Posted: September 20th, 2022

Questions

QUESTIONS MUST BE ANSWERED IN 1-2 PARAGRAPHS!!!!!

The Deaf Culture: Is it Really a Culture at All
Carol Padden has defined Culture as a set of learned behaviors of a group of
people who have their own language, values, rules of behavior, and traditions.
(1988)

Culture results from a group of people coming together to form a community
around shared experience, common interests, shared norms of behavior, and
shared survival techniques. Such groups as the deaf seek each other out for
social interaction and emotional support.

The essential link to Deaf Culture among the American deaf community is
American Sign Language. This community shares a common sense of pride in
their Culture and language. There exists a rich heritage and pride in the ability to
overcome adversity as individuals and as a group. Deaf power hit the World in
1988 at Gallaudet University, an event known as the “Deaf President Now”
(DPN) Movement. The protest has made a mark in history and proves that Deaf
Culture is Pride and that Pride is Power.

Mastery of ASL and skillful storytelling are highly valued in Deaf Culture. Through
ASL Literature, one generation passes on to the next its wisdom, values, and its
pride and thus reinforces the bonds that unite the younger generation.

Another feature of this Culture is the role of marriage. It is estimated that 9 out of
10 members of the American Deaf community marry other members of their
cultural group. Many D/deaf couples also wish for a deaf child so that they may
pass on their heritage and Culture, it is not just the language but the values; the
same values that hearing parents want to instill in their children.

Carol Padden says Deaf identity itself is highly valued; members of the deaf
community seem to agree that hearing individuals can never fully acquire that
identity and become a full-fledged member of the deaf community. Even with
deaf parents and a native command of ASL the hearing person will have missed
the experience of growing up deaf, including residential school. For many
members of the deaf community, speech and thinking like a hearing person are
negatively valued in Deaf Culture.

As Harlan Lane states in his book Mask of Bivalence there is a fierce group
loyalty, and this may extend to protectively withholding information about the
community’s language and Culture.

Going back to residential schools, these schools provide a vital link in the
transmission of Deaf Culture and Language. Children here are able to
communicate in a language readily understood by each other. Deaf children are
able to partake in social clubs, sports and importantly enough, to be around deaf
role models. It is important for deaf children to be encouraged to further their

education and to learn that deafness does not mean you cannot grow up to be
successful and happy (success of course being at each persons own perspective
on what success and happiness means to them individually.) This is not to say
that mainstream education is iniquitous for deaf children, but we must keep in
mind that socialization is essential to a child’s growth and without a common
language socialization is limited.

Aside from Deaf Culture, there is a shared unity within the deaf community. That
unity is the use of assistive devices that help the deaf individual know when the
phone is ringing or when someone is at the door. Deaf people can talk to other
members of the deaf community as well as to hearing people, through a device
called the TTY or TDD. This is a small Teletype writer that looks like a mini Word
processor. How it works is·1.) the deaf person will dial the number 2)place the
receiver on TTY 3) once the person answers, they type messages back and
forth. (kind of like chatting on the internet) Of course the other person must have
a TTY also but if they don’t then they can call through a relay service. An
operator will type messages to the deaf person and voice to the hearing person.
(Florida Relay Service Numbers 1-800-955-8770 Voice, 1-800-955-8771 TDD)

How does a deaf person know when they are receiving a call??? There is a
device called a Visual Ring Signaler (VRS), that is hooked up to the phone and to
a lamp, when the phone rings the lamp will blink alerting the deaf person that the
phone is ringing. The same goes for the doorbell, when someone rings the bell it
will signal a light to flash on and off. There is also a device called a baby cry
signaler, again it works the same way, there is a device in the baby’s room and
one in the parents room, when the baby cries it sends a signal to the lamp in the
parents room which causes it to flash on and off. There are different variations of
how the lamps will blink so that it is not confusing to the deaf person… is it the
phone, or the door? One may blink on and off real fast, the other may flash on
and off in a short rhythmic pattern, or they can be hooked up to different lamps in
different areas of the house.

Because there is a deaf community with its own language and Culture, there is a
cultural frame in which to be deaf is not to be disabled. Quite the contrary, it is as
we have seen an asset in Deaf Culture to be deaf in behavior, values,
knowledge, and fluency in ASL. Deafness is not a disability but rather a different
way of being. However, it must be noted that not all members of the deaf
community share the same values of those deaf who support Deaf Culture.

Although a deaf person may sign, that alone does not mean they follow Deaf
Culture or the beliefs of that Culture, remember that Deaf Culture is an identity.
Each D/deaf individual is unique and opinions may differ. This may be due to;
setting of education, language, whether their parents were deaf or hearing and if
they signed or not, which language the deaf person uses and so forth. Along with
that·. there are many Hard of Hearing individuals who prefer Deaf Culture over
Hearing Culture and Vice-Versa.

There are different levels of self-pride when it comes to Deaf Culture and how
strong a person supports that Culture. Some members do not like Hard of
Hearing or hearing people, where other members of Deaf Culture are accepting.
Although my page is directed to ASL and Deaf Culture, it is important for you to
know ALL aspects of deafness, Culture and so forth. I feel it is important for
anyone who is learning ASL to have a full understanding of Deaf Culture,
deafness in its pathological view (defining deafness as a handicap), ASL and
knowledge of the various forms of sign systems.

There is much more to Deaf Culture than explained here but it gives you insight
to the American Deaf Community. It is important for you to socialize and interact
within the deaf community for many reasons. Of course it will help improve your
signing and receptive skills, but it teaches you something so much more valuable
experience· their experience. You will see that I say through out my Web site that
the D/deaf community will be your greatest teacher, not until you fully understand
the pathological view of deafness and the oppression of the deaf community can
you fully accept Deaf Culture and be accepted into the deaf community.

**** D/d also known as Big D and little d. Big D refers to a deaf individual
who follows Deaf Culture whereas little d refers to the physical nature of
deafness.

The Global Village

Thinking of the world close up, as if it were a village of one hundred people, forces us to confront what we
mean we say “we”.
…How often does our we come to include people of other faiths, other nations, other races? How
often does our we link rather than divide? Our relations with the “other” may move through a number of
phases. First we talk about them—an objective “other.” Then perhaps we talk to them, or more personally,
we talk to you. And finally, we all talk with one another about us, all of us. This is the critical stage to which
our…dialogue must take us if we are to be up to the task of creating communication adequate for an
interdependent world.

If the world was a village of 100 people,
In the village would be:
57 Asians
14 Africans
12 Europeans
6 North Americans
7 Latino Americans (Central and South Americans)
3 Australians/Oceanians
1 Caribbean Islander

There would be:
33 Christians
22 Muslims
15 Hindus
4 Chinese Folk Religionists
6 Buddhists
6 Other Religions
14 Atheists or Nonreligious

If the world were a global village of 100 people, one third of them would be rich or of moderate income, two
thirds would be poor.

Of the 100 people, 5 of them would be U.S. Americans. These 5 would have over a third of the village’s
entire income, and the other 95 would subsist on the other two thirds.

Of the 100 residents, 47 would be unable to read, and only one would have a college education.

About 35 would be suffering from hunger and malnutrition, at least half would be homeless or living in
substandard housing.

How could the wealthy live in peace with their neighbors? Surely they would be driven to arm themselves
against the other 95, perhaps even spend as U.S. Americans do, about twice as much per person on military
defense as the total income of two thirds of the villagers.

Question 1:

· How does deaf culture exemplify the textbooks definition of a culture?

· Be specific and give examples from the essay and provide the books definition of culture.

Question 2:

The Newsroom is set at a fictional news channel ACN where Will McAvoy (Jeff Daniels) is the star anchor. His daily primetime show has dwindled in quality but is now trying to take the noble route once again with executive producer MacKenzie (Emily Mortimer).
The struggle here is – What constitutes as news? And while it could have come out as an idealistic show, it usually comes across as the show where people are resistant to change and are thus constantly whining about their circumstances.

In this particular scene, Jeff Daniels is participating on a panel discussion at a local university when the moderator asks him a question—What makes America the greatest country in the world.

· What is a belief?

· Why do cultures (specifically USA) feel they need to believe that they are the best?

· What part of the clip do you agree with the most—the first half where Jeff Daniels gives the politically correct response or the second half where he gives a lot of statistics and why did you select that portion?

· How are beliefs changed, how slow or fast does this change happen?

·

FIU | COM3461 – Newsroom

Question 3:

Mr. Williams was assigned indefinitely to his company’s Paris branch and he wanted to establish some social relationships with his fellow employees. He had been in France only a few days when he was asked to attend a meeting in the outer office. As Mr. Baudin entered and sat beside him, Williams politely introduced himself and they shook hands. After exchanging some pleasantries about the weather, Williams told Mr. Baudin how thrilled he and his family were to be in Paris. He casually asked how many children Mr. Baudin had. Baudin replied that he had two sons. But Williams noted that when he asked further about Baudin’s family, the Frenchman seemed offended. With Williams thoroughly confused, the conversation then ended abruptly.

· What components of culture are at play here?

· List and explain the 8 components that comprise culture?

· Identify the specific French cultural characteristics in this scenario.

· How might U.S. culture be characterized by Mr. Baudin if this were the only interaction that he had experienced with someone from the U.S.?

Question 4:

Go to The Globe. Locate Indonesia (in Asia). Take a look at the “Cultural Information” and photographs.

· Summarize the Cultural Information link.

· How does your Cultural Identity influence the way you view life and the world?

· How do you think the Indonesians view life and the world?

CULTURAL INFORMATION

It is generally believed that the earliest inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago originated in India or Burma. In 1890, fossils of Java Man (homo erectus), some 500,000 years old, were found in east Java. Later migrants (‘Malays’) came from southern China and Indochina, and began populating the archipelago around 3000 BC. Powerful groups such as the Buddhist Srivijaya Empire and the Hindu Mataram kingdom appeared in Java and Sumatra towards the end of the 7th century. The last important kingdom to remain Hindu was the Majapahit, which was founded in the 13th century. The subsequent spread of Islam into the archipelago in the 14th century forced the Majapahits to retreat to Bali in the 15th century.

By this time, a strong Muslim empire had developed with its centre at Melaka (Malacca) on the Malay Peninsula. Its influence was short-lived and it fell to the Portuguese in 1511. The Dutch displaced the Portuguese and began making inroads into Indonesia. The Dutch East India Company based in Batavia (Jakarta) dominated the spice trade and took control of Java by the mid 18th century, when its power was already in decline. The Dutch took control in the early 19th century and by the early 20th century; the entire archipelago – including Aceh and Bali – was under their control.

Burgeoning nationalism combined with Japanese occupation of the archipelago during WWII served to weaken Dutch resolve, and it finally transferred sovereignty to the new Indonesian republic in 1949. Achmed Soekarno, the foremost proponent of self-rule since the early 1920s, became President. In 1957, after a rudderless period of parliamentary democracy, Soekarno overthrew the parliament, declared martial law, and initiated a more authoritarian style of government, which he euphemistically dubbed ‘Guided Democracy’. Once in the driving seat, Soekarno, like many like-minded military strongmen, set about consolidating his power through monument-building and socializing the economy, a move that paradoxically opened up a huge divide between the haves and have-nots and left much of the population teetering on the edge of starvation. Rebellions broke out in Sumatra and Sulewesi, Malaysia and Indonesia came perilously close to an all-out confrontation and instability was the general order of the day. Things came to a head in 1965, the eponymous Year of Living Dangerously, when an attempted coup (purportedly by a Communist group) threatened Soekarno’s hold on power.

Soekarno won that particular battle but lost the war when the man responsible for putting the coup down, General Soeharto, wrested presidential power from him in 1966. Soeharto started off with a nice line in political reconstruction, but the promises of economic reform and greater government transparency quickly degenerated into much of the same-old. Nepotism, cronyism and grandiose spending, coupled with the brutal massacre of East Timorese nationalists in Dilli in 1975, proved that much of the talk was mere rhetoric. By March 1998 Soeharto was out of touch with the people and, perhaps seeing the writing on the wall, awarded himself only five more years in office. He never made it – by the end of May that year, with the economy freefalling and street violence flaring, he was out of office and the vice-president, BJ Habibie, was installed.

Habibie, never popular to begin with, mouthed the same promises of reform and even appeared willing to consider independence for East Timor, but it was all too little too late. The uncompromising stance by East Timor set off a chain reaction and sectarian violence, student protests and increased demands for independence spread like wild fire through Ambon, Kalimantan and Papua. Rogue militia groups, widely thought to be controlled and equipped by the Indonesian military, rampaged through East Timor after it overwhelmingly voted for independence in 1999; local police forces and parts of the army were sent in to quash other rebellions; protesting students were killed in the streets and the whole country went to hell in a hand basket.

A UN peacekeeping force brought stability to East Timor but prompted Indonesian outrage at the ‘meddling in internal affairs’. When the dust finally settled the East Timorese had been granted independence over the smoking ruins of their country. Soon afterwards Abdurrahman Wahid became Indonesia’s first democratically elected president. By 23 July 2001, he’d lost the confidence of parliament and was replaced by the inscrutable Megawati Sukarnoputri.

Indonesia faces numerous crises – rising Islamic extremism, military insubordination, official corruption, a fledgling and fragile democratic process, and the many separatist movements threatening to tear the country apart. On 12 October, 2002, bombs targeting Western tourists claimed around 200 lives in Bali. An extremist group with links to Al-Qaeda was responsible.

Religious violence also plagued the Maluku islands, where Christians and Muslims reached a short-lived peace deal in February 2002. In April 2002, masked gunmen massacred 14 Christian villagers. Fighting between Christians and Muslims has claimed more than 6000 lives since 1999. In Irian Jaya and Aceh, guerrillas have been fighting for independence from Jakarta for decades.

Megawati Sukarnoputri’s presidency deserves credit for restoring social stability and economic growth but was widely condemned as ineffectual in combating rampant institutional corruption. In September 2004, 80% of Indonesian voters turned up to vote in the country’s first direct presidential ballot. Charismatic retired general – and sometime crooner – Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (who holds an American management degree) won handsomely.

 

Culture

Indonesia comprises a range of diverse societies and cultures. However, mass education, mass media and a policy of government-orchestrated nationalism have created a definite Indonesian national culture, with Bahasa Indonesia as its medium. Its distinctive cuisine and handcrafts have made the leap into an international forum.

Batik, the art of applying wax to cloth and then tie-dying in colorful and dramatic designs, is produced throughout Indonesia, and the centre of this activity is Yogyakarta in Java. Other craft forms include: ikat, which is a type of weaving with tie-dyed threads; songket, a silk cloth with gold or silver threads woven into it; and kris, artwork often decorated with jewels. Javanese wayang (puppet) plays and gamelan (hypnotic music composed mostly of percussive instruments) are also popular artistic forms.

Many Indonesian dishes are Chinese-influenced, but some, such as Padang food from Sumatra, are distinctly home-grown. Wherever you travel in Indonesia you’ll see vendors selling snacks such as potatoes, sweet nuts, biscuits or fruit. Rice is the basis of each meal, eaten as a soup or with an assortment of hot and spicy side dishes, salad and pickles. Nasi goreng (fried rice) is the most common dish, while sate (skewered meats with a spicy peanut sauce), gado-gado (bean sprouts and veggies in peanut sauce) and seafood are also popular. The variety of tropical fruits grown would make a greengrocer swoon. They include custard apples, durians, guavas, jackfruits, mangoes, papayas, starfruits and rambutans.

Social and religious duty has, over time, been refined to form a code of behavior called adat or traditional law. Islam is the predominant religion of the archipelago but it’s somewhat tempered by elements of Hindu-Buddhism, adat and animism. In Java, especially, there are hundreds of places where spiritual energy is thought to be concentrated and can be absorbed by followers. Despite a lengthy colonial period, missionaries were only successful in converting small pockets of the Indonesian population to Christianity – the Bataks of Sumatra, the Toraks of Sulawesi and 95% of the population of Flores being notable examples.

Environment

Indonesia’s rich natural environment encourages a diversity of flora and fauna. The archipelago is home to elephants, tigers, leopards and orang-utans. Sea turtles are found in the waters around Bali and the world’s largest flowers – Rafflesia arnoldii – grow in Sumatra. The islands of Papua, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Sumatra have national parks, while other parks protect special areas such as Komodo, home to the Komodo dragon. Rainforests are disappearing at an alarming rate, especially in Kalimantan where the mighty dipterocarp forests are being logged ferociously for their durable tropical hardwoods.

The Indonesian archipelago comprises more than 17,000 islands – 6000 of which are inhabited – and shares borders with Malaysia and Papua New Guinea. Stretching like a backbone down the western coast of Sumatra is a line of active and extinct volcanoes. These continue through Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara, then loop through the Banda Islands of Maluku to northeastern Sulawesi. Less than 10% of the total land area is suitable for farming, while two-thirds consists of woodland, forests and mangrove swamp (mostly found in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua).

Draped over the equator, Indonesia tends to have a fairly uniform climate – hot. It’s hot and wet during the wet season (October to April) and hot and dry during the dry season (May to September). Temperatures climb to about 31°C (88°F) in coastal regions, dropping further inland. The best time to visit Indonesia is from April to October.

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