Posted: February 28th, 2023

Peer Response 1

To receive full participation credit, you should

1. Meaningfully respond to your classmate (i.e., Don’t just say, “I agree,” or “Great post.”). Respond in a way that will encourage further discussion.

1. Ask a relevant question
in your response to your classmate. If needed, review the


Writing Open-Ended QuestionsLinks to an external site.

 resource provided by the Writing Center.


Learning Theories

This assignment is an opportunity to demonstrate you can distinguish behaviorist, cognitive, constructivist, and social learning theories and relate their characteristics to your personal instructional experiences. Compare behaviorist, cognitive, constructivist and social learning theories.

Describe how they are similar and how they are different.

Describe how these theories would influence how you would design instruction or provide an example for each learning theory.


As our text (Brown & Green, 2020) presented philosophical and learning theories in a historical context, instructional designers should consider that acceptance of theories are generally taken in their own time. This is not specifically to calendar time but rather a time in which people can relate and apply the theory in a practical sense. To illustrate this thinking, consider Socrates who was tried and executed for teaching the young, and concepts that disagreed to Athenian religious laws (Nails & Monoson, 2022). Socrates also had no problem in expressing that he was taught by women on a variety of subjects, which too was not a generally accepted practice in Athens and can still be found in our world today and have no further to look than the current situations in certain middle eastern cultures.

If we consider that most instructors and instructional designer were influenced on theories presented and applied leading to and post-World War II, then several theories should be recognized including, behaviorist, cognitive, constructivist and social learning theories.

Behaviorist principles predate World War II and are predicated upon research primarily conducted with animals. (Brown & Green, 2020). Famous research by Pavlov and others, where behavior was found to be conditional Constant and consistent enforcement and reinforcement can produce or change behavioral characteristics not only in animals but in humans as well. Learning at the time and since has used this research in order to change or define behavioral outcomes desired.

It is possible through repetitive and regular training that instructional designers can create programs to change people’s behavior. An area where this was applied in my personal experience was developing a serious game in which learners can apply human factors theories in a computer game where theory and best practices can be applied and mastered at the students own schedule. While there is a timer in the game to instill real or perceived stress, learners can take the training at any time they desire to enhance or hone their skillsets. At the core of this serious game is to provide safe experiences that will influence behavioral decisions and expected outcomes. It also represents the eclectic use of technology and other concepts which will be discussed further in this presentation.

Cognitive principles began to develop post World War II, this principle utilizes reflection and metacognition as central staples as part of the cognitive process. The intent behind cognitive principles is to grasp larger concepts that can be applied to other like-situations and conditions or modified upon. Inclusive of this principle is to create long-term memory experiences that can be recalled as required. It is often compared to the brain operating in like processes to a computer, where different areas of the brain take in sensory inputs, process the information, develop an output solution to the problem or situation presented , that can be applied to a proper response action. Cognitive principles are rooted from research derived from neuroscience. This learning development has had great impact on training and learning as learning became scientific with strategies backed by scientific research and best practices toward learner development and the expected results obtained.

Another example briefly mentioned in our text was related to skills acquisition in learning a martial (Brown & Green, 2020). The authors reference to cognitive principles and how they impact to skills learning and belt progression or mastery displayed before progression can proceed. I would offer that certain disciplines such as Samuri and ninjitsu had certain expected behaviors as part of their respective professions. This behavioral principles are often included in their development. This hybrid approach is often used by instructional designers to meet training needs and objectives.

A central taxonomy to cognitive principles is Gagné’s 9 events of instruction (Ullah, Rehman & Bibi, 2015). The nine areas Gagné suggests considering: gaining attention, informing learners of the objective, stimulating recall of prior knowledge, presenting the content, providing “learning guidance”, eliciting performance, providing feedback, enhancing retention and transfer (Ullah & Bibi, 2015) Culatta, R. (n.d.-b), . The influence of the guidance provided by Gagné cannot be ignored and affects instruction design and delivery as well as new post-modern theories still (Khalil & Elkhider, 2015).

Constructivism is a variation of cognitivism centered around psychology and philosophy. This theory assumes people view knowledge or information as related to symbols (Brown & Green, 2020). If we consider our postmodern world where technology is used and learning or business is delivered electronically, we can understand how knowledge transfer can occur through graphics, charts, organizational charts, workflows, troubleshooting and other symbolic graphical depictions in our everyday lives for information transfer.

State which learning theory you personally gravitate towards and explain why.

The learning theory practiced every working day would best be described as eclectic. I will use various parts and pieces of learning theory in an attempt to apply the best principles and practices to a given need for a specific step or task within the scope of a larger subject (Brown & Green, 2020). If bound to a single principle it would reside closest to one of the cognitive principles described. As cognitive principles are based upon neuroscience and psychology, this can provide a pathway in which the results can be anticipated keeping costs relative to the project and objectives met with a particular level of certainty ( Return On Investment-ROI). I believe this is important for transparency for the stakeholders and reductions in time, money and effort when objectives are not met. It is ever my intent to meet the major goals of a training need and if additional skills or aspects are identified which may exceed the level of instruction required, I like to note those gaps or extensions as potential candidates for a next level of training that can be addressed at a later date as a new higher level course to ever increasing mastery (Khalil & Elkhider, 2015).





Brown, A. H., & Green, T. D. (2020). The essentials of instructional design: Connecting fundamental principles with process and practice (4th ed.). Routledge.

Culatta, R. (n.d.-b). 

Conditions of learning (Robert Gagné) Links to an external site.
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Ertmer, P.A., & Newby, T.J. (1993). Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features From an Instructional Design Perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6 (4), 1993, 50-72, 2013 International Society for Performance Improvement. Published online in Wiley Library (, doi: 10.1111/j.1937-8327.1993.tb00605.x.

Khalil, M. K., & Elkhider, I. A. (2016). 

Applying learning theories and instructional design models for effective instruction Links to an external site.
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. Advances in Physiology Education, 40(2), 147–156.
Links to an external site.

Schwartz, M. (2018). 

The implications of 3 adult learning theories on instructional design Links to an external site.
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. eLearning Industry.
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Nails, Debra and S. Sara Monoson (2022), “Socrates”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2022 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL =

Ullah, H., Rehman, A. U., & Bibi, S. (2015). Gagné’s 9 events of instruction—A time tested way to improve teaching Links to an external site.
Links to an external site.. Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal, 65(4), 535-539.

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