-7-81

https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2334-7-81

https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2334-7-81

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17650331

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

19. Lau JT, Kim JH, Tsui H, Griffiths S. Perceptions related to human avian influenza and their associations

with anticipated psychological and behavioral responses at the onset of outbreak in the Hong Kong Chi-

nese general population. Am J Infect Control. 2007; 35:38-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2006.07.

010 PMID: 17276790

20. Smith RD. Responding to global infectious disease outbreaks: lessons from SARS on the role of risk

perception, communication and management. Soc Sci Med. 2006; 63:3113–23. https://doi.org/10.

1016/j.socscimed.2006.08.004 PMID: 16978751

21. Ferdous MZ, Islam MS, Sikder MT, Mosaddek ASM, Zegarra-Valdivia JA, Gozal D. Knowledge, atti-

tude, and practice regarding COVID-19 outbreak in Bangladesh: An online-based cross-sectional

study. PLoS One. 2020; 15:e0239254. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0239254 Available from

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239254 PMID: 33035219

22. Peng Y, Pei C, Zheng Y, Wang J, Zhang K, Zheng Z, et al. A cross-sectional survey of knowledge, atti-

tude and practice associated with COVID-19 among undergraduate students in China. BMC Public

Health. 2020 Aug 26; 20(1):1292. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09392-z Available from https://

bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-020-09392-z PMID: 32847554

23. Noreen K, Rubab ZE, Umar M, Rehman R, Baig M, Baig F. Knowledge, attitudes, an practices against

the growing threat of COVID-19 among medical students of Pakistan. PLoS One. 2020 Dec 11; 15(12):

e0243696. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0243696 Available from https://journals.plos.org/

plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243696 PMID: 33306712

24. Aldukhayel A, Alhomidani RJA, Almazyad NS, AlHindi HA, Alsudairi HA. Knowledge, attitude, and prac-

tices associated with COVID-19 among university students: a cross-sectional survey in Qassim Region,

Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries 2020; 4: 1554–1560. https://

doi.org/10.24911/IJMDC.51-1597038674 Available from https://ijmdc.com/fulltext/51-1597038674

25. Hatabu A, Mao X, Zhou Y, Kawashita N, Wen Z, Ueda M, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices

toward COVID-19 among university students in Japan and associated factors: An online cross-sectional

survey. PLoS One. 2020; 15:e0244350. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0244350 Available from

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0244350 PMID: 33347488

26. Authority Scholarships. Best universities in United Arab Emirates for international students. 18 January

2021. [Cited 2021April 21] Available from https://authorityscholarships.com/best-universities-united-

arab-emirates/

27. The United Arab Emirates’ Government portal. Distance Learning in Times of COVID-19 -. [Cited 2021

April 1] Available from https://u.ae/en/information-and-services/education/distance-learning-in-times-

of-covid-19.

28. Hasan H, Raigangar V, Osaili T, Neinavaei NE, Olaimat AN, Aolymat I. A Cross-Sectional Study on Uni-

versity Students’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Toward COVID-19 in the United Arab Emirates.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021; 104:75–84. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0857 Available from https://

www.ajtmh.org/view/journals/tpmd/104/1/article-p75.xml PMID: 33236710

29. Zhong BL, Luo W, Li HM, Zhang QQ, Liu XG, Li WT, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards

COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick

online cross-sectional survey. Int J Biol Sci. 2020; 16:1745–1752. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45221

Available from https://www.ijbs.com/v16p1745.htm PMID: 32226294

30. Taghrir MH, Borazjani R, Shiraly R. COVID-19 and Iranian Medical Students; A Survey on Their

Related-Knowledge, Preventive Behaviors and Risk Perception. Arch Iran Med. 2020; 23:249–254.

https://doi.org/10.34172/aim.2020.06 Available from: http://www.aimjournal.ir/Article/aim-15530 PMID:

32271598

31. Munro BH. Selected nonparametric techniques. In Munro B.H., editor. Statistical methods for health

care research. 4th ed. New York: Lippincott. 2001; pp 97–121.

32. Prasad Singh J, Sewda A, Shiv DG. Assessing the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Students

Regarding the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Health Management. 2020; 22:281–290. https://doi.

org/10.1177/0972063420935669 Available from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/

0972063420935669

33. Alves RF. Samorinha C, Precioso J. Knowledge, attitudes and preventive behaviors toward COVID-19:

a study among higher education students in Portugal. Journal of Health Research, 2020 Vol. ahead-of-

print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/JHR-07-2020-0254 Available from https://www.

emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JHR-07-2020-0254/full/html

34. Khasawneh AI, Humeidan AA, Alsulaiman JW, Bloukh S, Ramadan M, Al-Shatanawi TN, et al. Medical

Students and COVID-19: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Precautionary Measures. A Descriptive Study

From Jordan. Front Public Health. 2020; 8:253. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00253 Available

from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00253/full PMID: 32574313

PLOS ONE Students and COVID-19 pandemic

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226 May 12, 2021 14 / 15

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2006.07.010

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2006.07.010

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17276790

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.08.004

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.08.004

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16978751

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0239254

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239254

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33035219

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09392-z

https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-020-09392-z

https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-020-09392-z

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32847554

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0243696

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243696

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243696

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33306712

https://doi.org/10.24911/IJMDC.51-1597038674

https://doi.org/10.24911/IJMDC.51-1597038674

https://ijmdc.com/fulltext/51-1597038674

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0244350

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0244350

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33347488

7 Best Universities in United Arab Emirates for International Students

7 Best Universities in United Arab Emirates for International Students

https://u.ae/en/information-and-services/education/distance-learning-in-times-of-covid-19

https://u.ae/en/information-and-services/education/distance-learning-in-times-of-covid-19

https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0857

https://www.ajtmh.org/view/journals/tpmd/104/1/article-p75.xml

https://www.ajtmh.org/view/journals/tpmd/104/1/article-p75.xml

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33236710

https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45221

https://www.ijbs.com/v16p1745.htm

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32226294

https://doi.org/10.34172/aim.2020.06

http://www.aimjournal.ir/Article/aim-15530

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32271598

https://doi.org/10.1177/0972063420935669

https://doi.org/10.1177/0972063420935669

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0972063420935669

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0972063420935669

https://doi.org/10.1108/JHR-07-2020-0254

https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JHR-07-2020-0254/full/html

https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JHR-07-2020-0254/full/html

https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00253

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00253/full

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32574313

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

35. Jairoun A, Hassan N, Ali A, Jairoun O, Shahwan M. Knowledge, attitude and practice of antibiotic use

among university students: a cross sectional study in UAE. BMC Public Health. 2019; 19:518. https://

doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6878-y Available from https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/

articles/10.1186/s12889-019-6878-y PMID: 31060543

36. Plaster AN, Painter JE, Tjersland DH, Jacobsen KH. University Students’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and

Sources of Information About Zika Virus. J Community Health. 2018; 43:647–655. https://doi.org/10.

1007/s10900-017-0463-z PMID: 29318503

37. The United Arab Emirates’ Government portal. Volunteering to fight COVID-19. [Cited 2021 January 2].

Available from: https://u.ae/en/information-and-services/justice-safety-and-the-law/handling-the-covid-

19-outbreak/volunteering-to-fight-covid-19

38. De Simone B, Chouillard E, Sartelli M, Biffl WL, Di Saverio S, Moore EE et al. The management of surgi-

cal patients in the emergency setting during COVID-19 pandemic: the WSES position paper. World J

Emerg Surg. 2021; 16:14. Available from https://wjes.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s13017-

021-00349-0 PMID: 33752721

39. National Emergency Crisis and Disasters Management Authority. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Updates

[Cited 2020 December 24]. Available from: https://covid19.ncema.gov.ae/en/News/Details/1333

40. Lennquist S. Major incidents: Definitions and demands on the health-care system. Medical Responses

to Major Incidents and Disasters A Practical Guide for Medical Staff. In: Lennquist S, editor. 1st ed.

London: Springer; 2012. pp. 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00068-012-0183-0 PMID: 26815822

41. Coccolini F, Sartelli M, Kluger Y, Pikoulis E, Karamagioli E, Moore EE et al. COVID-19 the showdown

for mass casualty preparedness and management: the Cassandra Syndrome. World J Emerg Surg.

2020; 15:26. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13017-020-00304-5 Available from https://wjes.biomedcentral.

com/articles/10.1186/s13017-020-00304-5 PMID: 32272957

42. Behbehani A, Abu-Zidan F, Hasaniya N, Merei J. War injuries during the Gulf War: experience of a

teaching hospital in Kuwait. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1994; 76:407–11. PMID: 7702326

43. Abu-Zidan FM. Dramatic outcome of a “friendly fire”. Surgery. 2016; 160:1422–1423. https://doi.org/10.

1016/j.surg.2016.06.047 PMID: 27524429

PLOS ONE Students and COVID-19 pandemic

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226 May 12, 2021 15 / 15

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6878-y

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6878-y

https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-019-6878-y

https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-019-6878-y

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31060543

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-017-0463-z

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-017-0463-z

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29318503

https://u.ae/en/information-and-services/justice-safety-and-the-law/handling-the-covid-19-outbreak/volunteering-to-fight-covid-19

https://u.ae/en/information-and-services/justice-safety-and-the-law/handling-the-covid-19-outbreak/volunteering-to-fight-covid-19

https://wjes.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s13017-021-00349-0

https://wjes.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s13017-021-00349-0

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33752721

https://covid19.ncema.gov.ae/en/News/Details/1333

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00068-012-0183-0

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26815822

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13017-020-00304-5

https://wjes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13017-020-00304-5

https://wjes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13017-020-00304-5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32272957

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7702326

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2016.06.047

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2016.06.047

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27524429

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246226

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
$0.00