Posted: March 11th, 2023





Instructions​: Please review the syllabus for definitions of plagiarism. Please review the lesson and quiz containing information on APA citation and style. Review each of these items and check them off as they are completed. ​Paper length is 4 pages maximum.

Check Title Page: ​The paper begins with an APA style title page (with your name, institutional affiliation, page numbering, running head, ect.)

Resource: _guide/general_format.html

Formating, margins, page numbers, heading, and font are all in keeping with APA style.

Introduction: ​(No heading for this section)

The introduction comes before the start of the literature review. It should be a broad introduction to the topic and project. You should set the stage for the review of literature and the "story" you would like to tell that leads logically up to a research/question hypothesis.

Literature Review: ​(​Bold and center this heading)

You provide an explicit statement of the purpose of the study (but not the hypothesis) in the first or second paragraph.

A map statement is provided cueing the reader into the topics to be covered in the review.

The paper provides a critical review of articles relevant to your statement of purpose, in a logical sequence, ​in the past tense​, and without stringing together abstracts of studies. The review is instead organized thematically around theory and findings relevant to your study design and hypothesis.

The paper does not discuss methodological details of studies except as they shed light on inconsistencies among previous findings or cast doubt on particular studies whose conclusions you are challenging in the current study.

The paper avoids criticizing other studies for procedures or measures that are also features of the study you will do or are common characteristics of published work and don't shed light on particular discrepancies, or mistaken assumptions.

All sources are cited in APA style at the point at which you first start using the information from an article

When citing sources and discussing the outcome of studies you use the active voice and action verbs (i.e. researchers hypothesized, theorized, found, argued, explained, etc).

Resource: Verbs

Purpose of Study​ (Left Margin, Bold, Title Cap'ed)

This section follows the literature review. It should ​very briefly​ summarize the main points and findings of the literature review. It should provide the context for the development of your project (i.e., is it a replication, literature advancement, exploratory, experiment, non-experimental survey, secondary analysis of data, etc.). Consider what gap in the literature your study fills or what unique contribution your study makes to the field.

The Purpose of Study section should end with ​a(n) hypothesis(es) or research question to be tested (not "proven" or "shown").

References ​(new page; ​Bold and Centered)

You have listed all cited sources in APA style (and all cited sources appear in the paper).


The Relationship Between Family and Identity Development in Emerging Adults


The Relationship Between Family and Identity Development in Emerging Adults

Emerging adulthood is a critical developmental stage between adolescence and adulthood. During this time young adults learn how to make independent decisions. Emerging adulthood is a stage of instability where young adults begin to explore a wide range of lifestyle changes (Arnett, et al., 2017). Throughout this period of exploration, emerging adults are developing their identity and preparing for adulthood. While this can be exciting for some people, many young adults struggle with the fear of uncertainty (Arnett et al., 2017; Aleni Sestitio & Sica, 2014) The pressure of establishing oneself during emerging adulthood often results in mental health implications. Anxiety and Depression are the two most common mental health concerns reported by emerging adults. According to a national survey conducted by Arnett and colleagues, 56% of emerging adults have reported feeling anxious; 32% of young adults reported feeling depressed. Existing research has established the significance of mental health during emerging adulthood. Further research is needed on emerging adults to better understand contributing factors to the problems they experience.

The main objective of the current paper is to explore the relationship between family and identity in emerging adults. In particular, this paper will assess how family influences commitment making and exploration aspects of identity. The first section of the paper will discuss how parents impact identity development in emerging adults. Specifically, how parenting styles influence commitment making and exploration. The second section of my paper will discuss the impact that siblings and birth order has on emerging adult commitment making and exploration.

Literature Review

Parenting Styles and Identity

Research has indicated that parents have a considerable influence on identity development in emerging adults. The way parents raise their children may predict identity development in emerging adulthood (Luyckx, et al., 2007). Parenting qualities that were common among existing literature were psychological control, behavior control, and helicopter parenting. The most prominent parenting quality throughout the literature was psychological control. Psychological control is defined as “manipulating and intruding on a children’s psychological and emotional world as a means of control” (Lindell, et al., 2017, p. 810). The use of parental psychological control can limit emerging adults’ autonomy (Ingulia et al., 2016; Luyckx et al., 2007). Perceived psychological control from parents has been found to hinder identity formation in emerging adults. For example, Luyckx and colleagues found a negative correlation between psychological control and commitment making.

Behavior control is another parenting quality that has been found to influence identity development. Behavior control consists of efforts parents make to control or manage children’s behavior (Lindell et al., 2017). Behavior control is necessary to some degree but should be decreased when their children become young adults. Appropriate amounts of behavior control can have a positive impact on emerging adults. However, some methods such as helicopter parenting have poor outcomes (Lindell et al., 2017). According to Lindell et al., helicopter parenting is when parents successfully limit their children’s autonomy and control their behavior. The authors found helicopter parenting inhibits identity development and results in difficulties with decision making. While there is a substantial amount of literature on the qualities of parenting styles, there is a lack of research on some of the most common parenting types: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive styles.

Siblings and Identity Formation

Siblings are another part of the family dynamic that might play an important role in emerging adult identity formation. Individuals learn many of their behaviors through observations and interactions with siblings (Wong, et al., 2010). Factors that contribute to a sibling’s influence include birth order and gender. Wong and colleagues (2010) found that the first-born siblings have the highest levels of commitment. Wong et al., also noted oldest siblings, as well as same-sex siblings, were reported as having the most influence on younger siblings’ identities. Emerging adults with older same-sex siblings were found to have the highest levels of commitment. Additionally, emerging adults with same-sex siblings were found to have higher levels of exploration. While these findings are insightful, more research on sibling’s influence is needed.

Purpose of Study

Parents and siblings have been found to have a significant influence on identity development in emerging adults. In particular, perceived parenting style (Psychological Control, Behavioral Control, and Helicopter parenting) has been found to play a huge role in commitment and exploration aspects of identity development. Additionally, the presence of siblings has an impact on emerging adults. Particularly, birth order and gender have been found to influence commitment and exploration in emerging adults. While there is a substantial amount of literature on qualities of parenting styles, there is a lack of research directly identifying some of the most important in the literature; authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting strategies. The current study aims to directly address the three domains of parenting styles. Additionally, most literature has examined the parental and sibling influence separately. The present study will look at the influence of family as a whole and will assess the relationship between family and identity development in emerging adults. The following predictions are hypothesized:

1. Authoritative parenting styles will encourage commitment and exploration in emerging adults.

2. Parental Influence will have a larger impact on identity development than sibling influence.

3. Emerging adults with older siblings will score higher on exploration but not commitment.


Aleni Sestito, L., & Sica, L. S. (2014). Identity formation of Italian emerging adults living with

parents: A narrative study. Journal of Adolescence, 37(8), 1435–1447.

Arnett, J. J., Žukauskienė, R., & Sugimura, K. (2014). The new life stage of emerging adulthood

at ages 18-29 years: implications for mental health. The Lancet Psychiatry, 1(7), 569- 576.

Inguglia, C., Ingoglia, S., Liga, F., Lo Coco, A., Lo Cricchio, M., Musso, P., … Lim, H. (2016).

Parenting dimensions and internalizing difficulties in Italian and U.S. emerging adults: The intervening role of autonomy and relatedness. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 25(2), 419–431.

Lindell, A. K., Campione-Barr, N., & Killoren, S. E. (2017). Implications of parent–child

relationships for emerging adults’ subjective feelings about adulthood. Journal of Family Psychology, 31(7), 810–820.


Luyckx, K., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Goossens, L., & Berzonsky, M. D. (2007). Parental

psychological control and dimensions of identity formation in emerging adulthood. Journal of Family Psychology, 21(3), 546–550.

Wong, T. M. L., Branje, S. J. T., VanderValk, I. E., Hawk, S. T., & Meeus, W. H. J. (2010). The

role of siblings in identity development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Journal of Adolescence, 33(5), 673–682.


TOPIC: Impact of maternal stress, depression and anxiety on child development: Developmental Outcomes in young adults based on maternal history.

This are the suggestions that the professor suggest for my topic and critical paper:

1. Focus on specific findings relate to your variables. (maternal history and Developmental outcomes in young adults.)

2. The project might benefit from narrowing and getting more depth on one area or in 2 that are related (i.e., language development and socio-emotional development.)

3. What is the unique purpose of your own study (what gaps will you attempt to fill), what are your hypotheses among major variables?

NOTE: This is a Critical Review Paper: I attached an example that the professor shared with us. Plese, follow the same exact format since she said that this paper is excellent. Also, I attached the instructions.

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