Posted: February 28th, 2023

ntroduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology

The grading is based on 400 total possible points, or 100 points per category.

As a designated “writing enhanced” course, I expect high-quality work on all assignments. Writing style, grammar, spelling, and overall presentation will be considered in determining your grade. Unless otherwise noted, all written assignments must be typed, with a 11 or 12-point font, double spaced, and one-inch margins.


The purpose of this paper is to apply your understanding of I/O psychology to a specific job and organization. The organization and job may be a place that you, family member, friend, etc. is currently working.

If this job is not one you hold (or held in the recent past), you must “interview” a current job holder to collect the requested information.

Your paper should be based on material from the class and the textbook. You are expected to write a 8-10 page (not counting a title page) double-spaced paper with 1-inch margins that integrates relevant topics and theories from I/O psychology. Conclude your paper with some suggested changes for the organization. Do
not make this paper personal and simply a gripe session about your job. Your paper should be more like an independent objective report.

Use relevant terms from the text and class in your paper, but be sure to cite the text or any other source, or use quotation marks if you use exact definitions or phrases. Please include, or answer, the following required points:

· Describe the specific job or position, including job title, and describe the organization or company.

· Is there a job description for this position? if yes include the job description as an appendix. If one is not available, write one for this job (Chapter 4)

· How are candidates sourced/recruited, and selected by the organization? Do they use tests, interviews and/or application blanks? Please detail/describe the process and tools used, including recruiting sources. (Chapter 6)

· How is performance and on what basis is performance appraised (chapter 5)? What criteria are used to appraise employee performance? How often are employees evaluated and by whom? If available, include a copy of the review form in the appendix.

· What kinds of training/development is a part of this job (chapter 7)? How effective is the training? How is the effectiveness of the training measured?

· Using the Five Exemplary Practices of exemplary leaders (Kouzes and Posner-leadership slides) describe how the supervisor (or other company leader) exhibits/dos not exhibit all five of the exemplary practices.

· Using the concepts of Situational Leadership (Hersey and Blanchard), how did the immediate supervisor apply correctly or incorrectly these concepts. Please explain why you believe this. Please note the “maturity” level of the employee(s) being supervised.

· How diverse and inclusive is the department (or division) this job is in (chapter 11)? Describe some of the various groups that exists in this workplace. Be specific as possible.

· How is teamwork utilized in this job (chapter 13)? What factors affect group performance of this position?

· Detail and describe the specific stressors in this job (chapter 10)?

· What employee engagement strategies are/have been used to increase employee engagement?

· If you were a consultant, what changes would you propose for “improving” this job and/or organization?

Grading Rubric for I/O Paper:

Each of the 12 required points is worth 8.33 points, and will be evaluated for coverage and comprehension of the topic, clarity of writing, and organization.

A draft of the I/O paper will be submitted 7 days prior to the due date in order for feedback and suggested revisions to be provided.

Rev. 12.21.2022


Work in the 21st Century

Chapter 5

Performance Measurement


Module 5.1: Basic Concepts in Performance Measurement
Uses for performance information
Criterion data
Employee development

Types of Performance Data



Performance Measurement (cont’d)
Relationships among performance measures

Hands-on performance measures
Employee engages in work-related tasks
Include carefully constructed simulations
Walk-through testing
Employee describes in detail how to do a job

Performance Measurement (cont’d)
Electronic performance monitoring

Attaining positive employee feedback

Improving performance

Performance Management
Emphasizes link between individual behavior & organizational strategies & goals

3 Components of Performance Management
Definition of performance
Actual measurement process
Communication between supervisor & subordinate about individual behavior & organ. expectations

Perceptions of Fairness in

Performance Measurement

Factors associated with fairness measurement
Appraisal frequency “+” related to fairness perceptions
Joint planning with supervisor to eliminate weaknesses enhances fairness perception
Supervisor’s knowledge of duties of person being measured
Supervisor’s knowledge of actual performance of person being rated

Perceptions of Fairness in

Performance Measurement (cont’d)

Distributive justice
Fairness of outcomes related to decisions
Procedural justice
Fairness of process by which ratings are assigned & a decision is made
Interpersonal justice
Respectfulness & personal tone of communications surrounding evaluation

Module 5.2: Performance Rating—Substance
Theories of performance rating
Process model
Addresses various factors comprising rating process
Content model
Addresses content input to supervisory ratings
Rating context
Includes both announced purpose & other, non-announced agendas surrounding ratings

Figure 5.1: A Process Model

of Performance Rating

SOURCE: Landy & Farr (1980).

Focus on Performance Ratings
Overall performance ratings
Influenced by 3 factors
Task performance

Contextual performance

Counter-productive performance

Performance Ratings (cont’d)
Trait ratings – a warning

Task-based ratings
Effectiveness of employee

in accomplishing duties

Most easily defended in court

Critical incidents method
Examples of critical behaviors that influence performance

PhotoLink/Getty Images


Performance Ratings (cont’d)
Structural characteristics of performance rating scale

Extent to which duty/characteristic being rated is behaviorally defined
Extent to which meaning of response categories is defined
Degree that person interpreting ratings can understand response that rater intended

Rating Formats
Graphic rating scales (most common)

Graphically display performance scores running from high to low

Figure 5.2: A Variety of

Graphic Rating Scales

Table 5.3: Evaluating the Rating Formats in Figure 5.2

Table 5.4: A Weighted Checklist for a College Instructor

Rating Formats (cont’d)
List of behaviors presented to rater who places a check next to items that best (or least) describe the ratee
Weighted checklist
Included items have assigned values or weights
Forced-Choice Format
Requires the rater to choose two statements out of four that could describe the ratee

Table 5.5: An Example of a

Forced-Choice Format


Figure 5.3: BARS

(Ventilation) for Firefighters

Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
Rating format that includes behavioral anchors describing what worker has done, or might be expected to do, in a particular duty area

Employee Comparison Methods
Involve direct comparison of 1 person w/another

Simple ranking
Employees ranked from top to bottom according to assessed proficiency

Paired comparison
Each employee in a group is compared with each other individual in the group

Employee Comparison Methods (cont’d)
Useful in making layoff or downsizing decisions

Feedback is difficult because there is no clear standard of performance

Difficulty in comparing individuals in different groups

Module 5.3: Performance Rating—Process
Rating sources
Most common

information source

Many actively avoid

evaluation & feedback

Ryan McVay/Getty Images

Rating Sources (cont’d)

More likely to know about a worker’s typical performance
Conflict of interest likely when competing for fixed resources

Discussion of ratings with supervisor increases perceptions of procedural fairness
Potential for distortion & inaccuracy
Minimized with supervisor discussion
Conflict of interest if used for administrative purposes

Rating Sources
Subordinate ratings
Critical that subordinate feedback be kept anonymous

Customer & supplier ratings
Important from business strategy vantage point

Rating Sources
360 degree systems
Collect & provide an employee with feedback that comes from many sources

Often used for feedback & employee development

Figure 5.4: Potential Sources for

360 Degree Feedback

Rating Distortions
Central tendency error
Raters choose mid-point on scale to describe performance when more extreme point is more appropriate

Leniency-severity error
Raters are unusually easy or harsh in their ratings

Rating Distortions (cont’d)
Halo error

Same rating is assigned to an individual on a series of dimensions, causing the ratings all to be similar; lack of identification of strengths and weaknesses

A “halo” surrounds the ratings

Rater Training
Some distortions (errors) may be corrected through training

Administrative training
Important for uncommon rating systems (e.g., BARS) or if 1 or more structural characteristics are deficient

Rater Training (cont’d)
Psychometric training

Makes raters aware of common rating errors in hopes of reducing such errors

Frame of Reference Training
Based on assumption that rater needs context for providing rating
Basic steps

Provide information about multidimensional nature of performance
Ensure raters understand meaning of scale anchors
Engage in practice rating exercises of standard performance
Provide feedback on practice exercise

Reliability & Validity of

Performance Ratings

Currently the subject of lively debate
Inter-rater reliability considered poor but this isn’t necessarily bad considering each rater relies on a different perspective

Depends on manner by which rating scales were conceived & developed

Module 5.4: Social & Legal

Context of Performance Evaluation

Motivation to rate
Suggestion that raters use process as a means to an end, either personal or organizational
Performance appraisal as a goal-directed activity with 3 stakeholders

Motivation to Rate (cont’d)
Rater goals
Task performance
Ratee goals
Information gathering
Information dissemination

Motivation to Rate (cont’d)
Organizational goals
Between-person uses
Within-person uses
Systems-maintenance uses

Goal Conflict
When single system is used to satisfy multiple goals from different stakeholders, rater must choose which goal to satisfy before assigning a rating

Possible solutions
Use multiple performance evaluation systems
Obtain involvement of stakeholders in developing the system
Reward supervisors for accurate ratings

Performance Feedback
Problematic when same information is used for multiple purposes

Feedback (especially negative) should be stretched over several sessions

“Praise-criticism-praise sandwich”

Performance Feedback (cont’d)
Employee more likely to accept negative feedback if he/she believes:
Supervisor has sufficient “sample” of subordinate’s actual behavior
Supervisor & subordinate agree on subordinate’s job duties
Supervisor & subordinate agree on definition of good & poor performance
Supervisor focuses on ways to improve performance

“Destructive” Criticism
Feedback that is cruel, sarcastic, & offensive
Usually general rather than specific
Often directed toward personal characteristics of employee
Leads to anger, tension, & resentment on part of employee
Apology best to repair damage of such criticism

Implementing 360 Degree Feedback
Ensure anonymity of sources
Rater & ratee should jointly identify the evaluator
Use for developmental & growth purposes
Train information sources & those giving feedback
Follow up feedback session with regular opportunities for progress assessment

Performance Evaluation & Culture
Hofstede’s 5 dimensions of culture might affect performance evaluations

Modesty bias
When raters give themselves lower ratings than warranted
Prevalent in cultures with high power distance

Performance Evaluation & the Law
Ford Motor Company & its forced distribution rating system
Evaluators were required to place managers into performance categories based on predetermined percentages
Ford sued by managers & eventually paid over $10 million to litigants

Performance Evaluation &

the Law (cont’d)

Review of court cases from 1980-1995
Judges primarily concerned with issues of fairness rather than technical characteristics of the system

C. Sherburne/PhotoLink/Getty Images


Table 5.6: Recommendations regarding substance of appraisal criteria

Performance Evaluation

& the Law (cont’d)

Lawsuits most often brought against trait-based systems
Ratings unduly subjective & decisions based on those ratings are unreliable or invalid
Ratings have no basis in actual behavior due to subjectivity
Little evidence of such unfairness has been found

Research suggests performance evaluations do not systematically discriminate against protected subgroups

Table 5.7: Procedural Recommendations for Legally Sound Performance Appraisals

Work in the 21st Century

Chapter 6

Staffing Decisions

Module 6.1:

Conceptual Issues in Staffing

Staffing decisions
Associated with recruiting, selecting, promoting, & separating employees

Keith Brofsky/Getty Images

Impact of Staffing Practices on

Firm Performance

High performance work practices
Include use of formal job analyses, selection from within for key positions, & use of formal assessment devices for selection

Staffing practices have positive associations with firm performance

Table 6.1:

Stakeholder Goals in the Staffing Process


Staffing from

International Perspective

Job descriptions used universally
Educational qualifications & application forms widely used for initial screening
Interviews & references are common post-screening techniques
Cognitive ability tests used less frequently; personality tests used more frequently

Module 6.2: Evaluation of

Staffing Outcomes

Validity: Accurateness of inferences made based on test or performance data

Validity designs


Figure 6.1: Scatterplots Depicting Various Levels of Relationship between a Test and a Criterion

Selection Ratio (SR)
Selection Ratio (SR)
Index ranging from 0 to 1 that reflects the ratio of available jobs to applicants

n = number of available jobs
N = number of applicants assessed

SR = n/N

Selection Decisions
False positive
Applicant accepted but performed poorly
False negative
Applicant rejected but would have performed well
True positive
Applicant accepted & performed well
True negative
Applicant rejected & would have performed poorly

Cut score or cutoff score
Specified point in distribution of scores below which candidates are rejected

Raising cut score will result in fewer false positives but more false negatives

Strategy for determining cut score depends on situation

Establishing Cut Scores
Criterion-referenced cut score
Consider desired level of performance & find test score corresponding to that level

Norm-referenced cut score
Based on some index of test-takers’ scores rather than any notion of job performance

Utility Analysis
Assesses economic return on investment of HR interventions like staffing or training

Utility analysis can address the cost/benefit ratio of one staffing strategy versus another

Utility Analysis
Includes consideration of the Base Rate, which is the percentage of the current workforce performing successfully
If performance is already high, then new staffing system will likely add little to productivity

Utility analysis calculations can be very complex

Feelings of unfairness regarding Staffing Strategies can lead to:
Initiation of lawsuits
Filing of formal grievances with company representatives
Counterproductive behavior

Module 6.3: Practical

Issues in Staffing

Staffing Model
Enough high quality information about candidates to predict likelihood of their success

Candidates can compensate for relative weakness in one attribute through strength in another one, providing both are required by job

Table 6.2: The Challenge of Matching Applicant Attributes and Job Demands

Combining Information
Clinical decision making
Uses judgment to combine information & make decision about relative value of different candidates

Statistical decision making
Combines information according to a mathematical formula

Table 6.3

Combining Information (cont’d)
Hurdle system of combining scores
Non-compensatory strategy: individual has no opportunity to compensate at later stage for low score in earlier stage
Establishes series of cut scores

Anthony Saint James/Getty Images

Hurdle System of Combining Scores
Constructed from multiple hurdles so candidates who don’t exceed each of the minimum dimension scores are excluded from further consideration
Often set up sequentially
More expensive hurdles placed later
Used to narrow a large applicant pool

Combining Information (cont’d)
Compensatory approach
Multiple regression analysis
Results in equation for combining test scores into a composite based on correlations of each test score with performance score
Regression equation developed on first sample is tested on second sample to determine if it still fits well

Figure 6.3: Relationship Between Predictor Overlap & Criterion Prediction

Score banding
Individuals with similar test scores can be grouped together in a category or score band
Selection within band can be made based on other considerations
Score Banding is controversial

Score Banding
Score Banding uses the Standard error of measurement (SEM) for the test
SEM provides a measure of the amount of error in a test score distribution
Function of reliability of test & variability of test scores

Score Banding
Fixed band system
Candidates in lower bands not considered until higher bands have been exhausted

Sliding band system
Permits band to be moved down a score point when highest score in a band is exhausted

Subgroup Norming
Develop separate lists for individuals in different demographic groups who are then ranked within their respective group

In general, subgroup norming is not allowed as a staffing strategy

Selection vs. Placement
Sometimes, the challenge is to place an individual rather than simply select an individual

Process of matching multiple applicants & multiple job openings
Vocational guidance
Pure selection
Cut & fit

2 typical situations
Termination for cause
Individual is fired for a particular reason
Generally not unexpected
Job loss due to employer downsizing or reductions in force
Often occurs with little or no warning

Large Staffing Projects
Concessions must be made: Labor intensive assessment procedures are often not feasible

Cost of testing can be quite expensive

Fairness is a critical issue

Standard, well-established, & feasible selection strategies are important

Small Staffing Projects
Luxury of using wider range of assessment tools
Adverse impact is less of an issue
Fairness is still a key issue
Rational, job-related, & feasible selection strategies are important

Module 6.4: Legal Issues in

Staffing Decisions

Charges of employment discrimination
Involve violations of Title VII of 1964 CRA, ADA, or ADEA
I-O psychologists often serve as expert witnesses in these lawsuits
Consequences can be substantial
Most often brought by individual claiming unfair termination

Intentional Discrimination or Adverse Treatment

Plaintiff attempts to show that employer treated plaintiff differently than majority applicants or employees

Unintentional Discrimination or Adverse Impact (AI)

Acknowledges employer may not have intended to discriminate against plaintiff but employer practice had AI on group to which plaintiff belongs

Determination of Adverse Impact
Burden of proof on plaintiff to show:
a) he/she belongs to a protected group, &
b) members of protected group were statistically disadvantaged compared to majority employees


“80%” or “4/5ths” rule

Guideline for assessing whether there is evidence of Adverse Impact (AI)
Plaintiffs must show that protected group received only 80% of desirable outcomes received by majority group in order to meet burden of demonstrating AI
Results in AI ratio

“80%” or “4/5ths” Rule (cont’d)
Can be substantially affected by sample sizes

Burden of proof shifts to employer once AI is demonstrated

Social Networking Sites

and the Workplace

Employees (or applicants) posting information on a social networking site (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) that is accessed by an employer have been increasingly getting in trouble.

Job candidates who have been found to post on SNS that they like to “shoot people” or “blow things up” have been removed from hiring consideration.

Employment lawyers are still debating the legality of employment decisions based on information on social networking sites.

Work in the 21st Century

Chapter 7

Training & Development

Module 7.1: Foundations of

Training & Learning

Systematic acquisition of skills, concepts, or attitudes resulting in improved performance in another environment

Basic foundation for training programs is learning

Relatively permanent change in behavior & human capabilities produced by experience & practice

3 broad categories of learning outcomes
Cognitive outcomes
Skill-based outcomes
Affective outcomes

Actions or behaviors relevant to organization’s goals; can be measured in terms of each individual proficiency

Can often be directly observed

We assume learning takes place from observing performance

Training, Learning, & Performance

Training increases probability of learning, and learning increases probability of better job performance.

Training Needs Analysis
3-step process
Organizational analysis
Task analysis
Person analysis

Required to develop systematic understanding of where training is needed (organizational), what needs to be trained (task), & who will be trained (person)

Training Needs Analysis (cont’d)

Organizational Analysis
Examines org. goals, available resources, & org. environment to determine where training should be directed

Takes into account climate of organization & its subunits

Task Analysis
Examines what employees must do to perform job properly
Can consist of
Developing task statements
Determining homogeneous task clusters
Identifying KSAOs required for job
May also include assessment of competencies

Person Analysis
Identifies which individuals within organization should receive training & what kind of instruction they need

Assessments of trainee personality, ability, & experience increasingly being used as part of needs analysis

Task Clusters for Train Operators

Learning Process in Training
Trainee characteristics
Goal orientation
Performance orientation
Concerned with doing well
Mastery orientation
Concerned with increasing competence

Experience level
Trainee motivation
Trainee readiness

Figure 7.1: Characteristics Affecting Learning & Transfer Outcomes
SOURCE: Adapted from Baldwin & Ford (1988)

Learning & Motivational Theories

Applied to Training

Reinforcement theory
Learning results from association between behaviors & rewards
Positive reinforcement
Desired behavior followed by reward
Behavior modification
Simple recognition & feedback can be effective in increasing performance

Learning & Motivational Theories

Applied to Training (cont’d)

Social learning theory proposes that there are many ways to learn including:
Behavioral modeling
1. Observe actual job incumbents demonstrate positive modeling behaviors
2. Rehearse before using role-playing
3. Receive feedback on rehearsal
4. Try behavior on the job

Cognitive & Social Learning Theory
Broad approach including:
Belief in one’s capability to perform
Goal setting
Specific, difficult goals direct attention & improve performance
Knowledge of results of one’s actions
Enhances motivation, learning, & performance

Principles of Learning
Active practice
Actively participating in training/work tasks

Occurs when tasks can be performed with limited attention; likely to develop when learners are given extra learning opportunities (overlearning) after they have demonstrated mastery of a task.

Extent to which task trained is similar to task required by job
Physical fidelity
Extent to which training task mirrors physical features of task performed on job
Psychological fidelity
Extent to which training task helps trainees develop KSAOs necessary to perform job

Principles of Learning (cont’d)
Whole learning
When entire task is practiced at once
More effective when complex task has relatively high organization
Part learning
When subtasks are practiced separately & later combined
More effective when complex task has low organization
e.g., surgeons & pilots

Principles of Learning (cont’d)
Massed practice
Individuals practice task continuously & without rest (e.g., cramming for test)
Distributed practice
Rest intervals between practice sessions
Generally results in more efficient learning & retention than massed practice

Learning Organizations
Companies that emphasize continuous learning, knowledge sharing, & personal mastery

Additional features
1. Emphasize problem solving & innovation
2. Develop systems that enhance knowledge sharing
3. Encourage flexibility & experimentation
4. Value well-being & development of all employees
5. Encourage employees to find or make opportunities

Learning Organizations
Global challenges require emphasis on global learning organizations

Module 7.2:

Content & Methods of Training

Training methods
4 basic principles
1. Present relevant information & content to be learned
2. Demonstrate KSAOs to be learned
3. Create opportunities for trainees to practice skills
4. Provide feedback to trainees during & after practice

On-Site Training Methods
On-the-job training
Trainees observe & learn from more experienced employees
Formal program used to teach a skilled trade
Job rotation
Employees move to various jobs, departments, or areas of company

Off-Site Training Methods
Classroom lectures
Programmed instruction
Linear programming
Branching programming
Controlled reproducibility
Safety considerations
Learning considerations

Doug Menuez/Getty Images

Distance Learning &

Computer-Based Training

Distance learning
Can occur across multiple sites at once
More affordable, learning-tailored alternative to live instruction
I-O research just beginning
Computer-based training
Allow trainees to individualize their learning experience
Trainees have more control over instruction

Training “Critical Thinking”
Critical thinking skills require active involvement in applying principles under instruction

Advances in technology make critical thinking in workplace more important than ever

Transfer of Training
Degree to which trainees apply knowledge, skills, & attitudes gained in training to their job

Transfer of training climate
Workplace characteristics that either inhibit or facilitate transfer of training

Horizontal Transfer
Vertical Transfer

Table 7.3: Characteristics of a Positive Transfer of Training Climate

Module 7.3: Evaluating

Training Programs

Training evaluation
Systematic collection of descriptive & judgmental information that can be used to make effective training decisions

Several purposes of training evaluations

Training Criteria
Kirkpatrick’s 4-level model
Reaction criteria (Level 1)
Learning criteria (Level 2)

Behavioral criteria (Level 3)
Result criteria (Level 4)


Augmented framework of Kirkpatrick’s model

1) Reaction
Affective reactions
Utility judgments
2) Learning
Immediate knowledge
Knowledge retention
Behavior/skill demonstration
3) Transfer

4) Results


Utility Analysis
Benefits of training programs based on:
# of individuals trained
Difference in job performance between trained & untrained employees
Length of time training expected to influence performance
Variability in job performance in untrained employees


Control Group Design


Training Evaluation Designs
Strongest training evaluation designs include:
Random assignment of participants to conditions
Control group
Measures obtained before & after training

Pretest Posttest Control Group Design


Control Group Design – Example


Special Topics in

Training Evaluations

EEO issues
Organizations should document training practices & programs thoroughly
Special consideration of age discrimination

Training/coaching for tests
In general, score gains from coaching are small

Module 7.4:

Specialized Training Programs

Formal education, job experiences, mentoring relationships, & assessments of personality & abilities that help employees prepare for future

Management & Leadership Development
Assessment centers
Evaluate organizational, leadership, & communication skills
Managers with high potential generally invited to participate
360 degree feedback
Received positively & effective at improving performance

Management & Leadership Development (cont’d)
Practical, goal-focused form of personal, one-on-one learning for busy professionals
Practical, flexible, targeted form of individualized learning for managers/executives
Informal training
Include specific job assignments, experiences, & activities outside work

Table 7.7: Old & New Assumptions about Coaching

Specialized Training Programs
Sexual harassment awareness training
Quid pro quo
Hostile working environment
EEOC encourages following steps:
Clearly communicate a zero tolerance policy
Establish an effective grievance process
Take immediate & appropriate action when employee complains

Sexual Harassment Training
Supervisors should receive additional training beyond what employees receive

Effective in increasing knowledge of & ability to identify sexual harassment

More field research necessary to understand short- & long-term effects

Specialized Training Programs
Ethics Training
Appropriate approach likely is to use both selection & training to increase likelihood that employees will perform jobs ethically

Cross-Cultural Training (CCT)
Critical in helping expatriates adapt to new environments

Symptoms of culture shock
Loss of ability to work effectively

Cross-Cultural Training
Cross-Cultural Training
Designed to prepare individuals from one culture to interact more effectively with individuals from different cultures

Cultural assimilator
Culture-specific assimilator
Culture-general assimilator

Work in the 21st Century

Chapter 10

Stress & Worker Well-Being

Module 10.1:

The Problem of Stress

Studying workplace stress
3 important factors:
Work stressors
Task & role stressors
Moderators of the stress process
Individual differences & social support
Consequences of stress
Burnout & heart disease

Studying Workplace Stress (cont’d)
Selye – “Father of Stress”
Defined stress as “the non-specific response of the human body to any demand made on it”

Eustress (good) vs. distress (bad)

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Alarm reaction Resistance Exhaustion
Response to chronic stress

Studying Workplace Stress (cont’d)
Recent studies
In addition to physiological reaction to stress, there is also a cognitive appraisal of situation & of resources available to handle stressors
2 coping styles
Problem-focused coping
Managing or altering the problem causing the stress
Emotion-focused coping
Reducing the emotional response to the problem

Figure 10.1: Theoretical Framework for Study of Stress at Work (Kahn & Byosiere, 1992)

What is a Stressor?
Physical or psychological demands to which an individual responds

Reaction or response to stressors

Heat, cold, noise
Emotional labor
Perceived control
Situational constraints
Work schedule
Work pace, time pressure
Role stressors
Interpersonal conflict

Table 10.1: Common

Stressors in the Workplace


Common Stressors at Work
Physical/Task stressors
Effect of multiple stressors can be cumulative
e.g., noise, demands of a given job


Psychological Stressors
Perceived lack of control/predictability

Individual’s perception of control or predictability determines his/her response to the situation

Perceptions of control are related to Autonomy, which is extent to which employees can control how and when they perform tasks of their job

Psychological Stressors (cont’d)
Interpersonal conflict
Negative interactions w/co-workers, supervisors, clients

Can occur when resources are scarce, employees have incompatible interests, or employees feel they are not being treated fairly

Incivility at Work
Rude, condescending, & aggressive words or behaviors that violate workplace norms of respect.
Research indicates that incivility at work has health and behavioral consequences.
Customer service employees often react to customer incivility by returning that incivility.


Psychological Stressors (cont’d)
Role stressors: Result from multiple task requirements or roles of employees
Role ambiguity
Employees lack clear knowledge of expected behavior
Role conflict
Demands from different sources are incompatible
Role overload
An employee is expected to fill to many roles at once

Psychological Stressors (cont’d)
Work-family conflict
When workers experience conflict between roles they fulfill at work & roles they fulfill in their personal lives

Flexible time schedules & child care becoming increasingly important

Psychological Stressors (cont’d)
Emotional labor: Regulation of one’s emotions to meet job or organizational demands (2 strategies):
Surface acting
Consists of managing or faking one’s expressions or emotions
Deep acting
Consists of managing one’s feelings, including emotions required by the job

Table 10.2:

Consequences of Stress


Behavioral Consequences of Stress
Information processing
Chronic stress has negative effects on memory, reaction time, accuracy, & task performance
Hypothesis: Performance & stress have an inverted U relationship (Figure 10.2)
As arousal increases, performance increases, but only up to a certain point, & then performance begins to decline

Figure 10.2: Stress & Performance:

Inverted U Relationship

SOURCE: Jex (1998).

Psychological Consequences of Stress
Extreme state of psychological strain resulting from prolonged response to chronic job stressors that exceed an individual’s resources to cope with them
Measured with Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)
3 components
Emotional exhaustion
Low personal accomplishment

Physiological Consequences of Stress
Stressful situations cause overactivation of sympathetic nervous system (SNS), producing several kinds of stress hormones

Initially, these changes can improve decision making & physical performance
Chronic activation of SNS leads to “wear & tear” on coronary arteries & heart

Work Schedules
3 different scheduling formats
Shift work

Fixed shift

Rotating shift

Scheduling variations


Compressed workweek



Module 10.2: Theories of Stress
Demand-Control Model
2 factors prominent in producing job stress
Job demands
Workload or intellectual requirements
Control (decision latitude)
Autonomy & discretion for using different skills

Figure 10.3:

Demand-Control Model

Source: Adapted from Karasek (1979)

Demand-Control Model (cont’d)
Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ)

Role overload & role conflict (demands)
Skill utilization & job decision (control)
Depression, job dissatisfaction, & sleep problems (health consequences)

Person-Environment Fit Model
Hypothesis: Fit between person & environment determines amount of stress that person perceives

Considers external influences like social support from family & work sources

Person-job fit vs. person-organization fit

Individual Differences in Resistance to Stress
Moderators of stressor-strain relationship
Locus of control (LOC)
Belief of individuals that what happens to them is under their control
Set of personality characteristics that provide resistance to stress
Positive self-worth that is considered to be an important resource for coping


Figure 10.4: Example of a Moderator

of the Stressor-Strain Relationship

Type A Behavior Pattern (TABP)
Moderator of stressor-strain relationship

Individuals displaying TABP characterized by ambitiousness, impatience, easily aroused hostility, & time urgency
Type A’s seem to thrive on “life in the fast lane”

Type A Behavior Pattern (TABP)
Compared to Type Bs, Type As more punctual, work at faster rates, & higher achievers in college & in professional careers
However, global TABP does not predict outcomes as well as specific TABP subcomponents

Hostility is primary TABP subcomponent associated with increased risk of heart disease & other long-term, harmful health outcomes

TABP Subcomponents
Achievement strivings (AS)
Tendency to be active & work hard in achieving one’s goals
Positively correlated with academic performance, sales performance, & job satisfaction

Impatience/Irritability (II)
Intolerance, frustration that results from being slowed down
Associated with health problems like insomnia, headaches, poor digestion, & respiratory difficulties

TABP Subcomponent
Time urgency
Refers to feeling of being pressured by inadequate time
Dimensions include eating behavior, nervous energy, list making, scheduling, speech patterns, & deadline control

Module 10.3:

Reducing & Managing Stress

Occupational health psychology (OHP)
Application of psychology to improving the quality of work life, and to protecting and promoting the safety, health, and well-being of workers
Handbook of Occupational Health Psychology
Comprehensive source for OHP issues (i.e., work-family balance, work design, and stress management interventions)

Occupational health psychologists often divide approaches into 3 major categories
Primary, secondary, and tertiary

Primary Prevention Strategies
Primary prevention strategies
Concerned with modifying or eliminating stressors in work environment
Most proactive & preventative approaches to stress management
Work & job design
Cognitive restructuring

Secondary Prevention Strategies
Involve modifying responses to inevitable demands or stressors
Role is often one of damage control
Strategies that require no special training include lifestyle choices such as physical fitness, healthy eating, & weight control
Can be proactive or reactive

Secondary Prevention Strategies
Stress management training
Useful for helping employees deal with workplace stressors that are difficult to change

Cognitive-behavioral skills training
Stress inoculation
Relaxation & biofeedback techniques
Progressive muscle relaxation & deep breathing
Social support: Instrumental, emotional, informational, & appraisal support


Tertiary Prevention Strategies
Focused on healing negative effects of stressors

Employee assistance programs (EAPs)
Counseling provided by an organization to deal with workplace stress, alcohol/drug difficulties, & problems stemming from outside the job


Summary of Stress Intervention Strategies

Combining various stress management interventions is more effective than using any single approach

Successful stress management interventions must accurately identify stressors causing strain & actively determine ways to reduce those stressors

Primary stress intervention strategies generally preferred over other interventions

Future Work Trends & Challenges to Stress & Stress Management

Workforce is becoming more culturally & ethnically diverse
Important for I-O psychologists to determine whether factors that predict health problems in White males are same as in other populations

Influences in the new millennium predicted to be stressful
Technological change, global competition, downsizing, elder & child care, & increased teamwork

Module 10.4: Violence at Work

Violent actions carried out by a non-employee against an employee
Violence perpetrated by employees & directed toward fellow employees

Many hypotheses for why workplace has become more violent since the early 1990s

“Typical” Violent Worker

Most cases of workplace violence involve some feeling of being treated unfairly, & perpetrator has some real or imaginary grievance against organization or a person in the organization

Characteristics of a violent worker
May include: Abuses alcohol, has a history of violence, has difficult accepting authority, is a white male 25-30 years of age

Theories of Workplace Violence

Frustration-aggression hypothesis
Argues that frustration leads to aggression
Ultimately found to be too broad
Not all frustrated individuals act aggressively & not all aggressive acts are a result of frustration
Modern view: Frustration leads to stress reaction & individual expends energy to relieve this stress
High self-esteem is associated with violence

Figure 10.5: Constructive & Destructive Employee

Behavior as a Result of Frustration & Employee Control

SOURCE: Spector (2000)

Theories of Workplace Violence (cont’d)

“Justice” hypothesis
Proposes that some violent acts can be understood as reactions by an employee against perceived injustice
Relevance to the 3 types of justice
Layoffs & firings
Performance appraisals

Justice Actions to Prevent Workplace Violence

Special Type of Violence: Bullying

Bullying – Harassing, offending, socially excluding, or assigning humiliating tasks to subordinate repeatedly & over long period of time
4 steps in escalation
A critical incident
Bullying & stigmatizing
Organizational intervention
Expulsion of the victim

Conclusions About

Workplace Violence

Employees need avenues for communicating concerns about the fairness of organizational decisions that affect them

Managers need to be sensitive to signs of potential trouble in form of individual worker behaviors

Work in the 21st Century

Chapter 12

Leadership in Organizations

Module 12.1: The Concept of Leadership
Conceptual Distinctions

Leadership effectiveness
Leader emergence

Research indicates that emotional stability, extraversion, openness, & conscientiousness “+” correlated with leader emergence

Problem of Defining

Leadership Outcomes

Leadership has been variously credited with many different achievements

Problem in choosing which outcome to examine & which time frame to consider

There is typically lag time between actions by a leader & outcomes of those actions

Figure 12.1: Toxic Triangle of Destructive Leadership
SOURCE: Padilla et al. (2007)

Abusive Supervision
Defined as non-physical forms of hostility or aggression carried out by managers against employees who report directly to them (Tepper, 2007).
Employees who perceive their supervisors to be abusive are more likely to have lower job satisfaction, lower organizational commitment, & higher psychological distress.

Leader vs. Manager or Supervisor
Individual in group given task of directing task-relevant group activities or, in absence of designated leader, carries primary responsibility for performing these functions

Leader vs. Manager or

Supervisor (cont’d)

Attempts at leadership
Attempted leadership
Successful leadership
Effective leadership
Manager or supervisor deals with what is to be done
Leadership deals with how it is to be done

Blending of Managerial &

Leadership Roles

Leadership previously seen as “icing on the cake” in managers

Modern approaches blend many managerial duties with expectations of what represents effective leadership

Borman & Brush’s taxonomy of managerial performance requirements
Connection b/w leadership & mgmt. very clear

Table 12.1: Areas of

Managerial Responsibility


Leader Development vs.

Leadership Development

Leader development
Develops, maintains, & enhances individual leader attributes

Leadership development
Concentrates on leader-follower development
Leadership as social exchange
Interpersonal competence

Motivation to Lead
Power motive
Exercise of control over others or environment is pleasing
Activity inhibition
Describes person who is not impulsive
Affiliation need
Need for approval or connections with others

Those with leadership aspirations tend to have high power motive + high activity inhibition + low affiliation needs

Motivation to Lead (cont’d)
Motives to lead
Affective-identity → Desire for control
Instrumental → Personal benefits
Social-normative → Duty to lead

Bottom line: There are multiple motivations to lead besides the need for power & control

Table 12.2:

Motives to Lead


Module 12.2: Traditional

Theories of Leadership

“Great Man” theories
Life of respected leader examined for clues leading to his/her greatness
Often focused on a galvanizing experience or admirable trait
Tend to be of little value from the perspective of I-O psychology

Trait Approach
Prevalent in 1920s & 1930s
Attempted to show that leaders possess certain characteristics that non-leaders do not
No consistent relationships between traits & leader effectiveness were found

Table 12.3: Some Characteristics of Leaders that Have Been Studied

“Power” Approach
Examines types of power wielded by leaders
Reward power
Coercive power
Legitimate power
Referent power
Expert power
Very practical in orientation

Behavioral Approach

Ohio State University studies

Behavioral approach
Focused on kinds of behavior engaged in by people in leadership roles
2 major types of behavior
Initiating structure
Represented a leap forward

Behavioral Approach

University of Michigan studies

Focused more on dynamics of how leaders & groups interacted
Task-oriented behavior
Similar to initiating structure
Relations-oriented behavior
Similar to consideration
Participative behavior
Represented another step forward in leadership research

Contingency Approach
Proposed to take into account the role of the situation in the exercise of leadership

Hersey & Blanchard’s situational theory
Proposed leadership depended in part on maturity of subordinate
Job maturity
Psychological maturity

Consequences of Participation: Vroom-Yetton Model
Decision rules regarding participation
Assumes that one of most important duties of leader is to make decisions
Suggests way to choose a decision-making strategy
Implication that group decision-making is not always appropriate

Module 12.3:

New Approaches to Leadership

Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory
Leaders adopt different behaviors with individual subordinates
In-group members vs. out-group members
Recent revisions describe “life-cycle” of a leader-follower relationship

C Squared Studios/Getty Images

Transformational Leadership (Burns)
Behavior of inspirational political leaders who transform followers by appealing to nobler motives (MLK Jr. & Gandhi)
4 general strategies
Inspirational motivation
Idealized influence

Intellectual stimulation
Individualized consideration

Transformational Leadership (Bass)
Bass perceived transformational leadership as building upon transactional leadership in a hierarchy reflecting effectiveness
“Full-range” theory of leadership

Hierarchy of Transformational Leadership
Figure 12.2
Hierarchical Nature of
Transformational Leadership
Source: Based on Bass (1997).

The Charismatic Leader

Personal attribute of a leader that hypnotizes followers and compels them to identify with and attempt to emulate the leader


Charismatic Leader
Followers are emotionally attached to leader, never question leader’s beliefs or actions, & see themselves as integral to accomplishment of leader’s goal

Acquire some power from situation

Charismatic style may work to keep followers weak

Morley/PhotoLink/Getty Images

Charismatic Leadership Theory
Approach with many different versions of the
notion that charisma is related to leadership;

(1) in a crisis situation, followers perceive charismatic characteristics in an individual and accept that person as a leader;

(2) certain leader behaviors (use of innovative strategies) contribute to a charismatic aura

Module 12.4: Emerging Topics & Challenges in Leadership Research

Leadership in a changing workplace
Temporary workers
Fuzzy boundaries of jobs

Male & Female Leaders:

Are They Different?

Considerable disagreement among researchers

Women tend to prefer democratic & participative styles; men favor autocratic styles

Men tend to be more assertive; women more extraverted

Women substantially more tender-minded
Ryan McVay/Getty Images

Male & Female Leaders (cont’d)
Effect of male- or female-dominated industries on leadership styles
Women in male-dominated industries
Men in female-dominated industries

More research is necessary on gender & leadership

Personality & Leadership
1 or more Big Five factors appear directly or indirectly in all leadership theories

Big 5 factors emphasize “bright side” of leadership: Effectiveness

Predictors for leader failure more likely to be found in measures of psychopathology

Personality & Leadership (cont’d)
Meta-analysis on relationship between personality & leader effectiveness in 3 settings
Characteristics positively associated with leader effectiveness in 3 different environments:


Emotional stability
Emotional stability
Emotional stability


Openness to experience
Openness to experience



Cross-Cultural Leadership Studies
Global leadership & organizational behavior effectiveness (GLOBE)
Large-scale cross-cultural study of leadership by 170 social scientists & management researchers in over 60 countries

Table 12.4: Universal and Culture-Specific Aspects of Leadership

Leadership in a Diverse Environment
Workplace is becoming less white, less native born, less male, & less young
Implications for leader behavior

Appears that transformational & charismatic leadership are universally valued
Lead to positive performance results & positive attitude reactions

Work in the 21st Century

Chapter 13

Teams in Organizations

Module 13.1:

Types of Teams

Reasons for increased use of teams:
Work can be performed concurrently rather than sequentially
Innovation & creativity promoted
Enable quick, effective development/delivery of products & services
Organizations learn & retain learning more effectively

Groups & Teams: Definitions
Groups include members who may work together or may just share some resources

Teams include members whose tasks are interdependent; Work towards a common goal & share responsibility for outcomes

Groups & Teams have too much in common for any grand distinctions

Types of Teams
Quality circles
Typically involve 6-12 employees who meet regularly to identify problems/generate ideas
Positive outcomes in short term but gains not sustained over time (honeymoon effect)
They remain popular in Japan, but less so in United States

Types of Teams (cont’d)
Project teams
Created to solve particular problem
Disbanded after problem solved or project completed
Raise some organizational challenges – multiple reporting relationships.

Types of Teams (cont’d)
Production teams
Consist of front-line employees who produce a tangible output
Autonomous work group: Type of production team with control over a variety of functions
Research findings unclear, more research is necessary

Virtual Teams
Composed of widely dispersed members working together toward a common goal; linked through technology
Pose several advantages to organizations
Trust is a critical concern; Increase via:
Virtual-collaboration, virtual-socialization, and virtual-communication behaviors

A Specialized Team:

Airline Cockpit Crew

Benefit from an organizational context that provides:

Challenging objectives
Prior training and education
A consistent information system

A Specialized Team:

Airline Cockpit Crew

Airline cockpit crews have very real teamwork requirements, particularly in an emergency

A spectacular example was the Hudson River landing of US Airways flight 1549 in January 2009

The pilot, Captain Chesley “Sully” Sullenberger, has a master’s degree in I-O psychology and was professionally involved in crew resource management research and training.

Module 13.2: A Model of

Team Effectiveness

Input-Process-Output Model
Enables understanding of how teams perform & how to maximize performance

Figure 13.1
The Input-Process-Output
Model of Team Effectiveness
Source: Adapted from Gladstein (1984)

Team Inputs
Organizational context
Provide necessary resources

Team task
Task to be performed
Team composition
Attributes of team members
Shared mental models

Team diversity
Demographic & psychological diversity

Team Outputs
Team performance
Often reflected in objective measures

Team innovation

Team member well-being

Shared Mental Model
Organized way for team members to think about the way a team will work.

Helps team members understand and predict the behaviors of their team members.

Team Diversity

Demographic diversity

Differences in observable attributes or demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity

Psychological diversity

Differences in underlying attributes such as skills, abilities, personality characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, and values; may also include functional, occupational, and educational backgrounds


Team Processes
Informal rules of a team

Communication & coordination
Social loafing
Degree of desire to remain in team

Decision making

Groupthink Processes in Action?

Module 13.3:

Special Issues in Teams

Team appraisal & feedback
Should provide team with information needed to identify team problems & further develop team capabilities
Extent to which team behaviors & outputs can be measured must be considered

Team-role theory (Belbin, 1993)

Effective teams contain a combination of individuals capable of working in 9 team roles

Used predominantly in Europe & Australia
Resource investigator
Monitor evaluator

Team Development
Changes occur in teams as they develop over time
5 stages of development
1. Orientation (forming)
2. Conflict (storming)
3. Structure (norming)
4. Work (performing)
5. Dissolution (adjourning)

PhotoLink/Getty Images

Team Training
Involves coordinating performance of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal

4 Strategies
Team coordination training
Team leader training
Guided Team Self-Correction Training

Cultural Issues in Teams
Applying Hofstede’s cultural dimensions
Implications for teams
Individualism vs. collectivism
Long-term vs. short-term orientation

Effect of cultural & national backgrounds of team members

Teams and Culture
Team horizon
Cultural dimension that affects whether managers & employees focus on short or long-term goals
Teams tend to be well-received in collectivistic cultures

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