Posted: June 11th, 2022

Unit 3 AS: Research Problem Statement Assignment

This assignment requires students to write a Research Problem statement on their approved research topic. This will be informed by their evaluation of previous research that was started in Unit 2 with the Annotated Bibliography Assignment.
See the attached assignment sheet for details. (The assignment must be double spaced, in 12-point font, and cite sources as necessary to support your analysis.)
Researchtechnology
ATTACHED FILE(S)
1
5

Annotated Bibliography
Wendy Reina
Kean University
June 6, 2022
Annotated Bibliography
Topic: “Race and ethnicity in unemployment and high crime rates in America.”
Couloute, L., & Kopf, D. (2018). Out of prison & out of work: Unemployment among formerly incarcerated people.Prison Policy Initiative.
According to Couloute, L., & Kopf, in the overall population in America, people of color are more probable to be unemployed than how white people are to be employed (Couloute & Kopf, 2018). However, male unemployment rates are often lower than those faced by females. As a result, the discrepancies the authors discovered between formerly imprisoned persons and the general community may have been caused by the high number of people of color and men who are overrepresented in the jail population. Separating the data by race and gender, the authors found that the unemployment rate for every previously incarcerated group was higher than that of any comparable group in the general population. When it comes to former inmates seeking work, their prior criminal records set them apart from other job searchers, not merely because they are excessively symbolized in the criminal justice organization.
Hinton, E., Henderson, L., & Reed, C. (2018). An unjust burden: The disparate treatment of black Americans in the criminal justice system.Vera Institute of Justice, 1-20.
According to Hinton et al., to some extent, racial disparities in the criminal justice system may be traced back to the nation’s past and present policy (Hinton et al., 2018). In the years after the end of slavery in the South, black Americans became the major target of new tactics for policing, punishment, and jail. There was legislation aimed toward the newly freed black people that took use of a gap in the 13th Amendment, which identifies that citizens can only be forced into slavery once they have been found guilty of a criminal offense. Several laws were passed to ensure that the newly emancipated black population’s labor was properly monitored and exploited. That’s why police tactics and aims are often shaped by data that reflect the crimes committed by low-income and unemployed Americans, who are disproportionately black, because of structural inequities.
Hipp, J. R., & Kane, K. (2017). Cities and the larger context: What explains changing levels of a crime?.Journal of criminal justice,49, 32-44.
This study aims to determine whether or not the wider environment in America influences crime rates over the next ten years. Hipp’s and Kane’s findings are based on extensive research that spans several years and includes many cities in America (Hipp & Kane, 2017). However, even while cities with a big population and those located near a major population county often have larger rises in crime in the following decade, communities feeling an upsurge in population throughout the present decade enjoy declines in crime. In the study’s findings, cities with advanced regular incomes have lower crime rates, whereas cities bordered by lower-income counties have higher crime rates. Increasing levels of wealth disparity and racial/ethnic heterogeneity are linked to an increase in crime, and the county surrounding the city is also connected with an increase in crime. There is some evidence that racial/ethnic variety may increase the likelihood of violent crime. As a result, both levels of inequality have become increasingly important from a public safety perspective since 1970. As a final step, Hipp and Kane looked at how these connections had held up over our research. They discovered an increasing degree of linkage between rising city-level inequality and a rise in criminal behavior.
Myers, S. L., & Sabol, W. J. (2020). Unemployment and racial differences in imprisonment. InThe economics of race and crime(pp. 189-209). Routledge.
According to Myers and Sabol, a person’s race or employment status should not play a part in determining a person’s punishment in the criminal justice system. Here, the authors examine an alternative theory on the relationship between incarceration, unemployment, and racial identity (Myers & Sabol, 2020). The paradigm suggests that the practices of the penal system are shaped by the peculiarities of the labor market inside a production system. The pool of “reserve” employees essential for price stability and economic growth includes many unemployed black workers. In the industrial economies of the northern states of the United States, prisons are part of a wider system of institutions that offer support for economically dependent populations. Workers that are financially dependent on the government make up this category. Research supports the structural paradigm linking black incarceration and jail in the North to manufacturing and black unemployment (Myers & Sabol, 2020).
References
Couloute, L., & Kopf, D. (2018). Out of prison & out of work: Unemployment among formerly incarcerated people.Prison Policy Initiative.
Hinton, E., Henderson, L., & Reed, C. (2018). An unjust burden: The disparate treatment of black Americans in the criminal justice system.Vera Institute of Justice, 1-20.
Hipp, J. R., & Kane, K. (2017). Cities and the larger context: What explains changing levels of a crime?.Journal of criminal justice,49, 32-44.
Myers, S. L., & Sabol, W. J. (2020). Unemployment and racial differences in imprisonment. InThe economics of race and crime(pp. 189-209). Routledge.
Research Problem Assignment
Instructions: For completing this assignment, follow the guidelines regarding Research Problems discussed in the Unit 3 Lecture. The Research Problem should be approximately 250 words, about a page double-spaced. You must cite a minimum of two references in proper APA formatting.
Questions you should ask yourself when composing the Research Problem:
Who is the study population? How can you further refine the study population?
What exactly do you want to understand about the topic/problem?
Is the Research Problem too broad?
How relevant is the research to your study area/discipline/major/interests?
What motivates you to do the research on the chosen topic/problem?
Why should others be interested in your chosen topic/problem?
What are the stakes involved in not addressing the issue from your perspective?
What are the concepts and issues to be studied?
Do you have enough time to complete the research?
Is an answer to the Research Problem obvious?

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