Posted: February 27th, 2023

Chapter 2

I will need Chapter 2 rewritten to fit in and make since with Chapter 3. I have attached the Tamplet Guide to follow for Chapter 2. Thank you so much. 

I need Chapter 2 to be rewritten all over again. I need for it to focus on the 5 Leadership stages involving Work from Home employees (WFH/Remote) , and Traditional employees as well. 

Chapter 2 – Literature Review

Your literature review should be completed as part of the proposal process. Provide any updates based upon continuing work. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.

Summary

As part of clear writing, the judicious use of summary paragraphs is helpful. Even the best-written literature reviews and research can lose connection or flow with the reader. Periodic summary statements that clarify the key points or findings of a section can help keep the reader informed and engaged.

 **The Literature Review will need to be lengthy to have enough information. An example has been attached below, as well as my actual report to get an overview on what you’re looking at. . 

Thank You 

The Research Proposal: An Explanatory Template for BUS8115 and BUS8120 for Chapters 4 – 5 of the Dissertation

Submitted to South University

College of Business

In partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree of

Doctor of Business Administration

Insert Name Here

Month Year

THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL BUS8115 AND BUS8120

The signature page for the defended and approved dissertation will be inserted on this page of the document.

Abstract

An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the entire proposal, typically ranging from 150 to 250 words. The APA manual notes the type of information that should be included in abstracts for different types of studies. In general, the abstract outlines the major headings: the research question, theoretical framework, research design, sampling method, instrumentation, and data and analysis procedures. In a final dissertation, the abstract also outlines key findings and interpretations. A reader should gain a high level understanding of the entire document from its abstract. Do not add any information in the abstract that is not discussed throughout the dissertation. Because it highlights the entire proposal, researchers often write the abstract after the remainder of the document. Writing an abstract is an important skill requiring the ability to be concise. In publications, the abstract is often the first thing potential readers review to determine whether to continue reading your work.

THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL BUS8115 AND BUS8120 5

Dedication

You may provide a brief dedication on this page. The dedication should be no more than one page. You will complete the dedication in BUS8120. You may find it helpful to research examples of dedications in dissertations.

Acknowledgements

You may provide brief acknowledgements on this page. The acknowledgements should be no more than one to two pages. You will complete the acknowledgements in BUS8120. You may find it helpful to research examples of acknowledgements in dissertations.

List of Tables

Similar to the table of contents, list tables (including caption and page number location) on this page. Refer to the APA manual for guidance. You will complete this task in BUS8120.

List of Figures

Similar to the table of contents, list any figures (including caption and page number location) used in your dissertation. Refer to the APA manual for guidance. You will complete this task in BUS8120.

The table of contents outlines your study for the reader. The easiest way to create the table of contents is to use the levels of heading feature in Microsoft Word. For example, this template has already been set up using headings (in Microsoft Word editing utilities) for the major portions of the outline. Subsequently, Microsoft Word will automatically create the table of contents, which has been started below, by using the Table of Contents feature in the references tab of Word (although note, different versions of Word sometimes locate options in different places). (delete this paragraph before submitting documents to the Drop box.)

Table of Contents
Abstract iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
List of Tables vi
List of Figures vii
Chapter 1 – Introduction 1
Purpose of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 1
Definition of Terms 1
Theoretical Framework 1
Research Questions and Hypotheses 1
Scope of the Study 2
Significance of the Study 2
Summary 2
Chapter 2 – Literature Review 3
Summary 3
Chapter 3 – Methodology 4
Research Design 4
Population and Sample 4
Instrumentation 4
Research Procedures 4
Data Analysis 5
Protection of Human Rights 5
Delimitations and Limitations 5
Assumptions, Risks and Biases 5
Significance of the Study 5
Summary 6
Chapter 4 – Results 7
Purpose of the Study 7
Questions and Hypotheses 7
Initial Data Examination 7
Statistical Analysis 7
Results Summary 8
Chapter 5 – Discussion 9
Recommendations 10
Summary of the Study 10
References 11
Appendix 12

Chapter 1 – Introduction

Previous work should already have a strong introduction. Provide a brief summary of key results and discussion as you complete them in your chapter 4 and 5 work. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.

Purpose of the Study

You should already have a clear purpose section from your previous work. Provide any updates based upon collection and analysis of data. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.

Statement of the Problem

You should already have a strong statement of the problem from your previous work. Provide any updates based upon collection and analysis of data. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.

Definition of Terms

Continue to add to the definition of key terms section. Clarify any terminology that may be confusing. If you are using any terms in ways that are contrary to the discipline’s body of knowledge provide a very brief justification for the alternative usage in the definitions. Provide a fuller justification in the body of your work.

Theoretical Framework

Your theoretical framework should be completed as part of the proposal process. Provide any updates based upon continuing work. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.

Research Questions and Hypotheses

Your questions and hypotheses should be completed as part of the proposal process. Provide any updates based upon continuing work. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.

Scope of the Study

Some delimitations and limitations where noted as part of the proposal process. Add any new, key issues. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.

Significance of the Study

Update the significance of the study that emerged as you collected and analyzed data. The significance of the study focuses on the implications and outcomes of the proposed study. Write this section with the focus on how the study’s results will benefit others. Discuss the implications of the study affecting practice, policy, and scholarly/future research.

Summary

Frequent inclusion of summary sections can help guide the reader through your work. As you close your introductory chapter, what are the most important takeaways of the work? How do we answer “so what?” Dissertations contain a fair amount of redundancy. Chapter one, in particular, will contain succinctly re-stated material from other sections of the dissertation.

However, if you write your chapter one well, you may be able to use it as the basis for a published article in a journal. Update the summary based upon development of the full dissertation.

Chapter 2 – Literature Review

Your literature review should be completed as part of the proposal process. Provide any updates based upon continuing work. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.

Summary

As part of clear writing, the judicious use of summary paragraphs is helpful. Even the best-written literature reviews and research can lose connection or flow with the reader. Periodic summary statements that clarify the key points or findings of a section can help keep the reader informed and engaged.

Chapter 3 – Methodology

Your methodology introduction (paradigm and method) should be completed as part of the proposal process. Provide any updates based upon continuing work. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.

Research Design

Your research design discussion should be completed as part of the proposal process. Provide any updates based upon continuing work. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.

Population and Sample

Your population and sample discussion should be completed as part of the proposal process. Provide any updates based upon continuing work. In addition to calculations for desired sample (you made for proposal), clarify what actually happened. For example, what was the actual sample? Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.

Instrumentation

Instrumentation should be completed as part of the proposal process. Provide any updates based upon continuing work. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation. You may need to include sample instruments and permissions as appendices.

Research Procedures

The research procedure should be completed as part of the proposal process. Provide any updates based upon continuing work. What actually happened? Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.

Data Analysis

Most of the data analysis plan should be completed as part of the proposal process. Provide any updates based upon continuing work. What actually happened? You do not need to discuss results or findings here. Rather, this section details the analysis methods you used. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.

Protection of Human Rights

Protection of Human Rights discussion should be completed as part of the proposal process. Provide any updates based upon continuing work. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation. Include any necessary forms as appendices.

Delimitations and Limitations

Delimitations and Limitations discussion should be completed as part of the proposal process. Provide any updates based upon continuing work. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.

Assumptions, Risks and Biases

Assumptions, Risks, and Biases discussion should be completed as part of the proposal process. Provide any updates based upon continuing work. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation.

Significance of the Study

Significance of the study should be completed as part of the proposal process. Provide any updates based upon continuing work. Begin adjusting verb tense from the future tense of the proposal to the past tense for the completed dissertation. proposal.

Summary

Frequent inclusion of summary sections can help guide the reader through your work. As you close your introductory chapter, what are the most important takeaways of the work? How do we answer “so what?” Dissertations contain a fair amount of redundancy. Chapter one, in particular, will contain succinctly re-stated material from other sections of the dissertation.

Chapter 4 – Results

Purpose of the Study

Provide a brief restatement of the study purpose and problem, including your umbrella research question.

Questions and Hypotheses

Provide a brief restatement of research question and/or hypotheses.

Initial Data Examination

The exact way you will format your results section will depend upon the nature of your study (e.g., quantitative versus qualitative). However, one of the first types of results you should report is some of the initial analysis. For example, if you have proposed to do a regression analysis, yet there are not statistically significant correlations among your variables, then there is little point actually doing regression. Accordingly, in this initial section (using levels of heading as necessary), report some of the descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, and correlation matrices. Additionally, report on sample characteristics, computed reliability coefficients for the instruments assessed on your data, and any appropriate assumptions (e.g., linearity, normality, independence of error terms, homoscedasticity). For a qualitative study, initial data analysis may include any initial observations (e.g., interviews) that were used as brief pilot studies to refine any questions or processes. This section may also include a discussion of any data cleansing (e.g., missing values, incomplete surveys) or other techniques you employed to prepare the data for analysis.

Statistical Analysis

The next section of your results reports the primary analysis. For a quantitative study, you will list each hypothesis (generally providing a subheading for each) followed by the results providing answers to that hypothesis. Your report should include the type of tests conducted, relevant coefficients, equations, or models, and assessment of statistical significance. You should also include any post hoc or secondary analysis. Your discussion of statistical analysis relative to each hypothesis should include a brief summation regarding whether the research hypothesis is supported.

For qualitative research, the analysis section will likely not be statistical analysis (or at least not solely statistical analysis.) Much qualitative research is theory-building in nature. Your analysis will probably include some type of coding of narrative resulting in some type of model, key variables or insights. The analysis section will detail how the coding occurred and how the insights were formed. It will likely include summary or sample comments or observations from participants that support the existence of the variables, relationships, model, insights, or conclusions you are drawing. Similar to quantitative analysis, qualitative analysis should be organized using headings to delineate the key steps and findings, being sure to connect to the research question(s).

For both quantitative and qualitative research, organize data into tables or graphs where appropriate. Tables should be complete (i.e., self-explanatory). Tables need to have appropriate APA titles and each table must be referenced and further explained in the text of your chapter 4. You will also need to include a list of tables and figures in the front matter of your dissertation.

Results Summary

The results summary section provides a brief assessment of the findings, especially within the context of the study’s umbrella question, purpose or problem. Taken altogether, what do the findings suggest as an answer to the question?

Chapter 5 – Discussion

Although the entire dissertation represents an opportunity for you to demonstrate your doctoral level ability to design and conduct meaningful research, the discussion chapter often represents a particular opportunity to distinguish one’s research competency. Consider the flow of the dissertation and how each chapter fits together. Chapter one represents an introduction to the study, but also contains succinct sections summarizing key information from every section of the dissertation. A well-done chapter one may be nearly ready for submission to a journal for publication. Chapter two engages the existing literature to draw out a topic and a question for your research. In other words, it moves from the broad (discipline literature) to the specific (your study). Chapter three discusses how you are going to conduct your specific research. Chapter four reports the findings of your study. Accordingly, chapter five is your opportunity to take what you’ve learned from your specific study and integrate it back into the larger body of discipline.

How do your findings point out consistencies or inconsistencies with other studies (e.g., literature review)? How do you interpret the meaning of the results? How do your findings inform, extend, or even challenge existing theories or ideas? These questions are not meant to be an outline per se, but idea starters about the types of things you should address.

Similar to previous sections of your dissertation, you should organize your discussion chapter using headings and subheadings. Be rigorous and vigorous in how you connect your findings to the literature. Chapter five is an opportunity for you to “flex your muscles” and show your mastery of the discipline in the application of your research findings. However, be sure to acknowledge any risks, limitations, biases, or weaknesses in the findings or the interpretation.

Recommendations

As a part of the scholarly and professional community, you need to answer the “so what” question. For example, are their recommendations for practitioners or practicing professionals that emerge from your work? What should leaders or organizations do differently? Also, provide your recommendations for future research. What should researchers consider next? Where does your study take the field? What gaps are still evident? What questions are still unanswered?

Summary of the Study

As the final segment of your study, provide a brief (1 -2 page) capstone. Synthesize the study down to its most essential parts. What did you do? Why? What did you find? Did you answer your question? Why does it matter?

References

Black, A., & White, B. (2016).
Sample document. City, ST: Publisher.

How to write a research proposal. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://wwwe.dbu.edu/uwc/documents/howtowriteaproposaltemplate

Pajares, F. (2007). Elements of a proposal. Emory University. Retrieved from

http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/proposal.html

Red, X., & Green, Y. (2015).
More document samples. City, ST: Publisher

Appendix

Refer to the APA manual for the proper formatting of header name for the appendix section, especially when you have more than one appendix.

1

Chapter 3

Amekí Williams

South University

Doctoral Dissertation Preparation

Dr. Widner

1/29/2023

The Role of Leadership Styles on Employee Performance, Motivation, and Job Satisfaction in a Remote Setting

Chapter 3: Methodology

Introduction

The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was for remote workers to identify what leadership style their supervisors or managers are. The chapter included an overview of the research design and rationale, study participants, sampling method and instrumentation, data collection, analysis, and ethical considerations taken in the design. Chapter 3 contains a descriptive discussion of the conduct of this study, and how it informed the problem. The detailed explanation supports future design replication, data collection, and analysis. The description of the population and sample ensured that the reader could understand the research participants. The Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) data analysis approach allowed valid and reliable data processing. As described, data analysis procedures, followed ethical practices. The chapter’s discussion on limitations and delimitations expands the discussion in chapter 1.

Research Design

Quantitative Causal Comparative Design

Based on the application of this design in establishing the connection between variables (independent and dependent) (Bloomfield, & Fisher, 2019), this quantitative casual comparative study is objectified to establish the significance of various leadership styles on employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction in a remote setting. It is without a doubt that working remotely has been continuously adapted, particularly after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. In correlation to this, it is paramount to have an understanding of the aspects of remote working and what it entails in terms of productivity. As Bloomfield and Fisher (2019) establish, a quantitative casual comparative study supports the comparison of two variables. As such, this study’s selected design will facilitate the comparison of five essential levels of leadership styles commonly associated with working environments in relation to job satisfaction, motivation, and employee satisfaction. With the aid of questionnaires, this study’s research questions will include; 1) whether structural leader rewards and punishes team members based on performance insist on clear goals experiment, 2) whether servant leader listens empathy awareness, 3) whether participative (democratic) leader are open-minded and encourage effective communication, 4) whether freedom-thinking leader give employees freedom to perform and stays out of the way as well as comments and helps when needed, and 5) whether transformational leader inspires and empowers strong role models. These questions govern this study’s research. Given the nature of the study, the independent variable is defined by the five levels of leadership styles, including structural leadership, participative leadership, servant leadership, freedom-thinking leadership, and transformational leadership (Alheet, Adwan, Areiqat, Zamil, & Saleh, 2021). The dependent variables to be discussed in this section are performance, motivation, and satisfaction. With remote working being the mantra in most organizations globally, this study will make significant contributions towards revolutionizing and enhancing productivity in this type of setting. For applicable results, the sample size in this study was 100 remote workers. With the application of MANOVA,
statistical analysis will be integrated to compute the results acquired from the questionnaires, through which the research questions will be adequately addressed.

Research Questions

The following research questions guide this quantitative study:

RQ1: Do Structural, Participative, Servant, freedom-Thinking, and Transformational Leadership differ in terms of performance, motivation, and satisfaction?

RQ2: Do the Leadership styles difference as a function of performance?

RQ3: Do the leadership styles difference as a function of motivation?

RQ4: Do the leadership styles difference as a function of satisfaction?

Table1.

Variables Table

Variables

Definition

Operational definition

Measurement Level

Data source/ Instruments

Leadership styles (independent)

The leaders’ methods and approaches when governing others

Structural, participative, servant, freedom-thinking, or transformational

Nominal

Questionnaires

/Survey Response

Performance (dependent)

The productivity of the employees

The level employees collaborate to attain the set organizational objectives and goals

Ordinal scale

Questionnaires

Motivation (dependent)

The motivation level exposed on behalf of the employees

The drive promoting enhanced performance

Ordinal scale

Questionnaires

Satisfaction (dependent)

The satisfaction of the employees with their jobs

The function of the positive perceived emotion in close relation to contentment of employees.

Ordinal scale

Questionnaires

Population and Sample

Remote employees

The population will comprise of employees. The target population will be remote workers that work closely with their supervisors, and managers. The target population will be employees from organizations where strategic management will be studied. The unit of analysis is the individual employee. Selection will be done using the G*Power sampling technique. 

Following sampling formula:

F tests – MANOVA: Global effects

Options:   Pillai V, O’Brien-Shieh Algorithm

Analysis:    A priori: Compute required sample size 

Input:     Effect size f²(V)                         = 0.0625

               α err prob                                = 0.05

                Power (1-β err prob)           = 0.8

               Number of groups                   = 5

               Response variables            = 3

Output:        Noncentrality parameter λ   = 18.7500000

               Critical F                                     = 1.7862447

               Numerator df                       = 12.0000000  

               Denominator df                     = 285

       Total sample size                   =100

The type of sample the researcher is using is the sample size. The sample size used for this study was 100 remote workers. The only factor that disqualified workers from participating in this study was being traditional workers. The selected workers answered the questionnaires and it was established that their leader adopted different leadership styles. Each participant will be informed of the research objectives and fill out consent forms (see Appendix A) before participating in the study. Data collected will be kept confidential by the researcher for 5 years (Bloomfield & Fisher, 2019). There will also be an age range of the participants from 18 to 64 years of age.

Instrumentation

Instrumentation refers to the tools or means researchers used to measure various research variables. Each instrument is selected based on the research goals. The research will use a questionnaire to collect information on various variables related to leadership styles in a remote (work from home) setting. According to (Leung, 2001), questionnaires are used to collect information from participants the researcher is interested with. Furthermore, a questionnaire is applicable in research when to collect factual data. Consequently, the investigators must ensure that the questionnaires are highly structured to allow the same types of information to be collected from a large number of people in the same way and for data to be analyzed quantitatively and systematically (Leung, 2001). The research will use questionnaires to obtain critical information on independent variables. The survey instrument used for the study will be comprised of the informed consent form (see Appendix A), demographic characteristics questions (see Appendix B), and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (see Appendix E), and individual work performance questionnaire (IWPQ) (see Appendix F), and the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) (see Appendix I). Data for the survey will stem from G*Power (see Appendix G) via the personal computer of the researcher. The researcher is the only individual who can access the file as the computer is password protected. Data will be kept on the computer for five years after the study is completed. The statistical software program (SPSS) will be used in the research once responses are gathered. The data will be downloaded from Survey Monkey, cleaned in Excel 2020, and put into SPSS. The data assumptions test for normality, linear testing, and homoscedasticity will be done prior to hypothesis testing to ensure parametric analysis is appropriate. To access these, histograms and bar graph will be used while multicollinearity will be assessed using the Pearson correlation matrix. The table below is showing a 2- tailed correlation between motivation. The researcher will identify the group and obtain individuals within those samples.

Table 2.

150

1

Sig. (2- tailed)

N

150

150

Correlation between Motivation

Motivation

Work Motivation

Motivation – Pearson Correlation

1

.151

Sig. (2- tailed)

.066

N

150

Motivation – Work Pearson Correlation

0.151

0.066

Questionnaires

There are different types of questionnaires that include open-ended, closed and semi structured. Open-ended questions have no choices and participants are allowed to give their responses which may differ significantly (Aryal, 2021). On the other hand, closed questions have predetermined answers. The researcher can provide multiple choices and allow participants to select one choice.

Structured Interviews

Other common instruments used to collect data in research are interviews and observation. Interview is a method of data collection that involves two or more people exchanging information through a series of questions and answers (Cameron, J., 2005). On the other hand, observation is a data collection method where the researcher watches people, events or features of the research environment (Delve, 2022)

Data collection

Information pertaining to the significance of different leadership styles (independent variable) as applied in a remote setting will be collected with the aid of questionnaires. The dependent variables for this study will include job satisfaction, motivation, and employee performance as tabulated above. Responses from the questionnaires will be used adequately for the collection of data. The validity and reliability of the instruments used for data collection are vital as they will shape the results of the study (Heale & Twycross, 2015).

Validity

Validity is described as the extent to which quantitative research measure or instrument accurately assesses what it is to measure (Heale & Twycross, 2015). In this sense, it ascertains that the results computed are applicable, and accurate. For this study, different types of validity will be considered, including external, internal, criterion-related, construct, and content validity. While external validity refers to the extent to which the research findings can be generalized to other populations or settings, internal validity refers to the extent to which the research can establish cause-and-effect relationships between variables (Heale & Twycross, 2015). Additionally, criterion-related validity refers to the relation between the research instrument and the external criteria. According to Heale and Twycross (2015), construct validity refers to the extent to which the research instrument measures the defined construct and the content validity refers to the extent to which the research instrument or measure covers all aspects of the construct. With the consideration of the documented information, the role of validity in this research revolves around ensuring that the research measure and instrument are accurate and attain the desired objective in relation to assessing what is intended to be measured.

Reliability

Reliability is significantly intertwined with how trustworthy the attained results are and its application in the study to eliminate possible errors and threats (Heale & Twycross, 2015). Heale and Twycross (2015) documented that reliability refers to “the extent to which a research instrument or measure produces consistent and stable results over time.” This study will consider inter-rater reliability which refers to the extent to which different persons produce consistent results as well as internal consistency reliability which refers to the extent to which the questions in the questionnaire are related to each other. Reliability of this study can be attained by testing the validity of the instruments used as well as taking measures to minimize the measurement error.

Data Analysis: Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) 

While descriptive statistics facilitates the completion of different variables of a study, inferential analysis supports the investigation of the relationship between dependent and independent variables. In correlation to this, it is without a doubt that these analysis tools are of significance to this study. With the aid of these tools, the data collected will be analyzed by integrating MANOVA (Multivariate Analysis of Variance), through which each of the variables will be analyzed at a given time (Scheiner, 2020). The use of a 5-Likert scale will play a critical role in the collection of data since it supports the assignment of numeric values to the leadership questions in the questionnaire. In this same context, the dependent variables will be measured on a 5-point Likert scale, with number 1 being termed as strongly disagree while number 5 will be assigned to strongly agree. The center of the scale will read “neither agree nor disagree”. Additionally, SPSS was used in analyzing the data.

Research Procedures

Technology will be instigated to facilitate the procedures of the research, particularly in selecting the sample population. Organizations that have adopted remote working will be contacted to provide access to their employees. A representative sample of 100 remote workers will be scheduled to answer the questionnaires. However, the participants will be required to have worked remotely for at least 6 months. Also, the willingness of the employees to take part in the study was significant as it would ascertain accurate results will be collected. The questionnaires will be disseminated, answered, and submitted online, with strict adherence to a governing set of rules.

The research procedure for this study will entail sample selection, through which participants from remote working settings will be selected. The next procedure will be collecting data on the styles of leadership of different leaders, with the consideration of employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. Significant methods that will facilitate data collection include questionnaires and possibly performance evaluation. The most critical part of this study is defined by data analysis, which will make use of statistical methods, including MANOVA as discussed above. This step will provide insight on job satisfaction, motivation, and employee performance as related to various leadership styles.

Protection of Human Rights

The selected sample population will be required to be willing to provide honest and unbiased information. They are also subjected to have an understanding of what the study entails and what the data collected will be used for. The population will be assured that their information will be protected and used only for the purpose of the study. Taking the Belmont Report into account, the study ought to integrate the ethical principles of beneficence, respect for individuals involved, and non-maleficence (National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 1979). It was also critical for the interest of this study that the involved companies remained anonymous to eradicate any form of possible opinion bias and scrutiny. In correlation to this, confidentiality and anonymity will be highly integrated throughout the study.

Ethics

This study adhered to the ethical guidelines for conducting quantitative research as documented by Belmont Research (National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 1979), through which it was ensured that the participants were treated with upmost respect and beneficence was integrated as well. Additionally, the vital parameters of confidentiality, credibility, confirmability, and transferability were used to stipulate an enhanced research process. These parameters ensured that the study valued the relevance of moral principles and ethics. In addition to this, the ethical standards of this study played a central role in the data processing and associated procedures.

Delimitations and Limitations

Limitations refer to factors that may affect the generalizability or external validity of the study whereas delimitations refer to the specific choices made by the researcher in the design of the study (Theofanidis & Fountouki, 2018). While the selected research design will facilitate the attainment of applicable results, it is associated with various limitations and delimitations that will be discussed in this section. In consideration of the sample population, the length of remote working experience was a limitation of interest. Without sufficient experience, the study could yield undesirable results. Another limitation is tied down to the problem statement in the sense that only remote workers were considered. It would be of importance if traditional workers would participate in the study as it will facilitate a usable comparison of the various leadership styles utilized.

Assumptions, Risk, and Biases

For starters, it was hoped that the participants will provide accurate results that would not contaminate the collected information. Despite involving the organizations that have adopted remote working, there is a risk that some participants contacted don’t have relative experience as remote workers. It is also notable that a significant population work remotely, and as such, could pose a threat to the results of the study. The only bias associated with this study is attributed to the limit of only using remote workers as the sample population of choice.

Data Assumptions

Once the data were cleaned, data screening was conducted to assess the underlying assumptions. SPSS was used to evaluate the assumptions of normality, homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices, linearity, and multicollinearity (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2013).

Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze each research question to determine if assumptions were met. The research questions address potential differences between multiples dependent variables; therefore, a one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) will be utilized to analyze (French et al., 2008). Descriptive statistics are used to summarize the data and inferential statistics are used to test the hypotheses. MANOVA also allows for a more accurate and comprehensive picture of the phenomena being studied by the researcher (Allen, 2017). Finally, measuring the multiple response variables together will provide more chances at discovering the factor that is central to the investigation (Allen, 2017). The one-way MANOVA, a parametric statistical test, will be run to perform inferential statistical analyses and indicate how likely the current study results could be replicated for an entire population (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009).

A one-way MANOVA answered the five research questions regarding what leadership style characteristics does their supervisors or managers fall under when measuring the dependent variables. The level of significance was p < .05, meaning there was a 5% chance that a difference existed in the 5 leadership styles. Also, the current study determined whether a mean difference exists between those five leadership styles as well. Conducting an F-test could provide an overall comparison of whether the means of the five groups of five leadership styles If the obtained F is larger than the critical F, the null hypotheses is rejected (Gravetter & Larry, 2016). The one-way MANOVA creates a linear combination of the three dependent variables to generate a grand mean and determine if there were group differences in the dependent variables.

Parametric tests, like one-way MANOVA, are appropriate when the data reveal a normal distribution. A one-way MANOVA test shows whether equal variances and normal score distributions are present (Field, 2013). Therefore, an essential requirement to use a one-way MANOVA test is that the assumptions of normality be met. Normality ensures scores are typically distributed, which would be indicated by a bell-shaped curve (Field, 2013). If normality assumptions are not met, a Mann-Whitney test may be used. The Mann-Whitney U is a non-parametric inferential test that can be used to analyze ranked data when the data are not normally distributed (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009).

In order to run a one-way MANOVA, ten assumptions needed to be addressed one at a time to ensure the sample could be analyzed using this test, which consisted of (1) two or more dependent variables on a continuous level, (2) one independent variable has two or more categorical, independent groups, (3) independence of observation, (4) no univariate or multivariate outliers, (5) multivariate normality, (6) no multicollinearity, (7) linear relationship between dependent variable for each independent group, (8) adequate sample size, (9) homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices, and (10) homogeneity of variances (Statistics, 2015).

Assumption 1

Assumption 1 requires two or more dependent variables measured at the continuous level (Statistics, 2015). Assumption one was satisfied for the study, as there are three dependent variables measured on a Likert-type scale, which is commonly accepted to be continuous in the field of the social sciences.

Assumption 2

Assumption 2 requires one independent variable with two or more categorical, independent levels (Statistics, 2015). The term level is typically reserved for groups that have an order (Statistics, 2015). The study has one independent variable (Leadership Styles) with five levels (structural leader, participative leader, servant leader, freedom-thinking, leader, and transformational leader). The second assumption was satisfied.

Assumption 3

Assumption 3 requires independence of observation where there is no relationship between the participants in any of the groups. Having different participants in each group is a way to address this assumption (Statistics, 2015). Assumption three was met as the data had different participants in each of the three groups.

Assumption 4

Assumption 4 requires no univariate or multivariate outliers (Statistics, 2015). This assumption is commonly tested in SPSS by following the Explore procedures then visually analyzing boxplots to detect outliers. Any data that are more than 1.5 box-lengths from the edge of their box are classified by SPSS as outliers and are noted by circular icons, and data more than three box-lengths away are noted by an asterisk. Although this is not a foolproof method, it is the more straightforward approach (Statistics, 2015).

Assumption 5

Assumption 5 requires multivariate normality, which means normally distributed data for each of the groups in the independent variable is expected (Statistics, 2015). This assumption is commonly tested by utilizing the Shapiro-Wilks test for normality in SPSS by following the seven-step Explore procedure. This test is commonly utilized if the sample size is less than 100 participants. There are as many Shapiro-Wilks tests as there are groups of the independent variable multiplied by the number of dependent variables.

Assumption 6

Assumption 6 requires that there be no multicollinearity, which means that the dependent variables should be reasonably correlated with each other (Statistics, 2015). If the correlations are too high (greater than 0.9), there is risk for multicollinearity, which is problematic for a MANOVA (Statistics, 2015). Utilizing the Bivariate procedure in SPSS, Pearson correlations between the dependent variables are analyzed to determine correlation between the variables (Statistics, 2015).

Assumption 7

Assumption 7 requires a linear association between the dependent variables for each group of independent variables (Statistics, 2015). A scatterplot matrix for each group of the independent variables identifies if there is linear relationship (a straight line) or not (a curved line). If the variables are not linearly related, then there is a loss of ability to identify differences (Statistics, 2015). In SPSS, after splitting the data file to separate out the independent levels, the Chart Builder procedure was utilized to assess linearity through scatterplot (Statistics, 2015).

Assumption 8

Assumption 8 requires a sufficient sample size. Laerd (2018) stated that the larger the sample size the better, but at a minimum, there need to be as many participants in each group of the independent variable as there are number of dependent variables. GCU required a minimum of 100 participants per independent variable level. Assumption eight, demonstrating adequate sample size, was satisfied upfront by using a priori power analysis.

Assumption 9

Assumption 9 requires homogeneity (similar or comparable) of variance-covariance matrices (matrix of all possible pairs of variables) (Statistics, 2015). After un-splitting the file, the assumption could be tested by utilizing Box’s M test of equality of covariance in SPSS. The important row is the significance level (p-value) of the Box’s M test. If the test is not statistically significant (i.e., p > .001), there is homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices and no assumptions are violated (Statistics, 2015).

Assumption 10

Assumption 10 requires homogeneity (same) of variances. Assuming the assumption of homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices were not violated, a Levene’s test of equality of variances procedure in SPSS is run (Statistics, 2015). The one-way MANOVA assumes that there are equal variances between the groups of the independent variable. The important column is the Sig. which represents the significance level (p-value) of the test. If the test is not statistically significant (greater than .05), there are equal variances and the assumption of homogeneity of variances has not been violated (Statistics, 2015).

Meeting assumptions is a requirement for obtaining accurate results when using a one-way MANOVA as seen below in Table 2; however, it is common for data to violate one or more of these assumptions. When data violate assumptions, the researcher must use correct data, use an alternative test, or proceed with the analysis despite the violation of assumptions.

Table 2.

Assumption Strategies for One-Way MANOVA

Assumption

Test

Alternate Fail Procedure

1. Two or more continuous DVs

Design feature

Change design or analysis

2. Two or more categorical IVs

Design feature

Change design or analysis

3. Independence of observations

Design feature

Change design or analysis

4. No univariate or multivariate outliers

Review SPSS box plots; Mahalanobis distance test

Verify data entry or measurement errors; keep and transform or evaluate effect by running one- way MANOVA with and without outliers, or remove

5. Normality of DV distribution or multivariate normality

Shapiro-Wilk test

Transform DVs, run one-way MANOVA; or keep as one-way MANOVA is somewhat robust to normality deviations

6. DVs moderately correlated

Pearson correlation coefficient test between DVs

If low correlation, use multiple one-way ANOVAs. If high correlation, remove DV with high correlation or combine scores for new DV

7. A linear relationship between each pair of DVs for each IV group

Scatterplot matrix

Transform one or more DVs; remove non-linear DV, or keep and accept a loss of power

8. Adequate sample size

Minimum in each IV group as the number of DVs

Increase sample size

9. Homogeneity of variances

Box’s test of Equality of Covariance Matrices

Proceed if equal samples of IVs. If unequal sample sizes, transform or keep and use Pillai’s Trace instead of Wilk’s Lambda

10. Homogeneity of variance- covariance matrices

Levene’s Test of Equality of Error Variances test

Transform to equalize variances or continue and accept lower statistical significance and run different post-hoc tests

To determine the appropriate sample sizes, the researcher used G*Power software. MANOVA is used by the researcher to deduce a relationship between independent and dependent variables using a smaller sample, which can be generalized to a larger population (Allen, 2017). Based upon the number of variables, the minimum sample size for the one-way MANOVA was 100 participants. To account for attrition, 50% was added to the minimum sample size of 50, which should reflect a total of 100 in the final sample. The researcher utilized SPSS to clean the data by identifying any missing values. Missing data in quantitative research can lead to loss of important information, increase for standard errors, weaken generalization of findings, and reduce statistical power (Dong & Peng, 2013).

Significance of the Study

The relevance of this study is associated with its contributions towards facilitating an understanding of the different leadership styles and the variables of job satisfaction, motivation, and employee performance in a remote setting. The study will explore the impact of structural, servant, freedom-thinking, participative, and transformational leadership styles on the productivity and performance of employees. Taking the attained results into account, the study will provide evidenced results establishing the most productive leadership style. Additionally, the study will facilitate the development of strong bonds between employees and their leaders with the aim of enhancing employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction.

Summary

This quantitative casual comparative study was purposed to determine the relationship between independent and dependent variables by establishing role of leadership styles on employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction in a remote setting. With the aid of questionnaires, significant information will be collected from a sample size of 100 remote workers. A quantitative methodology will be integrated to scrutinize and analyze the data collected, forming the basis of this third chapter. In correlation with the limitation attributed to the sample population, various challenges were associated with the study. Regardless, the ethical standards in association facilitated the attainment of dependable results. With an understanding of the methodology to be incorporated, the subsequent chapter will cover the vital aspects of data collection and analysis.

References

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Management Science Letters, 
11(1), 239-246.

Aryal, S. (2021, July 26). Questionnaire- types, format, questions. Microbe Notes. Retrieved April 9, 2022, from

https://microbenotes.com/questionnaire-types-format-questions/

Bloomfield, J., & Fisher, M. J. (2019). Quantitative research design. 
Journal of the Australasian Rehabilitation Nurses Association, 
22(2), 27-30.

Cameron, J. (2005). Focusing on the focus group. 
Qualitative research methods in human geography, 
2(8), 116-132.

Delve. (2022, February 11). What is observational research? Delve. Retrieved April 9, 2022, from

https://delvetool.com/blog/observation

Dong, Y., & Peng, C. Y. J. (2013). Principled missing data methods for researchers. 
SpringerPlus, 
2, 1-17.

Heale, R., & Twycross, A. (2015). Validity and reliability in quantitative studies. 
Evidence-based nursing, 
18(3), 66-67.

National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. (1979). The Belmont report: Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Scheiner, S. M. (2020). MANOVA: multiple response variables and multispecies interactions. In 
Design and analysis of ecological experiments (pp. 94-112). Chapman and Hall/CRC.

Spector, P. E. (1985). 

Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 693-713.

Spector, P. E. (2022). 

Job satisfaction: From Assessment to Intervention.

 New York City: Routledge.

Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S., & Ullman, J. B. (2013). 
Using multivariate statistics (Vol. 6, pp. 497-516). Boston, MA: pearson.

Theofanidis, D., & Fountouki, A. (2018). Limitations and delimitations in the research process. 
Perioperative Nursing-Quarterly scientific, online official journal of GORNA, 
7(3 September-December 2018), 155-163.

Appendix A: Informed Consent Form for Participants

You are invited to participate in a web-based online survey on The Role of Leadership Styles on Employee Performance, Motivation, and Job Satisfaction in a Remote Setting. This is a research project being conducted by Ameki Williams, a student at South University.  It should take approximately 1-2 minutes to complete.

PARTICIPATION

Your participation in this survey is voluntary. You may refuse to take part in the research or exit the survey at any time without penalty. You are free to decline to answer any particular question you do not wish to answer for any reason.

BENEFITS

You will receive no direct benefits from participating in this research study. However, your responses may help us learn more about whether great forms of leadership truly exist among of strategic management and leadership traits on employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction in the United States for remote work.

RISKS

There are no foreseeable risks involved in participating in this study other than those encountered in day-to-day life.

CONFIDENTIALITY

Your survey answers will be sent to a link at SurveyMonkey.com where data will be stored in a password protected electronic format. Survey Monkey does not collect identifying information such as your name, email address, or IP address. Therefore, your responses will remain anonymous. No one will be able to identify you or your answers, and no one will know whether or not you participated in the study.

CONTACT

If you have questions at any time about the study or the procedures, you may contact my research supervisor, Professor Robert Widner via phone at

507-382-3411

or via email at

rwidner@southuniversity.edu

If you feel you have not been treated according to the descriptions in this form, or that your rights as a participant in research have not been honored during the course of this project, or you have any questions, concerns, or complaints that you wish to address to someone other than the investigator, you may contact the South University Institutional Review Board at

irb@southuniversity.edu

.

ELECTRONIC CONSENT: If you choose to participate in this survey you are agreeing that you have read the above information, voluntarily agree to participate, and are 18-64 years of age or older. Thank you

Appendix B: Demographics

Screening Questionnaire for Participants

1. Are you at least the age of 18 through 64?

A. Yes

B. No

2. Are you in a remote worker?

A. Yes
B. No

3. Do you live in the State of SC?

A. Yes

B. No

4. Do you have at least 6 months of experience in remote work?

A. Yes
B. No

5. Are you a male or female?

A. Male

B. Female

Appendix C: Research Permission

IWPQ Permission to Use

Appendix D: MLQ Permission

Appendix E: MLQ

Appendix F: Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ)

Koopmans, L. (Linda) <

linda.koopmans@tno.nl

>

Mon 5/30/2022 3:27 AM

Appendix G: G*Power

Appendix H: SurveyMonkey

Appendix I: Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS)

JOB SATISFACTION SURVEY

Paul E. Spector
Department of Psychology
University of South Florida
Copyright Paul E. Spector 1994, All rights reserved.

PLEASE CIRCLE THE ONE NUMBER FOR EACH QUESTION THAT COMES CLOSEST TO REFLECTING YOUR OPINION
ABOUT IT.

Disagree very much
Disagree moderately
Disagree slightly
Agree slightly
Agree moderately
Agree very much

1

I feel I am being paid a fair amount for the work I do.

1 2 3 4 5 6

2

There is really too little chance for promotion on my job.

1 2 3 4 5 6

3

My supervisor is quite competent in doing his/her job.

1 2 3 4 5 6

4

I am not satisfied with the benefits I receive.

1 2 3 4 5 6

5

When I do a good job, I receive the recognition for it that I should receive.

1 2 3 4 5 6

6

Many of our rules and procedures make doing a good job difficult.

1 2 3 4 5 6

7

I like the people I work with.

1 2 3 4 5 6

8

I sometimes feel my job is meaningless.

1 2 3 4 5 6

9

Communications seem good within this organization.

1 2 3 4 5 6

10

Raises are too few and far between.

1 2 3 4 5 6

11

Those who do well on the job stand a fair chance of being promoted.

1 2 3 4 5 6

12

My supervisor is unfair to me.

1 2 3 4 5 6

13

The benefits we receive are as good as most other organizations offer.

1 2 3 4 5 6

14

I do not feel that the work I do is appreciated.

1 2 3 4 5 6

15

My efforts to do a good job are seldom blocked by red tape.

1 2 3 4 5 6

16

I find I have to work harder at my job because of the incompetence of people I work with.

1 2 3 4 5 6

17

I like doing the things I do at work.

1 2 3 4 5 6

18

The goals of this organization are not clear to me.

1 2 3 4 5 6

PLEASE CIRCLE THE ONE NUMBER FOR EACH QUESTION THAT COMES CLOSEST TO REFLECTING YOUR OPINION
ABOUT IT.
Copyright Paul E. Spector 1994, All rights reserved.

Disagree very much
Disagree moderately
Disagree slightly
Agree slightly
Agree moderately
Agree very much

19

I feel unappreciated by the organization when I think about what they pay me.

1 2 3 4 5 6

20

People get ahead as fast here as they do in other places.

1 2 3 4 5 6

21

My supervisor shows too little interest in the feelings of subordinates.

1 2 3 4 5 6

22

The benefit package we have is equitable.

1 2 3 4 5 6

23

There are few rewards for those who work here.

1 2 3 4 5 6

24

I have too much to do at work.

1 2 3 4 5 6

25

I enjoy my coworkers.

1 2 3 4 5 6

26

I often feel that I do not know what is going on with the organization.

1 2 3 4 5 6

27

I feel a sense of pride in doing my job.

1 2 3 4 5 6

28

I feel satisfied with my chances for salary increases.

1 2 3 4 5 6

29

There are benefits we do not have which we should have.

1 2 3 4 5 6

30

I like my supervisor.

1 2 3 4 5 6

31

I have too much paperwork.

1 2 3 4 5 6

32

I don’t feel my efforts are rewarded the way they should be.

1 2 3 4 5 6

33

I am satisfied with my chances for promotion.

1 2 3 4 5 6

34

There is too much bickering and fighting at work.

1 2 3 4 5 6

35

My job is enjoyable.

1 2 3 4 5 6

36

Work assignments are not fully explained.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Appendix J: Permission for Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS)

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