Posted: March 12th, 2023

Literature reviews for 2 topics feb 23


1. Artificial Intelligence in Social Media and its role in Digital Marketing

2.  Biometric Data Integrity and its Impact on Biometric Security Technologies 

KG604 Graduate Research & Critical Analysis
Lesson Plan: Week 8
Dr. D. Tennyson, DBA

Constructing a Literature Review

Week 8 Learning Objectives

After reviewing this week’s materials, students should be able to:

2. Distinguish a research article from other types of articles.

4. Analyze scholarly research, evaluating its validity.

5. Identify the elements of a scholarly research article: who conducted the research
(plus credentials or affiliation), when and where it was conducted, why the research
was undertaken, how it was conducted (methodology), and what was found (results).

8. Write an APA-7-compliant research paper:
a) title page,
b) effective opening paragraph including opening sentence and thesis statement,
c) literature review,
d) discussion of solution to the research problem based on literature,
e) conclusion, and
f) references page.

9. Apply effective research techniques and proper APA-7 style to all written

I. How to write a literature review (Concordia University Library website)

A. What is a literature review?

The literature review is a written overview of major writings and other sources on a
selected topic.

• Sources covered in the review may include scholarly journal articles, books,
government reports, Web sites, etc.

• The literature review provides a description, summary and evaluation of each

• It is usually presented as a distinct section of a graduate thesis or dissertation.

B. Purpose of the literature review

The purpose of the literature review is to provide a critical written account of the
current state of research on a selected topic:

• Identifies areas of prior scholarship

• Places each source in the context of its contribution to the understanding of the
specific issue, area of research, or theory under review.

• Describes the relationship of each source to the others that you have selected.

• Identifies new ways to interpret, and shed light on any gaps in, previous

KG604 Graduate Research & Critical Analysis
Lesson Plan: Week 8
Dr. D. Tennyson, DBA

Constructing a Literature Review

• Points the way forward for further research.

C. Steps in the literature review process

Preparation of a literature review may be divided into four steps:

1. Define your subject and the scope of the review.

2. Search the library catalogue, subject specific databases and other search tools
to find sources that are relevant to your topic.

3. Read and evaluate the sources and to determine their suitability to the
understanding of topic at hand.

4. Analyze, interpret and discuss the findings and conclusions of the sources you

Relationship Between Objective Summaries & Literature Review

Objective Summary – Introduction, Summary, & Conclusion

Literature Review – Introduction, Review of Literature, & Analysis of Literature

Write the Introduction

II. Components of the Literature Review section (2022-2023, Foundations of
Secondary Research).

The literature review section, of the Term Project – Research Paper should
include the following 3 sections: Introduction, Review of Literature, and
Analysis of Literature.

1. Introduction

• 1st paragraph of paper:

a. Includes an overview of the topic under consideration (topic of the
group/individuals Term Project – Research Paper

b. Specific topics that were researched to collect data.

c. Sub-topics that were researched to collect data.

• 2nd paragraph: Describes where literature was obtained and how literature
was accessed.

Example from Dr. Tennyson’s Literature Review:

The following pages contain a review of the literature related to the experiences of

several people who survived Hurricane Sandy and other natural disasters. Climate change,

KG604 Graduate Research & Critical Analysis
Lesson Plan: Week 8
Dr. D. Tennyson, DBA

Constructing a Literature Review

natural disasters, and the decision-making process that occurs with people who face

disasters are also addressed. This literature review focuses on obtaining information about

the weather anomalies that resulted in Hurricane Sandy, the experiences of disaster

survivors, and the decision-making processes related to preparing for disasters.

The scholarly literature used for this study was obtained from the PROQUEST and

EBSCOhost databases in the [Name of college] library. Additional information used for

this study was obtained from peer reviewed journals, government websites and

publications, dissertations, and published books. Several well-recognized newspapers were

used to obtain information about Hurricane Sandy and the cities most impacted by the

hurricane. Newspaper articles and peer-reviewed journals were accessed online using

various search engines or through direct entry into the website of the publisher of the

newspaper or journal.

2. Review of the Literature (2022-2023, Foundations of Secondary Research,


A. Note the following concerning the Review of the Literature section of the
Literature Review.

• Include the Introduction and Summary sections of objective summaries.

• Objective summaries should contain in-text citations at the end of
sentences containing information that is paraphrased from sources or
direct quotes for information copied verbatim from sources.

KG604 Graduate Research & Critical Analysis
Lesson Plan: Week 8
Dr. D. Tennyson, DBA

Constructing a Literature Review

− Ensure that you add citations to your objective summaries if you have
not already done so.

• Refer to Citations [2022-2023 Foundations of Secondary Research,
Bouteneff & Ramlochan, 2022] document in Course Resources Folder in
Blackboard for information about APA 7 formatting for in-text citations and
direct quotes.

• Use 2nd level headings to identify the sections of the literature review.

• Organize the literature review to include related materials in the same


Organize the literature review according to the sections in the Term
Project – Research paper.


Organize the literature review according to the sections that make sense
for the topic being discussed.

2. Analysis of Literature (2022-2023, Foundations of Secondary Research, p.


A. Analysis of literature discussion should include:

− Include the Conclusion section of objective summary if it contains
analysis type of information.

− an analysis and evaluation of the information in the sources.

− Information contained in the source that contributed to enhanced
understanding or knowledge of the topic of the research project.

− both the distinctiveness of each source and its similarities with the other

− an evaluation of the suitability of the source for gaining an
understanding of the topic of the research project.

KG604 Graduate Research & Critical Analysis
Lesson Plan: Week 8
Dr. D. Tennyson, DBA

Constructing a Literature Review


How to write a literature review. (2017, 14 September) Concordia University Library

website. Retrieved from




Biometric Data Integrity and its Impact on Biometric Security Technologies

Objective Summary 1


Ahmed et al. (2018) are the researchers who wanted to reveal the kind of cyberattacks happening in various cyber systems. The six authors of the work are qualified since they presented their work through a conference paper with a good global reputation. Ahmed et al. (2018) conducted the research in two areas comprising water treatment and distribution facilities, SWaT and WADI. The authors failed to mention the location of the study. The study shows that the noise fingerprint can uniquely identify many sensors with an accuracy greater than 90%. The vulnerability of the systems to cyberattacks depends on the system’s understanding and the profile of noise it detects.

Fingerprint sensors and noise detection are two technologies that help identify attacks on technological devices. Ahmed et al. (2018) researched two sample testbeds that dealt with water. The SWaT testbed helped the authors to develop a model with the right components and physics, using concepts of first principles (Ahmed et al., 2018). The authors easily established a model used in the second testbed. According to the findings, the suggested approach can identify zero-alarm assaults, whereas statistical reference methods cannot. Furthermore, scientists have demonstrated that sensors may be recognized uniquely with more than 90% accuracy. The authors need more accuracy, which is possible through the distinction between the sensor’s noise and the process.


Biometrics improves online security and protects users from potential data breaches. These technological systems operate while producing data for both the fingerprint and the noise. This study assesses NoisePrint using testbeds for water delivery and treatment. The authors performed not one but two tests of the NoisePrint system, each on a separate testbed. The often-used industrial sensors are analyzed, but the research is broadly relevant to other industrial applications. This research presents better and more secure ways of accessing user data in the face of current technological risks.

Objective Summary 2


Ingale et al. (2020) are the researchers who worked on developing new opportunities for previous research concerning biometrics. These authors perform research on various topics that are relevant under the theme of biometrics. The researchers were from San Jose State University, and some were qualified members of the IEEE. The authors did not mention the timespan when they conducted the research or the location of the experiment.


           The study design was an experimental setup where the authors engaged several ECG databases. Five of these databases were on-the-person, while the remaining one was in-house off-the-person. The researchers use the model databases to analyze several metrics pertaining to the topic of discussion, to validate the performance of the model. The authors further used fivefold cross-validation of performance to assess the effectiveness of the model. Ingale et al. (2020) revealed that manufacturers could achieve 100% accuracy on fixed window segmentation with FIR when they combine 1.86% FAR. Also, the study assesses 1,694 subjects and found an EER of 2.11%. The study shows that the ECG biometric authentication model surpasses the contemporary models currently in use but has insufficient abilities to filter, segment, match, and extract features.


           The authors of this paper came up with several datasets that pertain to biometric safety. They do an exemplary job of presenting both the pros and cons of the field of biometric safety. The authors, through this work, present a new approach that improves the performance of biometric security measures.

Objective Summary 3


               This paper highlights the concept of modern type of computing and the influence of storage on the performance of edge computing. Edge computing has been quite revolutionary in several areas of current computing and technology in that field, including elements like artificial intelligence (AI). Mahadevappa et al. (2021) researched identifying an attack and isolating data that has been infected without interfering with the other nodes nearby. The authors of this paper should have mentioned the research date, and the study area was also included.


               This research had the methodology of separating various data so that modern safety of computers becomes optimum for users and other stakeholders. The study focuses on the possible ways to separate infected data from the rest of the ones that have not suffered interference. The edge nodes for data acquisition detected the intruders and quarantined other devices suspected by dimensionality reduction. The quarantine stage of the concept creates reputation scores that identify and sanitize false alarms on devices. The preliminary investigation that the authors performed in the research was effective in reducing obstacles to improve the efficiency of biometric security. The LDA helps increase the accuracy of quarantine by 72.83% in 0.9 seconds of training time.


               The study above helped to show that the biometric technology can be modified to help reduce the possible attacks on computer systems that companies use often. The safety of biometrics and computer systems is dependent on several factors as the authors present in their study. The authors provide a solution for data quarantine in edge computing. The model uses lightweight dimensionality reduction to quarantine data that has encountered intrusion. These researchers propose a future model to validate the findings and improve estimation efficiency.


Ahmed, C. M., Ochoa, M., Zhou, J., Mathur, A. P., Qadeer, R., Murguia, C., & Ruths, J. (2018, May). Noiseprint: Attack detection using sensor and process noise fingerprint in cyber physical systems. In 
Proceedings of the 2018 on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security (pp. 483-497).

Ingale, M., Cordeiro, R., Thentu, S., Park, Y., & Karimian, N. (2020). ECG biometric authentication: A comparative analysis.
IEEE Access,
8, 117853-117866. Retrieved from

Mahadevappa, P., & Murugesan, R. K. (2021). A data quarantine model to secure data in edge computing.
arXiv preprint arXiv:2111.07672. Retrieved from



Artificial Intelligence in Social Media and its role in Digital Marketing





Capatina et al. (2020) joined hands to perform research on the way modern technology affects how businesses use marketing on social media platforms. The researchers performed the study to determine whether the future capabilities of AI in social media match the expectations of stakeholder owners and users. The research was conducted on the owners and employees of digital agencies in the year 2020 in Romania, Italy, and France. The researchers use different approaches, starting with a focus group followed by an online survey. The paper proposes a casual model to discover AI software’s capabilities to match the needs of potential users. The paper aims to identify variables that explain how well respondents are knowledgeable about SMM. Additionally, Capatina et al. (2020) set out to find which of the four capabilities the users are likely to consider for a test. The researchers used the research to explain how different variables affect the likelihood of users to engage modern technology when it comes to social media marketing.

Summary of the findings

The paper is subdivided into a total of four sections which are the introduction, theoretical background, methodology, and findings. The research uses 150 owners and marketers in three countries to find the value of AI technology in SMM. SMM relies on various customer data like purchases, sales, and behavior to recommend the best products for customers. Marketers can also consider key data like images and sentiments as they contain information that is likely to go unnoticed. The focus group of digital marketing professionals helps build on the knowledge and awareness of AI. Capatina et al. (2020) completed the research with an online questionnaire with three experts in each of the three nations. The researcher also presented findings for the two remaining countries, France and Italy. In France, conversely, users’ interest in responding to new products on social media is the main element that motivate them to engage in social media marketing testing using the proposed software. According to the study, it is conceivable in Romania to pinpoint consumption locations and times and link sales to a brand’s social media usage frequency.


The software’s capacity to categorize content generated from user activity impacted consumer interest in the new program. Finally, the capacity to classify social media postings based on where they are in the customer purchasing cycle and the capacity to choose the material for use regularly. Thus, each country had specific factors affecting the participation of users.

Objective Summary 2


Fashami et al. (2022) researched the factors that impact digital marketing through digital content. The research was also about how much marketing strategies can attract and influence consumers fond of social media. The authors reckon that digital marketing is very important, and more research on the area is compulsory. The authors are duly qualified to partake in the study because they are members of Alzahra University, located in Tehran, Iran.


The authors did not mention the specific location where they conducted the research. The methodology of this study was a systematic bibliometric review that was used to analyze modern marketing using content and promotion of the brand. The authors used a Bibliometrix package with both software of R and VOSviewer. The authors chose bibliometric methodology because it helps to reveal how knowledge evolves and how resources provide a quantitative view of facts. Fashami et al. (2022) performed a bibliometric analysis in two ways: performance analysis and mapping the science behind the knowledge. The authors presented the findings of the first part, which was the performance analysis. This research section showed that the countries with the most citations were the United Kingdom, the United States, and China. The authors also presented the five main clusters alongside each cluster’s corresponding theories, contexts, and methods.


           The paper used ADO-TCM as a framework to present the five main clusters impacting digital content marketing. These clusters were characteristics of sources, social media, content, consumers, and the general online community. The choice of consumers to participate or not in social media marketing depends on the process that a company uses to market its digital content. The process of digital marketing, furthermore, relies on other contexts like culture and artificial intelligence.

Objective Summary 3


               Rahmani et al. (2023) researched how small online businesses in Iran use the model of sustainable integration to benefit from digital marketing. The authors were determined to reveal the most relevant components to integrate sustainability in the field of digital marketing. The authors should have mentioned both the location and the timespan of the research. However, the researchers mentioned that the population of participants came from Islamic Azad University.


The methodology of the research was a descriptive survey that incorporated qualitative study. The authors used Strauss and Corbin model to research data theory and combined this with the data from the in-depth interviews of the research participants. Rahmani et al. (2023) collected research data using semi-structured interviews with 11 participants from the North Tehran Branch of Islamic Azad University. The group of experts who were participants in the study was found through snowball sampling. The interview sessions were codded using three methods of axial, open, and selective coding. The authors used MAXQDA software with grounded theory to analyze the study’s qualitative data.

               The authors presented the research findings by extracting duplicate and synonymous codes. The findings of the relationships were presented under six headings of central phenomena, strategies and action, intervening conditions, calm conditions and consequences, and contextual conditions. The main categories from the study were digital marketing, social performance, environmental function, economic performance, the competitiveness of firms, commercialization strategies, and quality of service delivery and development. Each of these main categories was presented with its subcategories.


               The major categories in the causal conditions were social and environmental performance. Businesses can enjoy digital marketing by increasing their focus on environmental performance. Such efforts improve not only the state of the environment but also the business’s reputation. The researchers recommend that small businesses use targeted marketing to focus on specific market segments. Iranian companies should emulate small businesses which have good environmental performance.


Capatina, A., Kachour, M., Lichy, J., Micu, A., Micu, A. E., & Codignola, F. (2020). Matching the future capabilities of an artificial intelligence-based software for social media marketing with potential users’ expectations. 
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 
151, 119794.

Fashami, R., Z., Haghighinasab, M., Seyyedamiri, N., & Ahadi, P. (2022). Designing a Digital Content Marketing Framework to Engage Consumers with Brands on Social Media: A Bibliometric Review.
Journal of Business Management,
14(4), 573-601. Retrieved from

Rahmani, N., Vahabzadeh Munshi, S., & Mehrani, H. (2023). Integration of Sustainability in Small Business Digital Marketing: A Qualitative Study.
International Journal of Digital Content Management,
4(6), 287-309. Retrieved from

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