Posted: June 13th, 2022


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Draft peer review responselashonda 250 words
The Pitfalls of Caregiving
This interesting read will take you on a journey that will enable you to see through the eyes of a caregiver. Most who fulfill this role never anticipated finding themselves standing in such great shoes, but choose to do so out of compassion. Regardless, caregivers across the nation have felt the overwhelming pressure to manage the legal, medical, spiritual, financial needs etc. of those who are in their care. Caregiving plays an important role in determining the quality of life of the elderly population. Caregivers are faced with managing the day-to-day affairs of those they care for while navigating the challenges that come along with meeting their vast array of needs. Ultimately, caregivers, professionals, and others who care for the elderly must become creative in helping those who are considered vulnerable continue to thrive. When people come together for the benefit of another, everyone is bound to benefit (Fraser, 2020)
The Emotional Barriers
One of the challenges with caregiving is keeping human connection alive even beyond a state of crisis (Fraser, 2020). As a caregiver, one can tend to forget the emotional rollercoaster seniors experience as they unwillingly most times give up control of their independence. In addition, as the elderly age they tend to battle health issues which can send them into a whirl of depression. Some seniors are even forced out of their home due to not being able to live on their own. When what is familiar is snatched away from seniors, it can certainly take it’s toll. However, when people feel valued and are supported, they tend to thrive (Fraser, 2020).
Furthermore, when it comes to caregiving, the individuals entrusted with this journey must exhibit ethical and moral behavior (Knight, 1994). This not only goes for the caretaker, but those involved in their care as well. Another issue that was brought to the forefront is the caregiver’s level of competency. It’s essential that while managing the affairs of another, one is competent enough to do so and understands how to access available resources (Knight, 1994).
The Legal Barriers1
With age comes legal frustrations. For seniors who don’t have a will, this task can feel like a heavy weight as it forces them to consider death long before it may even occur. In addition, when seniors apply for Medicaid, they may even be forced to place their money or other personal items into a trust which often requires them to hire an attorney. To qualify for many of the governmental programs, the elderly are usually force to downgrade their assets or to give them away. Also, many seniors don’t like to think about death. If they are old school so to speak, they didn’t talk about dying and failed to make arrangements for their departure from this life. This oftentimes leaves a burden on the caregiver. If the aging person gets life insurance late in life, these policies tend to cost several hundreds per month and only offer limited coverage. If the person had no coverage at all, then the family is usually forced to do cremation or raise money to cover the cost of costly funeral arrangements. It is not uncommon for an elderly person to pass away without a will which equally adds to further frustration. It’s frequently that we might here of property being tied up in probate and siblings fighting over tangible items left behind. Going to court cost money and precious time and having to battle it out with others who are in a state of greed will most times cost caregivers their peace.
The Financial Barriers.
One of the challenging factors of aging is that depending on the type of care, it can be financially draining. Some seniors end up in long term care which depletes their income. Other seniors may elect to stay at home, but are still forced to pay for private care duty. What do families do when they cannot afford to pay someone to come in? In some instances, families are forced to install cameras and leave their loved ones for several hours while they attempt to maintain their full-time jobs. For others, when their loved ones are sick, they are forced to take off work, eating away at their vacation time, and often leaving them without pay. This is not a guess, this is reality for many caregivers struggling to keep their loved ones at home. There are very few State programs that cover the cost for someone to come in and the one’s available have long waiting lists and strict guidelines. Ultimately, the elderly person’s financial burdens now become that of the caregivers. Items like paying for simple necessities such as Depend Diapers cost a fortune or even nutritional drinks such as Ensure tend to rack up in costs. If the loved one is on a special diet to health conditions, then can cause for a double increase in grocery bills. To be expected, everything tends to increase. The light bill goes up, the grocery bill goes up, the amount of gas used to go to doctor appointments goes up etc.
Healthcare Barriers.
It’s been proven that happy patients typically recover faster (Fraser, 2020). Some physicians treat the upper aged seniors as though they have already lived a full life and so they don’t treat them as they would someone who is in their thirties. Our government for decades has been scrambling to figure out how to deal with our aging population (Medina, 2009). It seems we hear so much about what needs to be done, but very rarely are we hearing viable solutions being presented. Long ago, seniors used to be a high priority of society, valued, and the governmental structures that were in place supported this statement (Medina, 2009). As a matter of fact, there were Acts such as “The Older American Act” that were put into place to ensure expectations were made known as to how to treat the aging (Medina, 2009). There has somehow become a shift in what and who people value. It appears less and less is being done to preserve the qualify of life for seniors. Policies and regulations are also tying the hands of those who assist with the care and final life stages of this frail population.
In conclusion, it appears that society does not have the necessary solutions needed to help the elderly thrive until they are no longer stable enough to do so. Health professionals and caregivers find themselves with their hands tied on many instances walking away drained and feeling defeated. Most caregivers lose themselves in the process of caring for others and many doctors, nurses, psychiatrists, etc. tend to feel burn out because of continuously running into brick walls or dealing with difficult patients. The one thing that is seen and has been proven is that when people feel as though they are priority and are gifted with presence, it helps them to live longer happier lives even if it’s just for a short while. Some of the pressures caregivers and professionals tend to face may be inevitable, but with the help of ethical and compassionate people their load can be made lighter. How the elderly are cared for will ultimately impact their quality of life so it’s beneficial to re-evaluate the systems, policies, and processes currently in place. When a society as a whole works together to ensure those who cannot care for themselves are cared for, a community thrives. At this point, the true value and ethical system of a nation comes to life and cannot be ignored.
Fraser, J. (2020). Singing outside the box: caring for the elderly during the crisis.Journal of Community Nursing,34(3), 18–20.
Knight, J. A. (1994). Ethics of care in caring for the elderly.Southern Medical Journal,87(9), 909.
Medina, C. (2009). America the Grayt: A Quick History of Government’s Role in Caring for the Elderly.Texas Public Health Journal,61(1), 36–37.
Discussion 1
Select one of the readings at the end of Chapter 3 in your eText. How does it conform to the rules of creative nonfiction? How is the piece similar to fiction?How does it differ from fiction?
Reply 1brownie ( 50 words)
The words “creative” and “nonfiction” describe the form. The word “creative” refers to the use of literary craft, the techniques writers use to tell stories about real people and events—that’s the “nonfiction” part—in a compelling, vivid, dramatic manner. The goal is to communicate a bit of the real world—a personal experience, a scientific discovery, a history, a place, a person—in a way that will sing on the page, inform and change readers, and make an impact. In the story Jesus Shaves by David Sedaris, he show us all the traits of creative nonfiction. It’s different from fiction because the story is a real story about the author’s childhood, all of those memories that stuck of in his mind. The real situation being the language barriers. The part of fiction are the parts of humor in the story.

What Is Creative Nonfiction?

reply 2 april (50words)
I chose the piece “We Go Way Back” by Ylonda Gault to show the creative nonfiction used is a very clearly in speaking on First Lady, Michelle Obama. The mere fact that this story is based on a real person and is told very well from a first-person of view by the use of the word “We” throughout the piece and the title. It differs from fiction because of the first-person point of view summary of “high profile media encounters” and her own childhood experience with exagerations and quotes followed by her interpretation of those quotes in a “stong black woman” tone as she reminds us several times as well.
Work Cited:
Starkey, D. (2021).Creative Writing(4th Edition). Macmillan Higher Education.
Discussion 2
After reading “A Few Words About Revision” pp. 10-14, develop a revision plan for the unit piece you are likely to include in your portfolio. Do you need to outline or revise section by section, like a quilt? Would a reverse outline help? What are the major weaknesses of the piece and how do you intend to address them?
Reply 1 april ( 50 words )
Thankfully the courses prior to this course helped teach me the best way for me to learn, write and read. I have to use an outline with visual pictures or screenshots sometimes to remind me of returning to something I was researching. Reverse outlines confuse me and make it harder for me to make my point clear and in my own words but I also haven’t had the pleasure of doing this on my own time and free will. Having deadlines means I have to do what I can the best in that timeline given.
I most definitely outline section by section normally but will also add to my plan, reading aloud to myself and others as well as allowing them to give feedback without my defending or explaining. I can get distracted easily and get off-topic which is not good when writing anything unless it’s a first-person point of view of someone with ADHD and their thoughts or words. Having someone else read my piece and feel confident in telling me the truth even when brutal, is what I enjoy in life period so why not allow more people to read my work, right? The major weaknesses of my piece are the structure. I have the outline done, the thoughts and words to make it happen in my head but putting it all together nicely is where I am stuck. Maybe I should try the reverse outline now even without the time IthinkI need to do so…
Work Cited
Starkey, D. (2021). Creative Writing (4th Edition). Macmillan Higher Education.
reply 2 tatha ( 50 words )
I will be using the Unit 1 poem as one of my portfolio pieces. This poem is about my son, and a bad choice that he has faced in high school. It wasn’t anything illegal, it was an out of character choice he made with friends. I would like to revise this poem and add to it. When reading the “A Few Words About Revision,” I feel as though I don’t develop his character well. I would like to add to it and define him more as the person he is, making him more well rounded as the book and supplemental readings suggested. This would be one of my main weaknesses of the poem and I feel like it would make more sense if I described his character more. I do plan on revising the poem even more than just the character. Adding some extra key details, which will include our goals and expectations will help make the reader understand why we, the parents thought his choice was wrong.
Discussion 3
A well-written abstract is an essential part of any APA manuscript. Examine the abstracts from at least two of the journal articles you are using for your final paper. What components are included in the abstracts? What have you found to be similar among the abstracts? What differences did you see in the abstracts? Why might these differences exist? How will you incorporate what you’ve learned in examining these articles into the development of your own abstract?
Reply l lisa ( 100 words)
In the articles, I read the purpose of the study was clearly stated along with any lack of research or similar research. The methodology was well defined. The source of the information was given. Brief facts of the research were given. The article ended with a conclusion from the research. Both articles stated the abstract was from the author. I think this is important to distinguish because you can be assured when reading that the summary of the research is also the author’s work and not prone to being interpreted in a manner the author did not mean.
In one article, the purpose was titled “Aim:”, and the results were similarly tilted “Results:”. This article seemed more matter-of-fact and to the point. The aim was stated, the existing research, method, and information source were explained well, and the results were stated. The conclusion of the research was surmised and concise.
The other abstract I read was a bit different. It began by identifying the current research and the lack of research relevant to the topic. The purpose of the research and the source of the research was then identified. Methods were identified along with the results of the research. The abstract ended with the author’s conclusion. This abstract was not labeled or as defined, but it did include all the components of an abstract.
Goisis, A., Özcan, B., & Van Kerm, P. (2019). Do Children Carry the Weight of Divorce?Demography,56(3), 785–811.
Karagianni, E., Papaeliou, C. F., Maniadaki, K., & Kakouros, E. (2020). Communication between infant boys and their mothers with ADHD symptoms.Infant Mental Health Journal,42(1), 96–108.
Reply 2 BRENNAN ( 100 WORDS )
In the two articles that I have selected, both abstracts that I have chosen to juxtapose contain similarities in both style and substance. In the abstracts of both articles, there was a general overview of the main points that would be presented and expounded upon later in the body paragraphs. Essentially, both were structured similarly to a conclusion but at the first part of the article, not the end. However, one of the articles had the conclusions that were drawn from the initial question in the introduction listed in the abstract and the other did not. Basically, the findings of the research were listed in one abstract and not in the other which was left more open ended and leaving the reader with questions heading into the body paragraphs.
For me personally, the concept of having an abstract in a paper is a new one to me. I feel like I will have to be careful not to seem redundant in my own paper by repeating points, phrases, or explanations in my abstract that I am using in my introduction and conclusion. A way that I might prevent this is simply by adding more substance to the paper and topic itself. I do prefer the second articles strategy of not listing all the conclusions drawn in the abstract and thus leaving the reader with a bit of anticipation as they begin reading the body paragraphs. I will likely mimic the second articles abstract strategy in my own paper.
The Natural History of Antisocial Personality Disorder.
Junewicz, Alexandra, and Stephen Bates Billick. “Preempting the Development of Antisocial Behavior and Psychopathic Traits.”Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, 6 Jan. 2021,
Discussion 4
The methods section is typically one of the most complex parts of an empirical research paper. Select an empirical article that you found while researching for your final research paper. What are the components included in the methods section? Why are the components different in the methods section of an empirical article and other types of research papers? Does a literature review have a methods section? Why or why not?
Reply 1 lisa ( 100 words)
In this article, the Methods section was comprised of subheadings that further identified and explained the research. Under Methods, there was a section for Participants and Materials. The Materials subheading was further expanded to the following sections: Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Symptom Checklist, Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults, Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised, Procedure, Coding, Time parameters, Types of interaction, and Statistical analysis. The methods section included a lot of data to identify the participants and how they were relevant and selected for the study. The method for selecting participants for the control group and the ADHD group was identified. Similarities between the two groups and differences were identified as well. For the Materials sub-section, the methods used to identify symptoms are described. These include a self-reporting checklist, diagnostic interview, and questionnaire. This section becomes more technical as the action methods of the study are explained. The procedure for observing participants is explained, along with the coding used to indicate the results and time parameters. This section also identifies the focus of the observable data will be identified by, the types of interaction.
The analysis of the time parameters and types of interaction is explained in the statistical analysis.
The methods sections tell the reader what happened. These elements under the Methods section give the reader the information that is needed to determine if the facts presented are collected using the scientific method, and if there is room for more defining data in future studies. This section is different from other types of research papers because it must outline the processes of the method in detail. Because it is based on the study that is being presented, this is new data and must be explained to the reader. Literature reviews do not require this level of information to be presented in the methods section. A literature review does require methods to be identified but this section is shorter because the data has already been published and presented. The methods section of a literature review will describe the criteria, literature search, data analysis, and the quality of the study.
Reply 2 taylor ( 100 words)
These are typically found in an empirical article as the parts of the method section – the sample information, tools and assessment details, research design, data collection, and procedure, data analysis, results, graphical representation, and interpretation of the results are often found in an empirical article as components of the method section. Research papers can be empirical or non-empirical. An empirical research article includes data gathering, analysis, and interpretation to make causal attributions, whereas a non-empirical research piece summarises other people’s research findings and draws conclusions from them, reviewing articles, for example. An empirical research article’s method section contains several details regarding the sample, tools, data collecting, technique, restrictions or precautions, and so on, but many review papers lack a method section. Some review papers, on the other hand, may use a systematic strategy for conducting literature reviews. However, it differs from the technique part of an empirical paper in that it does not analyze any first or reported data.
A literature review has a method, which is a systematic review process in which past studies are reviewed and reported in graphical form, but this is not included in the introduction or review of the literature section of the article; instead, it is made a separate method heading in the article just after the rational or hypotheses.

What are the perceptions of university students toward mental health?
Research question
What are the perceptions of university students toward mental health?
The rationale for the research
This study is critical because many students do not have adequate knowledge about mental health, which influences their attitudes and practices. Therefore, the knowledge gained will reveal the knowledge that students have about mental health. It will also show the attitudes the students bear and the practices that students carry out concerning coping strategies or practices which enable them to seek help. The findings will, in turn, help them take care of their mental health and well-being, which will improve their academic performance and make them become wholesome individuals in society.
A specific focus of the question you plan to examine.
Knowledge, attitudes and practices that students carry out with regards to addressing mental health problems.
Kokou-Kpolou, C. K., Jumageldinov, A., Park, S., Nieuviarts, N., Noorishad, P. G., & Cénat, J. M. (2021). Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Associated Psychosocial Risk Factors among French University Students: the Moderating and Mediating Effects of Resilience.The Psychiatric quarterly,1-15.
Chi, X., Becker, B., Yu, Q., Willeit, P., Jiao, C., Huang, L., Hossain, M. M., Grabovac, I., Yeung, A., Lin, J., Veronese, N., Wang, J., Zhou, X., Doig, S. R., Liu, X., Carvalho, A. F., Yang, L., Xiao, T., Zou, L., Fusar-Poli, P., … Solmi, M. (2020). Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Mental Health Outcomes Among Chinese College Students During the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic.Frontiers in psychiatry,11, 803.
Research On Perceptions of University Students Toward Mental Health
Research On Perceptions of University Students Toward Mental Health
The study selected for this research is focused on analyzing the methods by which students understand how their mental health is essential. Kim & Hong (2021) explained that university students have diverse expectations of their social life. The research question guiding the study is “What are university students’ perceptions toward mental health?”. Two practices that students can adopt to improve the university’s environment are creating social bonds and establishing trusting relationships. There can be high-quality study output once persons in all learning environments realize that the ultimate goal of every stakeholder is to improve their intelligence. Social bonds are appropriate since they provide personal interactions among different persons, which is crucial to facilitate better study output and the capability of learning about social environments’ expectations.
Students can get mentorship opportunities from persons who are conversant with their areas of expertise to ensure they are aware of all expected behaviors. Common barriers to higher education and business access are attitudinal, systemic, physical, communication, and technological. All these barriers require a structured approach to dealing with the learning environment’s components since it shall be a solid requirement to engage with diverse professionals and thus facilitate overall educational improvement requirements. Ensuring engagement among different students has a strong capability of generating technical improvement after dealing with all types of individual components that create study output. Attitudinal barriers include issues related to students’ thinking perception towards other persons where they view them as inferior. Systemic issues create constraints among students, who find it hard to communicate with their peers and leaders.
Physical barriers include buildings and their accessibility issues, which reduce mental peace. Communication issues affect appropriate study output since there can be challenges when trying to share ideas. Technological problems limit productivity, especially when data management is done using machines. Equitable success is beneficial since it promotes innovation, which is imperative in the current professional environment. It is possible to facilitate brand improvement after connecting different parts of the professional background to ensure all parties get provided with their expected output. Strategic handling of all mental management is mandatory to generate educational improvement, and this operates with the improvement of customer satisfaction as another component of equitable success. It shall be possible to create appropriate outcomes after learning about study environment expectations.
The study’s content validates the fact that there is productive management of mental health factors involved in students’ lives. This topic connected to me deeply due to its strong capability of transforming Students’ attitudes to ensure they conform to all types of organizational expectations. In business, all Students require collaboration since it allows them to relate well and integrate positive behaviors expected by management. In this regard, inclusion is mandatory to produce a structured approach to dealing with study expectations that involve clients, regulatory bodies, and the government. Students who integrate concepts from all the regulatory bodies shall integrate standard study output, which is mandatory in the study environment.
Kim, T., & Hong, H. (2021). Understanding University Students’ Experiences, Perceptions, and Attitudes Toward Peers Displaying Mental Health–Related Problems on Social Netstudying Sites: Online Survey and Interview Study. JMIR Mental Health, 8(10), e23465. doi: 10.2196/23465
Perceptions of University Students Toward Mental Health
Annotated bibliography
Chan, J. K., Farrer, L. M., Gulliver, A., Bennett, K., & Griffiths, K. M. (2016). University Students’ Views on the Perceived Benefits and Drawbacks of Seeking Help for Mental Health Problems on the Internet: A Qualitative Study. JMIR Human Factors, 3(1), e3.
The study by Chan et al., (2016) sought to investigate the views that university students on seeking help with regard to mental health issues on the internet. Students in higher education encounter significant rates of mental health issues, yet only a small percentage of them seek specialist care. It’s possible that university students may benefit from mental health therapies that are delivered through the internet. On the other hand, there isn’t a lot of published qualitative research that looks at the perceived advantages and downsides of seeking treatment for mental health issues on online platforms. Concerns around confidentiality and privacy, difficulties communicating over the internet, and the quality of materials available on the web were some of the issues that people believed to be raised by obtaining help via the internet. The avoidance of stigma and anonymity were two potential benefits that the students identified.
DeFreitas, S. C., Crone, T., DeLeon, M., & Ajayi, A. (2018). Perceived and personal mental health stigma in latino and african american college students. Frontiers in Public Health, 6(49).
According to DeFreitas et al., (2018) stigma associated with mental health comes about when individuals develop negative beliefs and thoughts about the illness or treatment of mental health. The stigma associated with mental health is linked to a variety of unfavorable outcomes, such as poor mental health outcomes and decreased usage of mental health care services. These implications may be especially significant for members of racial or ethnic minorities who are already subjected to other forms of discernment, such as Latinos and African Americans. In order to shed light on the factors that contribute to the formation of mental health stigma, DeFreitas et al., (2018) investigated the ways in which Latino and African American college students perceive and personally experience stigma related to mental health.
Ibrahim, N., Amit, N., Shahar, S., Wee, L.-H., Ismail, R., Khairuddin, R., Siau, C. S., & Safien, A. M. (2019). Do depression literacy, mental illness beliefs and stigma influence mental health help-seeking attitude? A cross-sectional study of secondary school and university students from B40 households in Malaysia. BMC Public Health, 19(S4).
In spite of the significant prevalence of mental illnesses among young people, very few of them seek treatment for their conditions, particularly those who come from families with lower socioeconomic status. It is crucial to understand the variables that influence people in the B40 demographic to seek treatment, such as perceptions about mental illness, stigma, and literacy levels; yet, there is not much previous research on this topic. As a result, Ibrahim et al., (2019) wanted to investigate the characteristics that are connected with students’ attitudes toward obtaining mental health care who fall into the B40 income category. Differences in views regarding mental illness, stigma, and attitudes toward getting treatment were also explored between students attending university and those attending secondary school. Students who came from families with poor incomes were more likely to have unfavorable views toward obtaining mental health assistance if they were younger and had higher levels of self-stigma. Increased efforts to minimize self-stigma in this demographic are required since it is possible that self-stigma acts as a barrier to actually seeking care for mental health issues.
Kamimura, A., Trinh, H. N., Johansen, M., Hurley, J., Pye, M., Sin, K., & Nguyen, H. (2018). Perceptions of mental health and mental health services among college students in Vietnam and the United States. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 37, 15–19.
There is a serious problem with public health caused by the worldwide burden of mental health illnesses. College students are an example of a demographic that may be at increased risk for mental health problems. There is a lack of information on the perspectives of college students in Vietnam with regard to mental disease and assistance for mental health. The individuals from the United States and Vietnam in the research had quite different ideas about the factors that contribute to mental illness. The participants from Vietnam had a tendency to think that those who suffered from mental diseases were dangerous and should be isolated from society, whereas the participants from the United States thought that mental illnesses are the same as other ailments (Kamimura et al., 2018).
Kecojevic, A., Basch, C. H., Sullivan, M., & Davi, N. K. (2020). The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on mental health of undergraduate students in New Jersey, cross-sectional study. PLOS ONE, 15(9).
Kecojevic et al., (2020) sought to investigate how the COVID 19 pandemic impacted the mental health of university students. College students have been living through a time of turmoil as a result of the COVID-19 epidemic. The purpose of this research was to investigate the factors that are connected to the rising levels of mental health burden that have been seen amongst a representative group of first-year college students from Northern New Jersey. S students reported significant levels of academic and everyday challenges, as well as mental health discomfort at extremely high levels. Higher levels of anxiousness were more likely to be reported by learners who were not first-years and by those who spent more than an hour per day searching for material on COVID-19. High rates of depression were connected with difficulty in concentrating on schoolwork and with employment losses.
Laidlaw, A., McLellan, J., & Ozakinci, G. (2015). Understanding undergraduate student perceptions of mental health, mental well-being and help-seeking behaviour. Studies in Higher Education, 41(12), 2156–2168.
Most college students do not seek treatment when they are having problems, despite the fact that there are relatively high levels of psychological discomfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate students’ grasp of the notions of mental health and mental well-being, as well as the locations college students would seek help for challenges related to their mental well-being. The findings showed that the vast majority of participants considered mental well-being and mental health as two separate concepts; nevertheless, these participants’ perceptions did not influence the locations where they would seek assistance for issues related to their mental well-being (Laidlaw et al., 2015). Individuals at medical schools have claimed that there is a stigma attached to getting care for issues related to mental health. College students were more likely to seek help for issues related to their mental well-being from their classmates, but it is less obvious whether or not they benefitedfrom this experience.
Lipson, S. K., Lattie, E. G., & Eisenberg, D. (2019). Increased Rates of Mental Health Service Utilization by U.S. College Students: 10-Year Population-Level Trends (2007–2017). Psychiatric Services, 70(1), 60–63.
On college campuses all around the United States, concerns about the physical and emotional well-being of students are becoming increasingly prominent. It is believed that one student out of every three has a mental health condition that is substantial enough to need therapeutic attention (Lipson et al., 2019). The primary objective of this research was to establish population-level changes in the consumption of mental health services by college students. There was a notable rise in the number of people receiving therapy and being diagnosed.
Mishna, F., Regehr, C., Lacombe-Duncan, A., Daciuk, J., Fearing, G., & Van Wert, M. (2018). Social media, cyber-aggression and student mental health on a university campus. Journal of Mental Health, 27(3), 222–229.
Students in higher education may reap significant benefits from the use of information technologies, including increased opportunities for participation and interactions with others, as well as enhanced opportunities for self-directed and collaborative learning. However, factors such as the perception of obscurity and the absence of social signs may increase the likelihood of aggressive behavior amongst individuals. This study fills a vacuum in the research that has been done on bullying in post-secondary settings. Previous research has focused on bullying in educational settings for children and adolescents. A sizeable portion of today’s college students has been victims of cyberaggression, which has a negative effect on both their feeling of well-being and their mental health (Mishna et al., 2018).
Othman, N., Ahmad, F., El Morr, C., & Ritvo, P. (2019). Perceived impact of contextual determinants on depression, anxiety and stress: a survey with university students. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 13(1).
Young people who are beginning their education at a college or university face many challenges connected to the transitional life period and the unique places they are entering (Othman et al., 2019). Recent research reveals alarmingly high prevalence rates of symptoms associated with common mental health conditions such as worry, stress, and depression. On the other hand, there is a paucity of information about the factors that contribute to these issues among Canadian students. The major objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of contextual variables, as viewedby learners, on self-reported mental wellbeing, and to determine how these effects differed.
Vidourek, R. A., & Burbage, M. (2019). Positive mental health and mental health stigma: A qualitative study assessing student attitudes. Mental Health & Prevention, 13, 1–6.
Problems with mental health and the stigma that surrounds mental health are important public health issues. In light of the fact that fewer than one-third of people who suffer from mental health issues receive treatment, there is a pressing need for research to investigate the stigma that is associated with seeking assistance for mental health issues. Students saw the stigma around mental health therapy as a barrier to receiving it (Vidourek & Burbage, 2019). Students thought that it was necessary to minimize stigma-related attitudes through expanding awareness and education, connecting students to services, being compassionate and empathetic to people who were facing mental health difficulties, and providing educational opportunities.
Research On Perceptions of University Students Toward Mental Health
Main research question
What are the perceptions about mental health services and mental health among college students in US and Vietnam?
Description of the study
There is a serious problem with public health caused by the worldwide burden of mental health illnesses. College students are an example of a demographic that may be at increased risk for mental health problems. There is a lack of information on the perspectives of college students in Vietnam with regard to mental disease and assistance for mental health. The individuals from the United States and Vietnam in the research had quite different ideas about the factors that contribute to mental illness. The participants from Vietnam had a tendency to think that those who suffered from mental diseases were dangerous and should be isolated from society, whereas the participants from the United States thought that mental disorders are the same as other ailments. A key indicator of how Vietnamese people think about their mental health is the low possibility that they would seek professional care for mental disease (Kamimura et al., 2018). Instead, they prefer to seek aid from their family or friends when they are struggling with mental illness. Interventions, such as campaigns aimed at raising awareness about mental health or training courses, have to be made available to college students in Vietnam. It is possible that the stigma associated with mental illness can be reduced in Vietnam by using some of the tactics that have been employed in the United States to promote the mental health of college students.
Self-administered surveys were used in data collection from January to March of 2018 for a state university in the US and one in Vietnam. Participants were students ranging in age from 18 to 30 who were enrolled in a class that was linked to social science. Each participant gave their consent, which was recorded. In-class, undergraduate students were provided with a consent cover letter and a paper survey, both of which may be handed in at any point during or after the class. There was no collection of personally-identifying information.
The findings of this study, which compared the perspectives of college students in Vietnam with the United States about mental illness and services related to mental health, maybe broken down into three categories. To begin, there were national variations in the perceptions of the factors that contribute to mental illness. In particular, the participants from Vietnam stated that the most common reason was stress from daily life, whereas the participants from the United States believed that the most common cause was chemical imbalance (Kamimura et al., 2018). Second, participants from Vietnam were more likely to hold the perception that those who suffered from mental illness were dangerous and should be isolated from the community, whereas participants from the United States believed that mental disease was comparable to other types of sickness. Thirdly, one of the primary reasons that Vietnamese participants cited for not getting care for mental illness was a preference for obtaining assistance from family or friends rather than a professional.
This study compared the perspectives of university students in the US and Vietnamon mental health and the behaviors associated with seeking mental health services. In comparison to college students in the United States, the researchers found that fewer previous studies had been conducted on the mental diseases that affect Vietnamese college students. The results for Vietnamese students were consistent with those found in earlier research conducted on Vietnamese immigrant groups located all over the world, as well as various mental health studies conducted in Vietnam.
Kamimura, A., Trinh, H. N., Johansen, M., Hurley, J., Pye, M., Sin, K., & Nguyen, H. (2018). Perceptions of mental health and mental health services among college students in Vietnam and the United States. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 37, 15–19.
Running head: PSYCHOLOGY 1
What are the perceptions of university students toward mental health?
For many students around the world, obtaining a high-quality education is still a top priority. Unfortunately, students’ mental well-being is a major source of concern in higher education. Depression is one of the illnesses afflicting this group of persons. It is impossible for them to enjoy a high-quality life or achieve their job goals if this problem arises currently in their life. This cause and effect explore the nature of this mental health issue, it’s possible causes, the significant repercussions, and the best ways to aid the affected persons (Ma et al., 2021). Many students today confront challenges and worries related to their education. Some of them are still unwilling to seek help and explain the underlying causes of their troubles. Moreover, many students are unable to recognize that their mental health and mental well-being have a direct impact on their conduct, future grades, and the ability to use their knowledge in the real world in the future. In this article, Laidlaw et al. (2015) explore the notions of mental health and mental well-being that undergraduate students comprehend, as well as the instances in which students believe it necessary to ask for help to overcome their mental issues.
Background of the Issue
Stress, anxiety, and depression affect around one-third of all university students in the United States. Students’ lives have long been described as distinct from both children and adults, but the issue was never considered as urgent until today. Studying used to be seen as a happy time, but new data shows that since the dawn of the twenty-first century, people’s philological well-being has declined dramatically (Ma et al., 2021). The stress that college students undergo is well-known. There’s no denying that more than a third of individuals who seek help for mental health difficulties state that they’ve contemplated suicide at some point in their lives, up from roughly a quarter in 2010.
If a student has a mental health issue, it is a good idea to provide them with access to therapy so they may get some support. The fact that over half of them have problems they cannot handle on their own cannot be perceived as normal. In addition, more than a third of students need medication and therapy to cope with their daily routines, which is crucial but also raises much concern. The problem’s importance is undeniable considering the provided figures. Students’ well-being is adversely affected by their environment and routine, according to several scientists and psychologists who have studied the issue. Then again, there are those who have a different opinion. They stress the importance of a person’s own bad behaviors in this perspective. However, while they are concerned about the negative impact that students’ sleeping and eating habits have on their mental health, they should also consider the ways in which their busy schedules and surrounding environment affect it, because the students’ wishes will not solve the overload, social and financial problems. Numerous mental health issues commonly encountered by students in a variety of educational settings have been the subject of previous research.
According to Joseph (2019), students’ health was shown to be worse than that of the public. An estimated 30.6% of students in higher education institutions are experiencing mental health issues (Jiang, Li, Chen, & Chen, 2015). As a result, some colleges and institutions have a greater number of students afflicted by this issue than others. In this period of life, people are expected to make timely decisions and follow their own distinct goals in life with utmost dedication. The mental health of these adolescents is taken seriously by a variety of stakeholders to help them realize their full potential (Roxo & Perelman, 2021). The challenge that arises in handling the mental health among the college students is the fact that the students have a negative perception towards seeking help and treatment because they fear being stigmatized.
Causes of Mental Issues
There are various issues of mental health that occurs among college students and the perception of the emergence based on them comes to some causes as stated below. These people are particularly susceptible to depression for a variety of reasons. In some institutions, this health problem is more common because of certain characteristics or causes. First and foremost, students must be able to perform challenging academic activities, participate in class discussions, and turn in their work on time. Students agree that they have challenging academic requirements and should balance with the life issues that they experience (Jiang et al., 2015). The college students perceive that joining university or any other tertiary institution comes with its challenges due to the exposure to much diversity and might be difficult to cope with the huge changes without the necessary guidance.
The university students agree that the University and college management fails to consider offering a good transition to the student to guarantee them a better stay in the institutions. As a result, many students find it difficult to cope with these rules, policies, and obligations. There have also been reports of prejudice at other institutions around the United States and the world. Furthermore, students from poverty or ethnic minorities are perceived as arrogant and incompetent, according to Wahed & Hassan (2019). The stereotype that comes with diversity in colleges also is a contributing factor to increasing mental health issues. Students in the colleges agree that mental health matters in their academic excellence and would like the institution management to consider investing in mental health training and awareness programs. In many colleges, this type of discrimination is a significant risk factor for depression. It is also important to note that the economy is still a major factor in the stress that students feel in schools. In most cases, students must stay in school to achieve their academic goals. In most cases, parents, sponsors, or other guardians are unable to provide appropriate financial support for these persons. In other cases, they can be unable to pursue their aspirations because of a lack of enough cash (Roxo & Perelman, 2021). The other factor is that college students are well-known for forming new connections with their peers. The students perceive that mental health issues are contributed by challenging social and economic issues in the society and require the government and the institutions to make it public and raise awareness that would help in the initiative in addressing it.
Even though some of these relationships may continue to thrive, others will face a variety of difficulties. An excellent illustration of this is when a partner decides to end the affair without presenting a compelling explanation. As a result, one of them will face several difficulties as they attempt to come to terms with the new reality (Ngin et al., 2018). University students are expected to make difficult judgments about their future job goals and aspirations. They are unable to accomplish their goals because of these requirements. There may not be enough counseling and guidance services to address the requirements of these people. As a result, certain students from minority backgrounds may be more affected than others. Those who come from broken homes will have no choice but to look for assistance elsewhere. Students are more likely to develop depressed if they do not have access to these services.
Coping Strategies
Universities can take a variety of steps to help students deal with stress and anxiety. First, they should develop training programs and workshops that teach students how to deal with stress, anxiety, and other related issues. The approach is much necessary since the students support the mental health initiative and since they fear stereotype and stigma associated with it, raising awareness and involve everyone in the program makes it a success. Meditation, social support, relaxation, physical activity, and the need of sleep and nutritious eating could all be included in a stress-management program for students. Many university students lack the required skills and expertise to effectively manage their stress (Roxo & Perelman, 2021). The second benefit is that they can foster an atmosphere in which students feel free to discuss their issues and seek outside assistance when necessary.
There are several ways to accomplish this, such as organizing workshops and creating awareness programs that educate students about mental health issues and the link between student wellbeing and academic achievement. College students fear opening up about mental health or seeking help and this demand that an intervention that encourages them to open up would work towards addressing the issue. Student health can only be ensured if they are aware of how to meet their diverse demands. Third, colleges and universities should open more wellness and counseling services to help students cope with anxiety (Schreiber, 2019). There are clinics like these where students may get professional advice on how to deal with anxiety and other mental health issues that may arise. Some kids suffer because they don’t know where to turn for support or who to turn to. To encourage students to talk openly about their concerns with peers and counselors, colleges should implement policies and initiatives to combat the stigma of mental illness. Students with mental health concerns should be closely monitored by the school.
Transitioning from high school to university is one of the many difficulties that students face when they enroll in college or another postsecondary institution. Academic work, relationships, integration, and new lifestyles put students under a lot of stress that can lead to disorders like anxiety and depression if they are not appropriately dealt with. Because of a lack of resources, inadequate knowledge and training, confusing guidelines regarding stress management, and poor learning environments, universities have been unable to engage with students regarding healthy stress management (Schreiber, 2019). Mental health stigma is another factor that prevents many students from seeking help for their issues. Stress-related illnesses have been on the rise in colleges over the last decade, according to research. Exams, high expectations from parents, uncertain employment chances, social demands, and financial limits are only some of the factors that contribute to stress. As a result, the number of students suffering from stress-related illnesses is on the rise in colleges and universities. Another reason why institutions have not been able to help students cope with stress is because they lack proper training in stress management. Stress management is something that many first-year college students lack because of their lack of preparation (Schreiber, 2019). To assist them manage and live productive lives, they receive insufficient training following admission. Wellness programs and workshops aimed at educating students on stress management should be developed by colleges to assist combat this issue and alleviate their worry.
Jiang, C. X., Li, Z. Z., Chen, P., & Chen, L. Z. (2015). Prevalence of depression among college-goers in mainland China: A methodical evaluation and meta-analysis.Medicine, 94(50), e2071.
Joseph, S. (2019).Depression, anxiety rising among U.S. college students.Reuters.Web.
Laidlaw, A., McLellan, J. and Ozakinci, G. (2015). Understanding undergraduate student perceptions of mental health, mental well-being and help-seeking behaviour.Studies in Higher Education, 41(12), pp. 2156-2168.
Ma, Q., Parisi, J., Joo, J., & Gallo, J. (2021). Singapore young adults’ perception of mental health help-seeking from mental health professionals and peer supporters.Asian Journal Of Psychiatry,61, 102687.
Ngin, C., Pal, K., Tuot, S., Chhoun, P., Yi, R., & Yi, S. (2018). Social and behavioural factors associated with depressive symptoms among university students in Cambodia: A cross-sectional study.BMJ Open, 8(9), e019918.
Roxo, L., & Perelman, J. (2021). Mental health services use for depression: socioeconomic status, needs perception and affordability.European Journal of Public Health,31(Supplement_3).
Schreiber, B. (2019). Mental Health at Universities: Universities are Not in Loco Parentis – Students are Active Partners in Mental Health.Journal of Student Affairs In Africa,6(2).
Wahed, W. Y. A., & Hassan, S. K. (2019). Prevalence and associated factors of stress, anxiety and depression among medical Fayoum University students.Alexandria Journal of Medicine, 53(1), 77-84.
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