Posted: February 26th, 2023
The purpose of this paper is to conduct a cultural self-assessment.
St. Thomas University
NUR 421 AP1
The paper that I am writing about is based on one of the Healthy People 2030 area of concerns.
Its main objectives will be on sexual transmitted infections with the focus on HIV and the
population and groups it is affecting the most. I will be explaining the negative affects its has on
health populations, as well as plans and actions to possibly decrease the rate of infections within
this high risk groups.
Healthy People 2030 works by using evidence-based practice, to create goals to improve health
and well-being over a ten-year span. For goals to be created, we must build on framework that
explains the main ideas and main functions to provide a context and rational for dealing with
these ideas, as well as communicating the principles that support these decisions about Healthy
People 2030 (Barna, 2020). This will help with access to facts and statistics that can promote
changes in the health affairs of the U.S. population, which can help with goals and objectives for
next decades to come. The priority will always be the most serious issues affecting health and
wellbeing in general terms, that can be improved in the long run by using all available
knowledge on the issue at hand.
Healthy People 2030 health issue: Sexual Transmitted Infection
Many sexual transmitted infections (STIs) can be prevented and cured, with abstinence and
treatment. One STI that is preventable and treatable, but unfortunately does not have a cure now
is, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). There are more than 20 million estimated new cases
of STIs in the United States and there are currently 1.2 million people living with HIV (Healthy
People, n.d.). Healthy People 2030 goals regarding STIs, including HIV, is preventing, treating,
and improving the health and well-being of people who have them.
We will be focusing on HIV and the affects it has on different groups and communities.
To have an understanding on the topic we must know how it came about. HIV presented itself
around 1981, it was noticed in a couple of gay males, who before the virus, were overall healthy
adults. The men presented with Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), a rare lung infection
that researchers later linked to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Studies later found
out that HIV, when left untreated can cause AIDS, with an average life span of 8 to 10 years
without treatment. HIV can present itself with flu-like symptoms, such as: fever, chills, night
sweats, and even unexplained rashes. If you test positive for HIV you can receive antiretroviral
therapy (ART), it can bring the viral load to undetectable and prevent AIDS.
Contrast causes of disparities related to this health issues within populations
We have come a long way since 1981 with HIV/AIDS crisis. We now know so much more than
we knew back then, but there are still communities that has an unfair number with this disease.
Many reasons that can cause this unfair number are things like race, sexual orientation, and
poverty can unfortunately increase the risk of infection in a community. Access to good
healthcare, cultural beliefs, stigma, homophobia, and systematic racism, can all cause infections
like HIV to spread through a community (Myhre & Sifris, 2021). These groups are more at risk
for infection and not getting treated. As mentioned before, around 1.2 million people are living
with HIV in the United States, with over 36,800 new infections happening every year, the
communities at the greatest risk being, men who have sex with men, people of color, women and
those that inject drugs.
Poverty has shown to increase the risk of infection, unless there are programs like
community outreaches, health education, and test provided to help the impoverished more aware
of the risk of infection, otherwise they remain vulnerable to it. Compared to wealthier
communities that has more access to education and facilities that offer education and treatment.
No less than 76% of people living with HIV in the United States have a household income of less
than $20,000 annually, of this number 39% are unemployed, while 18% report homelessness
(Myhre & Sifris, 2021). Racism in the United States has inevitably led to disparities between
people of color. People of color has a double risk factor of having a higher number of HIV
infection and high rates of poverty. The poverty rate for Black people currently is at 18.8%,
compared to Whites whose rate stands 7.3% (Myhre & Sifris, 2021). According to the CDC
(2022), in 2020 there were 30,635 new HIV diagnosis, among this number 42% were Blacks and
27% are Latinos, compared to Whites who made up 26% of the new cases. It is said possibly due
to Blacks and Latinos, who are more likely to live in areas that are racially separated, because
these areas have a higher rate of poverty, crime, drug use, and STIs, all of which can increase the
risk of HIV infections. Poverty is not the only factor with this group, but also medical mistrust,
homophobia, and the stigma of having HIV is very high in the Black community. Only 48% of
Blacks with HIV remain in care after they are diagnosed, while only half of that number reach a
level of undetectable viral load, compared to the White and Latino communities which numbers
are drastically lower (Myhre & Sifris, 2021). Men who have sex with men make up a huge part
of HIV cases. This is hugely due to the way they have sex; the risk is 18 times greater of getting
the virus from unprotected anal sex, compared to having unprotected vaginal sex (Myhre &
Sifris, 2021). Men who have sex with men also face various stigma and homophobia, which
increases their risk for infection, because of the fear of being outed they may not get tested.
Women, especially Black women are more susceptible to the virus because the area of the vagina
has a larger surface area than the men’s penis. In a lifetime a Black women’s risk of HIV is 15
times greater than that of white women and 5 times greater than Latino women (Myre & Sifris,
2021). Injecting drug users make up a small amount of HIV cases, but they are still at a higher
risk because of the potential of sharing needles and syringes with an infected person. It can also
be very hard to manage HIV and an addiction at the same time. Compared to injection users that
seek treatment, like methadone, are more likely to stick with their HIV regimen than those that
don’t seek treatment.
Propose a public health communication strategy to reduce disparity and promote
Health communication deals with verbal and written strategies that effect and give authority to
people, populations, and communities to make better and healthier choices. By taking the data
that we know and the populations most at risk, we can start there. I would propose community
outreaches in impoverished areas, which include free STI and HIV testing. Also, health
brochures with pictures and few words, to cater to various educational background and free
condoms. We also need to consider where in the rural areas has the heaviest traffic of people, to
reach as many as we can. Also, posting advertisement about reminders of taking your HIV
treatment to prevent the spread of infection and AIDS.
Outline a plan for the communication
We should first set goals to reach as many as possible but putting a number on it will allow us to
properly evaluate our efforts more efficiently. Our key audience will be those who live in rural
areas, people of color, men who have sex with men, and injection drug users, these groups make
up a high number of HIV infection rates. Our key message will be prevention and treatment from
the virus. As mentioned before, setting up billboards within high risks areas and personally
handing out brochures and condoms, also giving out free STI/HIV testing. We need to develop
material not only about HIV, but also staying culturally aware of what group of people is around
outreach, so making sure to provide bilingual staff and literature in the language that they are
familiar with, to effectively get the message across. Setting a specific timeframe is crucial, to
evaluate the effectiveness of our plan. Host an outreach party in the community to communicate
to our audience the results of our outreach.
Describe an evaluation plan for the communication
To assess the strategies effectiveness we must look at our goals and our proposed
indications. We need to first evaluate the staff members that were sent to the areas of risk, , if
they were efficiently getting our message across to our target audience, by again testing their
knowledge of the virus. We want to include the number of material and test given out and
percentage of people that viewed the billboards. Lastly, we can evaluate the decrease of the
infection in the targeted community since the outreach.
Create targeted communication for each population
To make our HIV awareness more convenient and effective, we need to place our
communication methods in effective places, so our target audience will have more of a chance to
see it. As mentioned before a large portion of Black people and drug addicts live in rural areas,
many of these rural areas have local convivence stores they are likely to visit, so placing posters
on or around convivence stores in the area may help to bring awareness to this group. Placing
pamphlets in women’s clinics, especially those that service high volume of Black women clients
and possibly a pop-up shop outside those clinics to give further education and referrals for
testing. Men who have sex with men usually have an area exclusively for them, setting up free
testing sites and education on prevention and treatment around those areas, can help them receive
the message. For our younger at-risk group, social media will probably be the best
communication outreach, using things like; Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram can be highly
communication tools for this group.
Reflect on learning through this project
If I didn’t understand Healthy People 2030 existence, doing research on this particular
health issues has made me so much more knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS, and how me came
such a long way since 1981 when we first found out about the disease. Things like PrEP (pre-
exposure prophylaxis) medication that reduces the risk of HIV through sex by about 99% and
74% if you inject drugs (CDC, 2020). But there are still communities that need our help, due to
lack of knowledge and limited resources, they might feel they can’t afford it or just an all-around
stigma towards HIV. We must break those barriers of communication and bring the knowledge
to those that need it most. The black community especially needs to be educated; the numbers
have shown that almost half of all new cases comes from this group. I know in large part that it
comes from the number of health disparities the Black community has. I feel we as healthcare
providers have to find away to build trust in this community, in order to see drastic change in the
number cases we see, not only in the Black community, but all high-risk groups.
Barna, M. (2020). Healthy People 2030 charts a new course for the nation: Newest edition shares
355 measurable, streamlined objectives. The Nation’s Health, 50(8), 1.
CDC. (2020, June 4). Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) | HIV Risk and Prevention | HIV/AIDS |
HIV Diagnoses | HIV in the US | HIV Statistics Center | HIV | CDC. (2022, September 2).
Myhre, J., & Sifris, D. (2021, October 21). Health Disparities in HIV. Verywell Health.
Sexually Transmitted Infections - Healthy People 2030 | health.gov. (n.d.). Health.gov.
St. Thomas University
NUR 421- Nursing Practice in Multicultural Society
Healthy People 2030 seeks to eliminate health disparities, enhance Americans' health,
and evaluate health improvement efforts. This program promotes health justice, disparities
removal, and national health improvement by 2030. This assignment covers mental health
treatment. Mental health impacts everyone, yet treatment is uneven. Population-specific mental
health treatment inequalities have many causes. Low-income persons have limited access to
mental health care due to lack of financial resources and health insurance coverage. Stigma,
skepticism, and provider cultural ineptitude, make mental health treatment less probable for
racial and ethnic minority groups, who are disproportionately affected. Communication about
mental health should reduce disparities. The communication strategy should educate low-income
individuals, racial and ethnic minorities, and other populations with inadequate mental health
treatment about mental health issues and resources. Population-specific messaging is needed.
Communication should assess target groups' mental health care understanding and attitudes.
Each population's education and communication needs should be evaluated. Health workers need
to use this information to construct demographic-specific mental health awareness messaging to
reduce stigma and other barriers. Surveys and stakeholder interviews may assess mental health
care knowledge. This study demonstrated how the cultural and social milieu influences public
health communication. Communication must address the requirements of the target people and
their social and cultural contexts. It strengthens public health communication initiatives to reduce
inequities and improve
Healthy People 2030 Health Issue: Mental Health
Specific Health Issue:
Depression is a common mental health issue that impacts the lives of millions of
individuals all over the globe. Depression is a medical illness that is characterized by a loss of
interest in formerly pleasant things and emotions of despair and hopelessness (World Health
Organization, n.d.) Despite the advancements that have been made in mental health treatment,
inequalities in depression rates continue to exist across various communities. These disparities
include racial and ethnic minorities, low-income people, and persons living in rural regions
(Mongelli et al.,2020).
Contrast causes of disparities related to this health issue within populations
Depression may severely impact everyone, regardless of age, race, or socioeconomic
position. It is valid for all people. However, the prevalence of depression varies significantly
amongst various populations, and the reasons for these differences may be attributed to various
social, economic, and environmental factors (CDC, 2021). This article will cover some of the
most significant factors contributing to the disparities in depression prevalence among
Inequities in access to mental health treatment exacerbate differences in depression rates.
Individuals may be discouraged from seeking assistance and receiving appropriate mental health
treatment due to cultural stigma around mental health and a lack of awareness about the value of
having a good mental health state. For example, members of racial and ethnic minorities may
endure cultural stigma that wrongly equates mental health issues with a lack of strength or moral
fortitude (CDC, 2021). As a result, people who are depressed yet are enduring these stigmas may
not seek treatment. Further, many people from underrepresented groups lack the financial
capacity and social networks to use mental health services. Because of this, people may have
difficulty obtaining adequate treatment and may be more prone to emotional distress.
A lack of social support might be another factor that contributes to disparities in
depression incidence. Those who don't have someone they can turn to for assistance when they
are in need may experience feelings of depression, hopelessness, and sadness as a result of their
isolated and disconnected state (CDC, 2021). For several reasons, members of some groups, such
as those with lower incomes or who reside in more distant places, may discover that it is
challenging to engage with other groups.
It is possible that having fewer resources, such as not getting enough to eat or having a
safe place to live, is linked to lower rates of depression. Economically disadvantaged people, for
instance, may have difficulty acquiring nutrient-dense diets, which may lead to malnutrition and
other health problems. When a person is exposed to threats in their house, a similar sequence of
events may follow, such as stress, disease, and depression.
Public Health Communication Strategy to Reduce Disparity and Promote Health
Communication in the realm of public health is an essential component in the larger goals
of lowering inequities in depression rates and improving mental health. A comprehensive
communication plan for public health should be developed to meet the unique requirements and
obstacles faced by various groups and encourage access to mental health treatment and
assistance. The following is a proposal for a communication strategy that the public health sector
will use to minimize the inequalities in depression rates:
Develop a Mental Health Awareness Campaign:
A mental health awareness campaign can be designed to educate the public about
depression, its causes, risk factors, and symptoms. The campaign can be promoted through
various channels, including social media, online platforms, and print materials (Rural Mental
Health, 2019). The campaign can also involve partnering with community organizations,
religious institutions, and schools to reach a wider audience and provide education and resources
to at-risk populations.
Improve Access to Mental Health Care:
Access to mental health care is a significant challenge faced by many populations,
particularly those with limited financial resources. The public health communication strategy can
involve working with mental health care providers to improve access to care and support for
needy individuals (Rural Mental Health, 2019). It can include partnering with insurance
providers to ensure that mental health care is covered and working with providers to offer
sliding-scale payment options to make mental health care more affordable.
Promote Social Support:
Social support is critical to managing depression and promoting mental health. The
public health communication strategy can involve partnering with community organizations and
religious institutions to provide social support networks for needy individuals. That can include
organizing support groups and providing resources to connect with others with similar
Address Cultural Stigma:
The cultural stigma surrounding mental health is a significant challenge faced by many
populations, particularly racial and ethnic minorities. The public health communication strategy
should involve addressing this stigma by educating the public about the importance of mental
health and promoting a positive message about mental health care (Rural Mental Health, 2019).
It can be done through public speaking engagements, media appearances, and online resources.
Technology can be a powerful tool in reducing disparities in depression rates and
promoting mental health. The public health communication strategy can involve developing
online resources such as mental health apps and support groups (Rural Mental Health, 2019).
This can give individuals access to mental health care and support from the comfort of their
homes and reach a wider audience.
Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Communication Strategy:
To ensure that the public health communication strategy is effective, it is crucial to
evaluate its impact. That is done by tracking changes in depression rates, access to mental health
care, and utilizing mental health resources (Rural Mental Health, 2019). The results of these
evaluations can be used to make necessary adjustments to the communication strategy and to
ensure that it is effective in reducing disparities in depression rates and promoting mental health.
Evaluation plan for the communication:
The evaluation plan for the communication strategy should be comprehensive to ensure
that the goals of reducing disparities in depression rates and promoting mental health are
achieved. In addition to conducting surveys and focus groups, the evaluation plan should include
other data collection methods, such as patient satisfaction surveys and medical record reviews.
These additional methods can provide insight into the real-world impact of the communication
strategy and help identify areas for improvement.
One key aspect of the evaluation plan is to track changes in mental health-related
knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among target populations. This can be done through pre- and
post-intervention surveys that assess participants' understanding of depression, its impact on
mental health, and their attitudes toward seeking help for mental health concerns. This data can
provide insight into the effectiveness of the education program and help identify areas where
additional education may be needed.
Another critical aspect of the evaluation plan is to monitor changes in depression rates
and mental health outcomes among target populations. This can be done by analyzing medical
records and tracking changes in depression diagnosis and treatment rates. It is also essential to
consider the impact of the communication strategy on patient satisfaction and health outcomes,
including rates of hospitalization and use of emergency services.
In addition to tracking quantitative outcomes, it is also essential to consider the
communication strategy's qualitative impact. This can be achieved through focus groups and
other forms of qualitative data collection, such as interviews with community leaders and mental
health care providers. These methods can provide insight into the challenges and barriers target
populations face in accessing mental health care and support and can help identify areas where
additional resources may be needed.
Overall, the evaluation plan should be flexible and adaptable to allow for changes and
modifications as needed based on the evaluation results. The goal should be to continuously
improve the communication strategy to meet the needs of target populations better and achieve
the ultimate goal of reducing disparities in depression rates and promoting positive mentalhealth.
Targeted Communication for Each Population:
Racial and ethnic minorities: It is crucial to understand the cultural and linguistic
backgrounds of this population and provide materials that are culturally appropriate and
accessible. This can be done by partnering with local community organizations and culturally
diverse leaders to reach this population effectively (National Institute of Mental Health, 2020).
Utilizing culturally and linguistically diverse media channels, such as radio and print materials in
their native languages, can help reduce stigma and promote mental health awareness. It is also
important to address cultural beliefs and attitudes surrounding mental health and health care to
engage this population effectively.
Low-income populations: This population may face barriers in accessing mental health
care and support due to financial constraints. Therefore, it is important to provide practical and
accessible information on managing depression and accessing mental health care. Partnering
with local organizations that provide resources such as food banks, housing assistance, and
health clinics can help reach this population and provide them with the support they need
(National Institute of Mental Health, 2020). Information on financial assistance for mental health
care and practical tips for managing depression can also be provided.
Individuals living in rural areas: Due to a shortage of mental health care providers, it may
be difficult for individuals living in these areas to access care. Utilizing telehealth services and
other innovative technologies can help bridge this gap and improve access to mental health care
(National Institute of Mental Health, 2020). Partnering with local clinics and healthcare
providers to promote telehealth services can help reach this population and improve their access
When reflecting on what we've gained from working on this project, it's essential to keep
in mind that bringing gaps in depression rates closer together will need an effort that is both
thorough and ongoing. We can work toward eliminating health inequalities and promoting
mental health for all groups if we concentrate on enhancing access to high-quality treatment and
support, raising awareness, and understanding of mental health issues, and reducing stigma. To
guarantee that the communication strategy is successful in minimizing inequalities and
enhancing mental health, it is essential to regularly analyze its impact and make any required
modifications based on the findings of this evaluation.
Depression and Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations (2020). National Institute of Mental Health.
Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml
Mental Health and Mental Disorders. Mental Health and Mental Disorders - Healthy People
2030. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-
Mental Health: Depression (2021). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from
Mongelli, F., Georgakopoulos, P., & Pato, M. T. (2020). Challenges and Opportunities to Meet
the Mental Health Needs of Underserved and Disenfranchised Populations in the United
States. Focus (American Psychiatric Publishing), 18(1), 16–24.
Rural Mental Health (2019). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/rural-health
World Health Organization. (n.d.). Depression. World Health Organization. Retrieved from
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