Posted: February 26th, 2023

HW 4



During our class, we were in a group and reviewed the previous work (Rate Your Values), where the answers were surprising as each partner had a different perspective on life. We discussed the principal values in chapter 2, where we analyzed the different cases, and I understood that we are very likely to be sued for any reason. We did a peer review and looked at our next assignment.

Readiness to help is an essential characteristic of an excellent human service provider. The service provider must be empathetic to develop a genuine personal relationship with the client. Appropriate self-disclosure with clinical rationale is a necessary trait of the service provider. A service provider must be self-aware enough to avoid being biased due to their personal experiences. Being a professional helper is emotionally demanding, and listening to a client’s problems may cause harm to the helper’s mental state hence professional burnout. When a practitioner realizes that the help the client needs is outside their field of expertise, they must refer the client to a suitable professional. A professional must not impose spiritual, social, or religious beliefs on clients. During sessions, a helper should only push clients to share information they are ready to disclose. Putting too much pressure on a client to share experiences may result in an overdiagnosis or misdiagnosis. Supervising intern practitioners is fundamental in ensuring that clients receive optimum care, preventing professional burnout in the intern, and access to advice when the intern is challenged.


The article,
Sitting down with Nedra, by Alice Munoz discusses paradoxical subjects, including healthy ultimatums, toxic forgiveness, and premature resilience. The article reminds me of my ex narcissistic boyfriend. The manipulation led me to a dark and isolated place until I set my boundaries clearly and decided never to forgive unless I wanted to. Toxic forgiveness is unhealthy and impedes the client’s judgment as they become pretentious to avoid being labeled as bitter. When dealing with a selfish person, it is best not to engage because such people are fueled by the attention they receive. A gentle ending was the most appropriate in my case. Self-actualization and knowing what triggers me was an essential step in my mental growth, and
Chapter six, Competence, Humility and the Human therapist, urges one to live as their most authentic self. I could not confront my ex boyfriend because they would gaslight me, and the devastating cycle of self-doubt would continue. Although psychology encourages communication, I chose a controversial path to slowly distance myself without any explanation, and I can attest that it positively impacted my emotional stability. Social media is very educative, provided that one follows the right influencers. It is a platform where Tawwab shares stories about her mental health, and this helps destigmatize mental disorders. Moreover,
the AMHCA Code of Ethics (Revised 2020) discusses further the benefits of technology-assisted counseling.


The mechanic scenario is relatable in
Chapter 2 of Ethics in Psychotherapy and Counseling. Ms. Huang never confronted Dr. Jackson about incompetence and never gave negative feedback regarding the sessions. On the contrary, she quit therapy without paying and sued the doctor for incompetence. I was in a similar situation where a client made derogatory claims about my brand to her friends. I get that clients are under no obligation to protect my privacy. This case was, however, different because it was defamatory to my brand. To top it off, the client never complained to me. She used to be excited and very eager to attend our business. I was surprised when I was informed of the allegations on her social media platform. After receiving the information, I told her during our following metting I notified her I would not be able to work with her following her claims and referred her to another co-worker in the company. After the experience, I resolved to be curious and obtain genuine client feedback, set boundaries with clients and seek professional help from my colleagues when I doubt myself. In this scenario, the dilemma is why a client would give positive practitioner feedback and slander the practitioner. The principle of termination and referral is relevant in this case because, despite client disagreements, a practitioner should not neglect the client. They should refer the client to an appropriate service provider.


ACA (2014) ACA code of Ethics – American Counseling Association. Available at:

 AMHCA (2020) AMHCA code of Ethics, AMHCA Code of Ethics – American Mental Health Counselors Association. Available at:



During our class, we formed a group discussing the Tyre Nichols case. Each of us expressed how we felt about the issue, each trying to understand the other’s perspective, and in the discussion, a dilemma was formed as each one had their point of view of the situation. Then we discussed chapters 3, 6 and 17, where I learned much about utilitarianism, competence and conflict and American Indian Ethics. We looked at our next assignment.

Ethical clinical services illustrate respect for every client’s autonomy, dignity, and freedom. Informed consent reflects that respect since ethical codes highlight consent as a critical value (Pope & Vasquez, 2016). Making sound ethical decisions requires full attention to every relevant fact in full and proper context hence the need to follow suggested steps. Counselors should treat all clients with dignity and respect, regardless of their origin, state of mind, or characteristic which distinguishes them from others. Treating people with respect for their dignity is the basis of the profession.

Ethical behavior guides counselor-client relationships. CMHCs maintain healthy relationships with their clients and avoid any action which seeks to meet their personal needs at the client’s expense (AMHCA, 2020). Individuals with disabilities need to have accessible counseling environments too. Informed consent is essential as clients should know what to expect, including having the freedom to choose their counselors. CMHC should always act in the client’s best interests when a client cannot provide informed consent. Generally, for the counseling process, CMHCs ensure that client’s rights are respected, clients should not get abandoned, and terminally ill clients should receive high-quality end-of-life care.

According to the ACA code of ethics, informed consent is necessary for counseling as counselors must review verbally and in writing with their clients the responsibilities and rights of both counselors and clients (ACA, 2014). Counselors must provide all information necessary to allow clients to make informed decisions. Cultural competence is vital during practice as counselors should use appropriate language or a qualified translator or interpreter when necessary. Counselors respect every ethical code associated with working with minors and mandated clients. Counselors avoid imposing their values on their clients.


ACA and AMHCA sections share similarities in the sense that they center on ethical behavior by counselors and how they should relate with their clients. The sections remind me of my internship at a mental health clinic where I worked with specific clients. I had to give them all the details relevant to the care and inform them of my level of study. This led me to some of the clients assigned to me requesting a different counselor, according to them, “a more experienced” person. However, I also gained some clients who were even more comfortable with being with me because they felt they could trust me more and that I was open about my education.

Chapter 16 on
Informed Consent and Informed Refusal reminded me of that internship period because I informed my clients of my study level and allowed them to choose whether to work with me or choose a different professional. I learned a lot from this experience. Chapter 4,
Dignity and Respect, states it is necessary to respect the dignity and worth of everyone. With the clients whom I worked with, I ensured that I upheld my clients’ rights to self-determination, privacy, and confidentiality.


The mechanic scenario is relatable in
Chapter 2 of Ethics Real Life. The scenario indicates that there was no informed consent. While Dr. Jackson met Ms. Huang for three months, the doctor needed to acknowledge that they had no experience working with clients of Chinese descent. The client, Ms. Huang, needed to be fully informed of her treatment, as evidenced by the lack of written informed consent. Question 14 is on practitioners working with culturally diverse groups but needing more cross-cultural knowledge and skills and reflects the doctor’s failure to acknowledge having no experience working with culturally diverse groups. As an intern, my supervisor was very respectful and supportive. Reflecting on question 13, if my supervisor had encouraged trainees to engage in unethical behavior, I would have reported him to the agency’s director. According to chapter 8,
Steps in Ethical Decision-Making, the doctor should have informed Ms. Huang of their lack of experience with clients of Chinese descent as this would have enabled the client to make an informed decision on whether to gain counseling services from the counselor or not.


ACA (2014) ACA Code of Ethics – American Counseling Association. Available at:

 AMHCA (2020) AMHCA code of Ethics, AMHCA Code of Ethics – American Mental Health Counselors Association. Available at:

Pope, K. S., & Vasquez, M. J. (2016). 
Ethics in psychotherapy and counseling: A practical guide. John Wiley & Sons. (Chpts 4 Dignity & Respect, 16 Informed Consent & Informed Refusal, and 8 Steps in Ethical Decision Making).

1. Pope et al. (2016) Chapter 16 “Informed Consent & Informed Refusal”

2. Review informed consent forms to an external site.

3. Read Resources sections of interest to you from the Informed Consent In Psychotherapy, Counseling and Assessment website. to an external site.

Identify which resource section is of interest to you and why.

 Links to an external site.

B. Watch and react to professionals engaging in informed consent and discussion confidentiality.

1. Given what you read and your professional experience (where applicable), watch and react the following videos of professionals discussing informed consent and/or confidentiality.

2. For each video, briefly describe one aspect of the video you found helpful to watch or hear and why as well as one part of the video where you saw room for improvement. Be sure to provide feedback on how the counselor or social worker could improve.

3. Taken together, what did these videos depicting application of informed consent and confidentiality show you?  What are your take-aways?

Explaining Confidentiality to Clients In Social Work to an external site.

Informed Consent Counseling Practice (Intern) to an external site.

Buckwalter Informed Consent Demonstration to an external site.

Explaining the Limits of Confidentiality to an external site.


Professional Issues and Mental Health

Week 4 Summary, Connection & Reflection

A summary, connection and learning reflection discussion board post of the week’s readings, Tuesday night class meeting, content and learning activities are due by Tuesday 2/14 class meeting.

BRIEFLY Summarize readings and class meeting activities (listed below) in your own words, in paragraph form (100-200 words).

a. Class meeting activities on 2/7/23

b. Readings and Assessments:

· Ethics in Psychotherapy and Counseling by Pope et al. (2016)

· Chpt 5 Trust, Power, Caring & Healing

· Explore informed consent websites and Pomerantz and Handelsman (2004) informed consent questions (see below)

Connect course readings, websites class activities and/or your personal and/or professional experiences (three connections in total). Underline or bold course reading material. Describe/define the course reading and how it relates to another course reading and/or class activity (-ies) (paragraph form OR bullet points).

Examples: Both the ACA & AMHCA sections…….

Reading ……reminded me of a time when I saw, felt, did…..

One similarity and/or difference I noticed between____________and ______________.

Reflect upon and Apply your learning experiences, “STEP by STEP”

a. Write the title of the scenario you selected chapter 2 and discussed in 2/7 class meetig small group.

b. Review steps in ethical decision making from Pope et al. (2016) chapter 8.

c. Go through steps 1 –17 for your selected scenario building. By go through, we want you to continue responding to the questions Pope et al. (2016) pose for each of the steps that are relevant to your selected scenario.

Format: submit as an attachment (3+ pages double spaced).

Points: The summary, connect, reflect and prepare submission is worth 10 points. There are no wrong answers; however, your work should adhere to the guidelines outlined above and reflect resources. In addition, your responses will be evaluated for clarity and comprehension. Grammar and spelling affect clarity.


Pomerantz, A. M., & Handelsman, M. M. (2004). Informed consent revisited: An updated written question format.
Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35(2), 201-205.

Informed Consent
What is clinical is ethical and what is ethical is clinical

Professional Issues & Ethics in Mental Health Counseling

Informed consent is legal and ethical

related to ethical principles of
non-maleficence (intentional)

essential to
Client-counselor trust
informing client and counselor of their roles and responsibilities (see handout)

What are the elements of informed consent?
Group brain storm

What does informed consent do?
Group brainstorm!

What does informed consent do?
Serves multiple functions….
Communication (limits & boundaries)
Counselor is worthy of client’s trust
No abuse of power
*communication varies depending upon client, purpose, setting

What does informed consent do?
Serves multiple functions….

Client agrees to counseling process (consider capacity)

Counselor will respect client rights (dignity, privacy, self-determination, confidentiality….)

Informed consent roles & responsibilities


Q: How do we communicate about informed consent?

“Early and often” vs. “one and done”

Informed consent under what conditions?
Mental health counseling..
Face to face
Electronic record keeping






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