Posted: March 12th, 2023


ANTH1: Primate Observation Project

In this project, you will start to apply what you have learned and collect some data on primate behavior by
going to a zoo of your choice to collect observational data (or you can do your observation through online
streaming cameras). You will then be writing up your analysis in 2 (full pages)-3 pages (single spaced).

• You will need to observe two different primate species for at least a two-hour period and compare their
behaviors to each other.

• You should also discuss how these insights might help us to understand human behavior.

**You should find out when the primates tend to be most active during the day to schedule your

Part 1: Complete your observation & fieldnotes

Start to record and describe the behavior of two different primate species.

• Draw the cage and label where the activities are taking place. Then just sit near by and watch!
• Observe each primate species for at least one hour and describe what the animals are doing. Keep

detailed field notes of your observation, although start to order your data into some kind of a system,
like a list or a rough chart. You need to have at least 10 observations for each species. You may also
take pictures, draw maps, or diagrams as a part of your field notes.

• You will turn your field notes in with your final paper.

What should you record? – Describe any and all behavior and interactions you observe, and physical traits,
such as:

o What do these primates look like?
o What are they doing?
o What kinds of interactions are they having with each other? Does sex or status affect the type of

o What kinds of sharing practices do you see?
o What kinds of food related behaviors do you see?
o What kind of reactions do the primates have to external noises or stimuli?
o Are there any mating strategies going on?
o Can you discern the social organization of the group?
o What kind of vocalizations are going on?
o Describe grooming interactions in detail.
o Any dominant or submissive behaviors?

Sometimes, it may not seem like they are doing much, so pay close attention. If one primate is sitting by
themselves, what exactly are they doing? What are other primates in the group doing at the same time?

Part 2: Create a formal chart

Now that you have your data collected, you should create a formal chart on Word or Excel (or whatever
variation of these you prefer).

Below is an example of what this chart should look like, although you can add more columns to accommodate
all your data. You will need to create a separate chart for each primate species you observed.

The last column is where you can start to think about why a behavior is taking place in relation to natural
selection- does the behavior or trait increase the ability to survive and reproduce? How? Or is the behavior more
to do with being captivity?

Observation Chart
Primate Species
Name/ID #

Observation How does this trait increase fitness (the ability to
survive and reproduce)

Howler Monkey –

Pooped in its hand and threw it at an
annoying kid making noises at it

Driving others away, show dominance, protect
resources and territory

Howler Monkey –

A scream so loud it sounded like a
lion, howls like its name, probably
why it’s called that

Those that communicate longer distances get more

Howler Monkey –

A loud scream Maybe a dominance thing or territoriality. I will look it
up. Do the females and males both do it? Or only

Etc (to 10+ for
each species)

Part 3: Writing it up!

Now that you have made your observations and organized your data, you should be able to see if any patterns
emerge. What kinds of behaviors occurred over and over? Which seem to be most common and what sort of
functions are they associated with (i.e. reproduction, acquiring food, cooperation and sociality)? Any
similarities/differences when you start to compare the primate species?

Note: the point of this analysis and paper is to use the data that you collected- not to rely on data that you could
find online, in our book, or on zoo signs.

Your paper should include these sections:

Introduction: Write up a brief description of what you did, where, and the primates you observed. Which zoo
were you at or what cams did you use (provide link)? What were your general impressions of the primates? You
should include the common name for the primates, as well as their scientific name (genus & species name).

Primate Comparison: How do the behaviors of the primates you observed differ from one another? How are
they similar? In terms of evolution and natural selection, why might these differences and similarities exist?
Refer back to your chart- based on your data, why do you think certain behaviors the same or different?

Insights of Human Behavior: Do any of your observations give you insights into human behavior, either
historically or contemporarily? Can you identify similar patterns of behavior in humans that you see at the zoo?
Do they occur for the same reasons? What do you think studying primates can tell us about humans?

Conclusion: Provide a summary of your previous sections!

You should submit your paper, along with your chart, and field-notes taken while doing your
observation! Your paper should be 2 (full pages)-3 pages, single spaced. New Times Roman, 12 point
font. 1” margins.

Local Zoo Information:

San Francisco Zoo
1 Zoo Road
San Francisco, CA 94132
Phone: Main Office: 415-753-7080
Zoo admission = $20 for Adults
Parking = $11.00
Hours: 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. daily
*Tickets have to be reserved in advance

Oakland Zoo – Reopening Feb. 3rd
9777 Golf Links Rd.
Oakland, CA
Phone: 510-632-9525
Zoo admission = $24 for Adults
Parking = $10.00
Hours: 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. daily
*Tickets have to be reserved in advance

Online Cams (not an exhaustive list)

San Diego Zoo
Orangutans & Siamangs:
Hamadryas baboons:

Detroit Zoo
Japanese macaques:

Houston Zoo
Utica Zoo
Cotton-top tamarins
Reid Park Zoo
Ring-tailed lemurs:
Grace Forest Corridor, Democratic Republic of Congo


Edinburgh Zoo
Japanese macaques:

NUMBER 1 upload name as Lab 3

Net Primary Productivity

Section 1

Go to

Links to an external site.

1. What do negative net primary productivity values mean?

Use the arrows that accompany the map to play the animation.

2. The northern part of South America has high positive net primary productivity year round. Why?

3. In the United States, the net primary productivity is lower in the Southwest than in the Northeast year round. Why?

Go to NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory at

Links to an external site.

to see Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide.

4. How do monthly mean CO2 concentrations change over the course of one year at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawai’i? Explain this pattern.

Changes in Global Forest Cover

Section 2

Go to http://

Links to an external site.

to see the Global Forest Change map.

5. How are trees defined there?

6. What is meant by “Forest Cover Loss”? By “Forest Cover Gain”?

Click on “Data Products” and choose “Loss/Extent/Gain (Red/Green/Blue)” from its menu.

7. In what ranges of latitudes are most forests found? Why? (Think about the general circulation of air and global precipitation patterns. Refer to Figures 5-24, 5-25, and 6-35).

8. Which areas show the greatest amount of forest loss? What major biomes are located in those areas?

In the “Example Locations” menu, choose “Deforestation in Paraguay” and click on “Zoom to area.” Use the following “Data Products” to answer the questions that follow: “Forest Cover Loss 2000-2016 (Transparent)”; “Forest Cover Gain 2000-2012 (Transparent)”; “2000 Percent Tree Cover (Transparent).”


. How does forest loss compare with forest gain here?

10. Zoom in three levels and pan around northern Paraguay. Use the graphic scale in the map to visually gain a sense of the size of the forest clearings in northern and western Paraguay. Approximately how large are they? What does the size and shape of the clearings tell you about the type of economic activity practiced here?
Hint: Read the description at the bottom right hand column.

In the “Example Locations” menu, choose “Finnish and Russian Forestry” and click on “Zoom to area.” Use the following “Data Products” to answer the questions that follow: “Forest Cover Loss 2000-2016 (Transparent)”; “Forest Cover Gain 2000-2012 (Transparent)”; “2000 Percent Tree Cover (Transparent).”

11. How does forest loss compare with forest gain here in the Finnish and Russian sides?

12. Zoom in five levels and pan around the area. Use the graphic scale in the map to visually gain a sense of the size of the forest clearings in Finland and/or Russia. Approximately how large are they? What does their size, shape and amount of forest loss/gain tell you about the type of economic activity practiced here? How does this compare to the situation in Paraguay?
Hint: Read the description at the bottom right hand column.


NUMBER 2 upload name as learning the past concept

After going through the Interactive website, submit your answers to the questions here!

Interactive Website: Using the Scientific Methods to Study Human Evolution

(Links to an external site.)

· What is the
principle of Superposition?

· What is the
principle of Association?

· What does it mean to say that fossils were deposited at the same time?

· What is
radiocarbon dating?
Radiopotassium dating?

· What is a
testable question? (use one of the examples in the interactive to
explain what a testable question is).

· How are scientists able to be confident in their conclusions? (use one of the examples in the interactive to
explain how scientists gain confidence in their conclusions)



NUMBER 3 name as week 7 discussion

Week 7 Discussion – Benefits of oocyte cryopreservation (egg-freezing)?


For the past several decades, medical advances in fertility treatments such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, and ovum transfer have helped many previously infertile couples to conceive. With advances in technology, even healthy women nowadays are given the option to “freeze” their eggs for later use.

Several years ago companies such as Facebook, Apple, and Goggle started providing their female employees with up to $20,000 to freeze their eggs. It is not surprising that this decision has sparked much discussion.

Please read the following article in
“The Business Insider” which was published on September 17, 2017. The article is called
“What you need to know about egg-freezing, the hot new perk at Google, Apple, and Facebook” AND the Bloomberg Law titled ”
Employer-Subsidized Egg Freezing Benefits — Who Really Pays?” written by Lauren Geisser.

Links to an external site.


Links to an external site.

Who Really Pays?

Links to an external site.

Here is a CNBC video titled ”
Egg Freezing and the Future of Reproduction” (9:41 min) and the start-up companies focused on women’s reproduction:

CNBC News: Egg-freezing and Women’s Reproduction

Links to an external site.

This is an article from Yale Medicine called “Is Egg-Freezing Right for You?” It was published on May 29, 2019.


Links to an external site.

Lasly, please read the following article published in
The New York Times on August 29, 2018. The title of the article is

These Companies Really, Really, Really Want Your Eggs.”

Links to an external site.


Links to an external site.

If you cannot access this NY Times article on egg-freezing, then please refer to this other article from Vogue magazine about millennials and egg-freezing.

(Links to an external site.)

After reading these articles and watching this video, what do you think of companies like Google, Facebook, Apple, and Uber for providing this benefit to their female employees? Is this the wave of the future and should other companies follow suit?

Do you see this health benefit as providing more options and advantages for their female employees? Or do you perceive this benefit as being more detrimental in the long run? Or both?

What do you think about the start-up companies which are aimed at women’s health? Are you concerned by these companies making billions of dollars off of women’s health issues OR are they providing health services that have long been ignored? Do you have concerns regarding social justice issues?

According to the second article, what do you think about the increase in the number of women who are opting to freeze their eggs (“in 2009, 475 women froze their eggs, according to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART). By 2016, that number was 7,276”). The author goes on to say that “that figure, however, does not differentiate between women who freeze their eggs for what are called “social” or “elective” reasons and those that are “medically necessary.” Do you think that this is a problem? Or is this no one’s business the reason(s) that a woman decides to freeze her eggs?

Lastly what do you think about egg-freezing clinics targeting millennials? Are they putting pressure on millennials to secure their future OR are they concerned about women not “missing” this window of opportunity?

If you feel comfortable, then you can share observations of others or a personal experience. Of course this is not required!

As a gentle reminder, this is not an easy discussion topic and we most likely will have different perspectives surrounding these issues. We can agree to disagree, but please do so in a respectful manner.

Your answer should be approximately 1/2 page, single-spaced. Your response to a classmate’s answer should also be approximately the same length.


NUMBER 4 upload name as writing assignment

For Week 7 (focusing on Chapter 9 — Development), there are TWO questions that you are required to answer.

** Your answer for EACH question should be approximately 350 words. If your responses are too brief, then your writing assignment will be marked down. **

Are children shaped mostly by their parents? According to Diana Baumrind and Eleanor Maccoby, the answer is yes. Baumrind & Maccoby have defined four different types of parenting styles. They are authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved parenting styles. They also found that these specific parenting styles lead to particular behaviors in their children. Read about these different styles in your textbook.

a) Please explain what type of style(s) that your parent(s) used on you and give specific examples from your childhood and adolescence years regarding your parents’ styles.

b) In addition, discuss the behavioral outcomes from these parenting styles & whether you turned out as Baumrind and Maccoby would have predicted. If you did NOT “turn out” as predicted by researchers, then what may account for this discrepancy? Please explain.

c) Finally, what do you think about their parenting theory and their effects on children?

* If you are not comfortable describing your parents’ styles and discussing how you turned out, then you are welcome to write about another person (e.g., peer, friend, relative).

2. According to the Alzheimer’s Association website, ”
dementia is not a specific disease. It’s an overall term that describes a group of symptoms associated with a decline in memory or other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person’s ability to perform everyday activities.

Alzheimer’s disease

Links to an external site.

accounts for 60 to 80 percent of cases” ( It is reported that 50 million people suffer worldwide from dementia (

There are many treatments for individuals who have been diagnosed with dementia ranging from behavioral treatments to medications. However a less well-known treatment is
reminiscence therapy (RT). For the past decade or so, this type of therapy has been used with the elderly population, particularly those who have dementia.

In 2009, a miniature city was built in the Netherlands to helps those who suffer from dementia. It is called “Hogeweyk” and has been dubbed “dementia village.” It is a nursing home where individuals actually reside in the “village.”

Please read the following article called
“Inside the Dutch ‘dementia village’ that offers beer, bingo, and top-notch healthcare” from ”
Business Insider” about “Hogeweyk.”

Links to an external site.


Links to an external site.

Here’s a YouTube video on this dementia village, Hogeweyk (23:47 minutes)

Last year in August 2018, Glenner Town Square opened to the public in San Diego. It is a 9,000 square foot mini-town set back in the 1950’s and 1960’s. The purpose is to give some comfort to those who suffer from dementia as they are transported back to their childhood or early adult years. You can read more about Glenner Town Square in the article below.

Please read the following
AARP article published on December 7, 2018 called
“Re-Created 1950s City Helps to Ease Dementia’s Grasp.”

Links to an external site.


Links to an external site.

Please watch this YouTube video on Glenner Town Square (6:20 minutes).

a) What are your initial thoughts about these two dementia facilities?

b) What do you think of the set-up at the Netherlands village (e.g., nursing residential facility) as compared to the San Diego Town Square (e.g., day visit)? Do you like the Hogeweyk village better than Glenner Town Square or vice-versa? If so, then why?

c) Do you have any concerns regarding these facilities? Please explain.

d) If you were afflicted with dementia, would you want to be taken to either of these facilities?

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