Posted: June 10th, 2022

World History

Due2022/6/8 23:00 (GMT-7)
I. India: Decolonization
British colony since 1760s
Rule by Viceroy and Council; grinding poverty
Late 19th Century: growth of educated, Indian middle-class, commitment to nationalism
1885: Indian National Congress forms; led by Hindu intellectuals and reformers; self-rule and democratic reforms
Muslim League: forms in 1906; advance political causes of Muslim minority; eventual call for separate Muslim state
How to weld together an independent India?

II. World War I as Catalyst
Indians fought for British; massive casualties and injury to Indian economy (inflation)
Stokes resentment; self-determination denied
British promise gradual self-rule
Amristar Massacre: April 1919; peaceful protest of 10,000 Indians; British army opens fire; 376 killed, thousands wounded
Galvanizes Indian resistance to British rule
A Leader Emerges
Mohandas Gandhi: born 1869,English educated; lead civil rights efforts in South Africa; emerges as leader after Amristar Massacre
Non-violence and civil disobedience
Refuse to pay taxes, vote, obey unjust laws
Employ fasts: sacrifice, suffering for good end
Mass appeal: humble, simple, modest
Revolution from elite to masses
Focus on religion worried Muslims
III. Changes in WWII Era
British remain intransigent on independence
Constitution of 1935: elected legislature to “assist” Governor; great power in Governor
Gandhi accepts compromise; Jawaharlal Nehru refuses
Indian National Congress: full independence now; boycott World War II
Muslim League: separate Muslim state
1945: Labour Party controls British government; grant independence
Britain: weakened, drain on resources, no will
Independence at Last!
1947: British withdraws; India partitioned
Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan
Population transfer: 12 million people migrate; hundreds of thousands die; no plan in place
Independence and democracy, but…poverty; illiteracy; huge, heterogenous population
IV. Decolonization In Asia: Comparing China and India
Both: huge populations; poor, peasant societies; foreign control; nationalism and modernization (foreign ideas) as goals
India: religious and liberal leaders; religious divisions; non-violent movement; democratic result
China: radical vs. liberals; war and violent revolution; communist dictatorship

I. Origins in Europe
Hitler rearms, seeks territory lost in 1919
Isolationism; hope of appeasement
Blitzkrieg: Hitler’s hopes for quick, decisive war against status powers (Britain, France)
“Lightning war”
Lessons of WWI: avoid long war, use stockpiles, series of short wars, knock-out rivals
Rapid strikes, penetrate and envelope
Multiple enemies and long war=disaster
1939: Poland and Non-Aggression Pact; France and Great Britain declare war on Germany
1940: Frances falls in six weeks

II. “A Day Which Will Live in Infamy”: The United States Enters the War
Dec. 7, 1941: Pearl Habor
Dec. 8 Congress declared war on Japan
Dec. 11 Germany declares war on the United States

II. War in Europe
First U.S. land troops in North Africa (1942)
1943 attack Italy, uprising deposes Mussolini
First major involvement begins D-day,
June 6, 1944
August 1944 Paris liberated, push into Germany

III. End of War
Early 1945 Allied victory assured
March 1945 U.S. troops invade Germany, Hitler commits suicide
May 8, 1945 V-E Day
In Pacific, 1944 America retakes Guam, Philippines, move closer to Japan
Negotiations begin with Japan
Demand for “unconditional surrender”

1944 FDR dies in office, Harry Truman takes over
U.S. successfully tests atomic bomb in July 1945
August 6, 1945 U.S. drops bomb on Hiroshima

The Postwar Age Dawns
Cold War Rivalry
Atomic, Nuclear Age
Decolonization and Decline of Europe
Nationalism and Modernity

Population of Algeria: poor rural Muslims; French-speaking urban Muslims and Catholics; French colons (control wealth, land, and resources)
France weakened after World War II but determined to hold on to Algeria
National Liberation Front emerges in 1954
Agglomeration of groups; Arab nationalism; Socialist in name but not doctrinaire; modernist interpretation of Islam
I. French Algeria, 1954-1962
Born in Martinique in 1925
French repression early influence
Educated in France
Wrote of psychological trauma of colonialism
Moved to Algeria in early 1950s; joins National Liberation Front
Wretched of the Earth (1961) revolutionary violence by colonial people is justified
Dehumanized; subject to violence; necessary for psychological and political decolonization
International advocate for decolonization
Treated for leukemia in U.S. and Soviet Union; dead in 1961
Frantz Fanon
1954: NLF launches revolution against French
First phase: urban revolt suppressed by French with mass arrests and torture
Second phase: rural revolt led by religious leaders; long, brutal fight
1962: France signs Evian Accords; Algeria is independent, admitted to United Nations
1963: Ahmed Ben Bella elected first president; increasingly autocratic; purges enemies; amplifies socialist rhetoric
1965: removed in coup; one-party dictatorship emerges in Algeria
Algerian Independence
Belgium colonizes Congo river basin in late 19th century; officially a colony in 1908
Brutal economic exploitation; terror and massacres;
Growing independence movement in 1950s driven by educated Congolese
Frustrated by Belgium’s slow reforms
MNC founded in 1958 by Patrice Lumumba
Negotiates Congolese independence in 1960
Antagonizes army, seek aid from Soviet Union
Executed in coup in 1961
Joseph Mobutu takes control with Western backing; personal dictatorship until 1997
II. Belgian Congo
A colony created by British colonial designs
Bound together various tribes, Muslims, Christians
Ruled through tribal federation
1953-1960: riots against British
British pull out amidst chaos in 1960
1967: Civil War in Biafra in southeast; Ibos attempt independence
1970: General Yakubu Gowon establishes military dictatorship
III. Nigeria
Algeria, Congo, Nigeria: violent revolutions lead to dictatorships
Ethnic, tribal, religious differences; failure of nationalism; results in personal dictatorships
Imperialism in Africa in 20th century a disaster for Africans
Exploitation; wealth extracted to powers
Little or no political reforms; “civilizing mission”
Deformed European culture: racism and arrogance
Distorted local cultures; imposed inorganic boundaries
IV. Legacies of Imperialism
I. Origins in Asia
Japan aspired to, denied “Great Power” status
Needed empire for industrialization
Military took control over government through internal struggle
1931—seizes Manchuria
1937—Invades Northern China
1937-1945: Prolonged war in Asia for hegemony
Like Germany, an industrial nation seeking empire, resources, sphere of interest, vindication for superior race; a mission fueled by rapid nationalism and militarism
“Asia for the Asians” with Japan at top

The Rape of Nanking
Deeply rooted cultural and ethnic animosity
December 13, 1937 Japanese army captures Nanking
Six weeks of terror: rapes, killing contests, brutalities
300,000 killed; 80,000 raped
Some later convicted of war crimes; many avoid prosecution as insulated by U.S. after the war
Remains division in Asia diplomatic relations
“A second rape”: Cloaked in Japan; counter to narrative of Japanese as victims

Dehumanization of the “Other”
Product of total war and nationalism; forces of inclusion and exclusion
Rape of Nanking
“Comfort Women”
Bataan Death March
Hiroshima, Nagasaki

II. Origins in Europe
Hitler rearms, seeks territory lost in 1919
Isolationism; hope of appeasement
Blitzkrieg: Hitler’s hopes for quick, decisive war against status powers (Britain, France)
“Lightning war”
Lessons of WWI: avoid long war, use stockpiles, series of short wars, knock-out rivals
Rapid strikes, penetrate and envelope
Multiple enemies and long war=disaster
1939: Poland and Non-Aggression Pact
1940: Frances falls in six weeks

Again, A World at War
June 1941—Germany attacks Soviet Union
December 1941: Japan’s own Blitzkrieg in Pacific
Germany honors pact with Japan
Another world war, another global remaking…

I. Origins of the Cold War
World War II ends in 1945 with U.S. and Soviet Union as two great world powers
U.S. sought global economic reconstruction for American prosperity; world modeled on their values
Soviet Union sought security; had lost 20 million in war; greatest sacrifice in defeating Hitler; sought a sphere of influence in eastern Europe
A Divided Europe
Conflicts of the Cold War
Ideological: U.S.—free markets, representative democracies; Soviet Union—command economy, bureaucratic rule
Technological: Arms race; space race; consumer goods
“Hearts and Minds”: Alignment of the “Third World”; Peace Corps, Fulbright Program, immigration reforms
II. The Truman Doctrine
Containment: U.S. commitment to preventing any further expansion of Soviet power and influence
1947: Truman Doctrine in effect; U.S. to support monarchy in Greece and stop Soviet involvement in Turkey
$400 million pledged; bipartisan support
III. The Marshall Plan
June 1947, Sec. of State George Marshall announces billions of aid to rebuild Western Europe
Economic chaos, inflation, starvation
Fear of slide toward communism, Soviets
Shore up support, faith in capitalism; create markets for American goods
“Prosperity Makes Your Free”
V. The Korean War
In 1949, Communist secure control of China
Korea divided after World War II
June 1950, North invades South in effort to unify
UN authorizes use of force to expel North
September 1950, U.S. forces occupy most of North Korea; Chinese forces pour in, drive back
Stalemate, armistice in 1953, return to 38th parallel as border
Conflict in Korea
33,000 Americans killed
1 million Korean soldiers
2 million civilians dead
Cold War as global conflict, huge human toll
1947-1953: postwar age developed into a divided world, ideological conflict, military confrontations in the shadow of “the bomb”
I. China in Early 20th Century
Elements of Traditional Society: ruled by aristocrats (mandarins), landed elite, emperor
Large impoverished peasant population
Weak, victimized by Western imperialism
Besieged by Christian missionaries
Sparks patriotic backlash against foreigners, Christians, and imperial government: Boxer Rebellion(1899-1901)
Suppressed by Western armies; prop up imperial government
Young, educated nationalists emerge within army
II. Sun Yat Sen and Chinese Nationalism
Sun Yat Sen (1866-1925) born into peasantry; educated in Hawaii and Hong Kong; dedicated to revolution
Establish liberal republic
Early 20th century; develops secret society; young army officers gravitate to Sun
October 1911: revolt in southern China, establish Nanking as revolutionary capital; Sun Yat Sen elected President
But in north, General Yuan Shikai seizes power
Military regime or liberal republic?
Sun Yat Sen resigns, Yuan Shikai agrees to support new republic as President; assumes position in 1912
Warlords, landed elite raise their own armies
The Interwar Period
Overall, a period of chaos and uncertainty
1916: Yuan Shikai dies
Sun Yat Sen establishes Nationalist Party; maintains loyalty of nationalists dedicated to republic
1920s: riots, chaos, massacres
1921: Chinese Communist Party forms, led by Mao Zedong
Committed to Marxist principles; “True party of the people”
1920s-1930s: Nationalists, now led by Chiang Kai-shek war with Communists
1931: Japanese seize Manchuria
1937: full scale invasion by Japanese;Nationalists and Communists confront foreign invaders
III. Chinese Civil War (1937-1949)
Three way struggle between Nationalists, Communists, and Japanese for control of China
By 1945, Nationalists lose popular support due to collaboration with Japanese and growing hatred toward land owners
Communist promise land reform and redistribution
1949:Mao Zedong proclaims People’s Republic of China
Chiang Kai-shek flees to Taiwan, forms Nationalist Chinese government; receives U.S. recognition and support
Chinese Revolution: 1900-1945
Traditional Society besetby foreign imperialism, growing middle class, peasant poverty
Liberals and radicals attack these problems; war with each other
Exclusion/Inclusion: Nationalism driven by antagonism toward outsiders but employing outside concepts
IV. The New Regime
China in 1949-53: mixed economy, large landless peasant class
Two plans: “experts” and “reds”
“Experts”: centralized command, moderation in reforms, pragmatism, emphasis on expertise
“Reds”: ideological purity, class struggle, idealism and enthusiasm for equality
“Experts” wield control 1953-1957: use bureaucracy; Soviet-style 5 year plans; heavy industry and small, communal farms
Reds wield control: 1958-1962: “Great Leap Forward”; decentralize industry, huge agrarian communities
Reds’ efforts a huge failure: massive famine and no industrial growth
Back to the “experts” in 1962
“The Cultural Revolution” 1965-1974
Initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 against “experts”
Campaign against capitalism, bureaucracy, and hierarchy in Chinese state; consolidate control of Mao
Employ Red Guard against enemies of state
Purge China of its traditions in culture, religion, art
War against foreign pollution of revolutionary ethic
Created a Cult of Mao
“Little Red Book”
1970-1974: winds down due to economic collapse
Restores “experts”
1976: Mao dies; Deng Xiaoping takes power; arrests “Reds” and radicals
V. The Contemporary Era
Since 1972, relations with United States
Since 1980, China led by “experts”
Pragmatic, economic policy
Permit some capitalism, private ownership of land, invite foreign investment
But…one-party rule, no democracy, repression against dissidents and suppression of civil liberties
Economic reform but not political reform
I. Origins of American War in Vietnam
19th Century: French Indochina, spawns underground independence movements
World War II: occupied by Japanese; U.S. works with Ho Chi Minh’s forces, the Viet Minh
1945-1954: French return, install puppet government, U.S. sends millions
American Escalation
1954: Battle of Dien Bien Phu
Geneva Conference, temporary boundary at 17th parallel, national elections in 1956
U.S. intervenes; installs Ngo Dinh Diem in South
Diem: Catholic, residing in New Jersey
Viet Minh form NLF or Vietcong; wage war against Diem regime
Buddhists rebel: protest, self-immolation
1963: Diem overthrown and killed by CIA

1964-1970:Frustration and Defeat
By 1967: 500,000 American troops in Vietnam; 2 billion dollars a month; escalation of bombing
1968: U.S. Government, “Victory in sight”
1968: Tet Offensive; U.S. caught in lie
My Lai massacre in 1968
Growing protests at home; President Johnson declines re-election bid
Nixon and the “Secret Plan”
1970—Kent State and Jackson State shootings

War Ends
1970-1971: U.S. and North Vietnam meet in Paris
Jan 1973: Paris Peace Accords: ceasefire; U.S. withdrawal; Nixon ends draft
“Peace With Honor”
1975: U.S. withdraws, war of unification
II. Era of Detente
Sparked by Defeat in Vietnam; questioning of containment
1970s-1990s: Era of Détente
Nixon opens relations with China; first president to visit Soviet Union
1972: Signed SALT treaty: froze number of nuclear missiles; Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
From containment to “peaceful coexistence”
Roles of Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev

III. Cold War Ends
Late 1980s: protest movements in Eastern Europe
1989: Berlin Wall falls; Germany reunified in 1990
Social and Economic Crises in Soviet Union: shortages, corruption, apathy
Glasnost and Perestroika
1991 Crisis: coup attempts on Gorbachev, emergence of Boris Yeltsin
Gorbachev resigns
December 25, 1991

IV. Or Does It?
Communist states as Rivals: China, Cuba
Conflicts in Iraq: 1991 and 2003
Conflict in Afghanistan
Ongoing conflict with Russia in 21st Century

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