Posted: March 12th, 2023

Plant physiology

Plant Physiology – Biol 415

Take home Quiz: Plant Way of Life

Complete the following with the appropriate choice:

a. thigmomorphogenesis

b. skototropism

c. apical dominance

d. heterophylly


f. phototropism

g. phyllotaxy

h. gravitropism

solar tracking

j. leaf mosaics

k. etiolation


growth response to touch


results in shorter plants with thicker stems


common in plants at treeline


growth toward a darkened region of the environment


bending toward the light


method used by tropical vines to find a support


results in Christmas tree shape of plant


prevents top heaviness and light to reach lower leaves & branches


leaves on plant with different shapes


leaves minimize overlapping one another


flowers follow movement of sun


plant response to the dark


leaf arrangement on a plant


branched, tree-like form

Short Answer

1. What is etiolation?

2. In what way(s) is a plant like a building?

3. In what way(s) are non-motile animals (such as coral) like a plant?

4. In what way(s) can plants be considered to forage for food?

5. What is the difference between a physical and biological danger? Give an example of each.

6. Provide examples of how plants defend themselves.

7. Why are plants not limited by size but animals are?

Structures for Photosynthesis:

1. Explain why leaves are broad AND thin?

2. Offer an explanation for why cell walls evolved.

Leaves as Photosynthetic Structures
For each of the following structures, identify its function as it relates to photosynthesis.

1. chloroplasts

2. cuticle

3. guard cell

4. palisade layer

5. spongy layer

6. stoma

7. vascular tissue – xylem

8. vascular tissue – phloem

Nutritional Variations Question
Plants exhibit a variety of modifications of the typical mechanism of autotrophic nutrition. Define each of the following and give an example of each.

1. mycotroph

2. holoparasite

3. hemiparasite

4. autotroph

5. heterotrophy

6. epiphyte

Take home quiz- Due Feb 28 2023

The Cell.

The goal of this unit is to examine the structure and function of plant cells and to study the process by which plant cells grow.

Upon completion of this unit you should be able to:

1. Name and discuss the function of the organelles found in both plant and animal cells.

2. Name, identify and discuss the role of the various plastids in plants.

3. Discuss the role of vacuoles in plant cells.

4. Describe the structure and role and formation of the cell wall.

5. Discuss the cell wall-cell growth paradox and how this problem is solved.

6. Explain how cells grow.

Required Readings

· Course notes

Questions for Thought & Study:

1. Why is the study of cells important?

2. What are the two major regions of a plant cell? Discuss each in terms of structure and function.

3. Why do plant cells have intercellular spaces? What is their function?

4. Describe the structure, function and location in the cell of the following organelles:

plasma membrane,



endoplasmic reticulum,








5. What is catalase? Where is it found in plant cells?

6. What is a plastid? Discuss some of the attributes of these organelles.

7. Compare and contrast the different types of plastids.

8. Discuss the anatomy and function of plasmodesmata.

9. Discuss the properties and significance of the vacuole.

10. What is meant that cellulose is a “metabolic bargain?”

11. Describe the fluid mosaic model for the cell membrane.

12. Cite evidence for a proton pump in the tonoplast.

13. What is the plant endomembrane system? Which components are included in this system?

Relationship Question:

    For each of the following pairs, indicate if the first is part of the second (A), or the second is part of the first (B), or they have no particular relationship to each other (N):

 ____ mitochondria, cristae

____ golgi complex, nucleus

____ nucleolus, nucleus


Classification Question
    For each of the following, select the one that doesn’t fit and then write a caption to describe the relationship between the remaining four. For example: oak tree, dandelion, daisy, orchid, dead cat. Dead cat doesn’t fit. The remaining four are plants. Note there may be more than one correct answer.

1. mitochondrion, nucleus, chloroplast, lysosome, amyloplast

2. amyloplast, chloroplast, chromoplast, golgi body, etioplast

3. stroma, matrix, cytoplasm, nucleoplasm, cell membrane

4. endoplasmic reticulum, golgi body, mitochondrion, plasma membrane, tonoplast

5. chromatin, mesosome, nucleoplasm, nucleolus, nuclear envelope

6. middle lamella, plasma membrane, plasmodesmata, primary wall, secondary wall

7. actin, cisternae, microtubule, microfibril, tubulin

8. glyoxisome, lysosome, microsome, microbody, peroxisome

True or false

(if false, correct the statement):

1. _____ Some cells are large enough to be seen with the naked eye

2. _____ the surface/volume ratio is usually larger for a prokaryotic cell than a eukaryotic cell

3. _____ The ribosomes found in your mitochondria are more like the ribosomes of bacteria than like the ribosomes in the cytoplasm of your muscle cells.

4. _____ Since prokaryotic cells lack mitochondria and chloroplasts, they cannot carry out photosynthesis or respiration

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