Posted: February 26th, 2023

sym dq3

SYM 408 WK3 DQ1. 150-200 WORDS

In the topic Resources, you learned about the XML data type, using XML and relational types, XML schema support, XQuery, and performance considerations. Using these resources, discuss why it is better to query against attribute values rather than element values in the predicate. Explain your answer by citing the topic Resources and providing specific examples.

REPLIES (Will upload later)

STG-390. WK2 DQ1. 150-200 1ORDS

Research diversity in your chosen field. Report the current diversity levels and suggest 2 ways to improve diversity levels in that field.

(Chosen field is database administration)


A Ariel Fuller

The diversity in information technology field helps to a wonderful culture that brings different ideas to the table, and it comes from people all over the world (McSorley, 2022).  There are multiple ways to look at the diversity including the gender, and race of each individual that work in the field (Daley, 2022). The gender is the main problem in every field, and it is being more discussed. The women takes up 53% of the workforce, and the numbers are coming from 50% of the stem fields (Daley, 2022). The tech and engineering fields has a long delay from the rest of stem stem crowds. The race in this field has another diverse role because it is divided by the different racial groups, in fact the number of black and Hispanics employees in the tech companies is extremely low and it only makes up one to three percent of the tech workforce  (Daley, 2022). This article also mention that 83 percent of the race in this field white individuals

   (Daley, 2022). The main two ways to help improve the diversity in this field is to find individuals that are more diverse and that is not in teens. The second thing is to talk to the leaders and see how can the company become better and to bring more people in from each race, race, and people who can multitask. 

B Aminata Mansaray

Male employees have traditionally dominated the field of information technology, but over the past few years, there has been a growing trend toward diversity and inclusion in the tech industry (Carter et al., 2020). However, the progress has been slow, and there is still a long way to go in achieving diversity in this field.

Two approaches can be taken to improve diversity levels in the information technology field. Firstly, companies can invest in diversity and inclusion initiatives targeting underrepresented groups in tech, such as women and people of color (Carter et al., 2020). These initiatives can include mentorship programs, employee diversity training, and offering support for diverse candidates during the hiring process.

Secondly, companies can also actively work to create a culture that values and promotes diversity and inclusion in the workplace. This can include implementing flexible work arrangements, offering diversity and inclusion training, and providing a safe and supportive environment for employees from diverse backgrounds to thrive in (Carter et al., 2020). By taking these steps, companies in the information technology field can help to ensure that everyone has the opportunity to succeed and that the industry better reflects the diverse communities it serves.

C Michael Wayand

In the cyber security field according to Aspen Digital Tech “underrepresented groups such as Black (9%), Hispanic (4%) and Asian (8%) professionals make up an increasingly low percentage of the industry. While women comprise of only 24% of the cybersecurity workforce. (WEF, 2021)” I think part of the issue is the barrier to entry for cyber security jobs. It is extremely challenging to even land a first job because of needing several qualifications. I believe we could offset this if recruiters focused on looking at traits, and then investing into those people with proper training, similar to our military. Organizations should prioritize diversity, and inclusion by taking care of the people already in the industry, as well as helping improve development with things such as childcare and paid family leave. It looks like there is ongoing efforts such as CyberBase trying to help Women get involved with more Security and Privacy via scholarship funding and training.


A Ai La

One reason why it’s better to query against attribute values rather than element values in the predicate is that using attribute values allows for more efficient and precise querying. According to the W3C’s XPath specification, attribute selection is faster and less memory-intensive than element selection. Additionally, attributes provide a clear way to describe an object’s properties or metadata, making it easier to filter and sort data based on specific criteria. Furthermore,  using attribute values can help prevent errors in querying by ensuring that the selected data is accurate and consistent. For example, if you want to query a database of customer information, you might search for customers whose “age” attribute is between 18 and 35. By searching for an attribute value, you’re less likely to accidentally select irrelevant data or miss relevant data. On the other hand, selecting data based on element values can be less precise and more prone to errors. This is because elements may have a variety of sub-elements and nested structures, making it more difficult to locate and select specific data. Additionally, element values may be duplicated or missing, leading to inaccuracies in querying.

B Jake Rothermel

The main reason querying against xml attribute values can be better than querying elements is that attributes are easier to query. Databases typically automatically index attributes, which makes the queries against attributes much faster (Indexes…, 2012). There can be many elements for each entry, but fewer attributes which makes it easier to filter the data. Generally attributes should be metadata about the elements within, such as “employee id” in data about employees. In this example, you could query the xml by “employee id” instead of having to scan through all of the elements to find that information. There are some drawbacks to using attributes, so they should be used with care. Some problems when using attributes are that they cannot have multiple values (elements can), and can be more difficult for applications to work with (XML Elements…, n.d.).

C Trevor Stoutt

It can be better to query against attributes rather than element values in the predicate in many cases, but one should note that this is not always the case since the biggest factor will be the data type and what the goal of the query is.

This would be true when trying to retrieve specific data about an element, such as metadata (data within the data). For example, if the element was a superstore but you were running a query against the a category within the superstore versus running a query of the whole superstore.

It is also desirable to query against attributes due to the fact that it makes retrieval of information more efficient and delivers more concise syntax. For example, XML queries are simpler and easier to read (n.d., 2012).

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